Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. CH. 3 History of U.S. Education

1.1. Influential reform- Viewed as not fair by people not receiving funds, the Morill Act of 1862 made it possible to use public money to pay universities. This caused the growth of schools across the nation especially the midwest area

1.2. Conservative perspective- in 1980 argued students new very little, schools were mediocre. They blamed lack of progressive education. Argued using education to solve social problems caused downgrade. Nothing that has been done has gotten any closer to being fair or equal.

1.3. Four elements of education

1.3.1. history, philosophy, politics, and sociology

1.4. History

1.4.1. then- to read the bible to save our souls-

1.4.2. now- transmit culture, prepare for global economy, the workforce. Become a productive citizen, and social citizen. Pursuit of happiness, freedom, knowledge, and life.

1.5. schools/educations responsibility

1.5.1. serves as focal point for addressing societal issues

1.5.2. there is little consensus on motives for school reform

1.6. colonial era-

1.6.1. old deluder satan law 1647

1.6.2. Massachusetts school of law 1647

1.6.3. wealthy saw education as perpetuating the ruling class, religion, utilitarian, civics

1.6.4. grammer schools became present day elem schools

1.6.5. education in the south was mainly intended for upper class

1.7. rise of common school

1.7.1. the right to vote was restricted to all men other than slaves

1.7.2. normal schools created for teacher education

1.7.3. public education was for public stability and social mobility

1.8. public education

1.8.1. Morrill act est. land grants in each county and state for public education.

1.8.2. education for women and slaves was limited

1.8.2.1. women were educated for domestic puposes

1.8.3. slaves were not educated aside from a few northern schools designated for african americans

1.8.4. the first public university to admit women was the university of Iowa in 1856

1.9. urbanization and the progressive impetus

1.9.1. industry caused need for educated workers

1.9.1.1. cities were full of uneducated people dividing the social classes even more

1.9.1.1.1. john dewey emphasized the needs of a better society

1.10. progressive movment

1.10.1. curriculum supports the needs of the child and gives insight to human history and promotes impetus for change and betterment society

1.10.2. john dewey- progressivism

1.10.3. embryonic society mini comunity

1.11. the committee of 10 1893

1.11.1. created by the national education association

1.11.1.1. chaired by Charles Elliot

1.11.2. recommended high school in 1918

1.11.2.1. health, command of fundamental process, worthy home membership, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of leisure, ethical character

1.11.3. also established Carnegie units for graduation and college entrance curriculum.

1.12. Education for all

1.12.1. the dilemma

1.12.1.1. four themes for high school purposes in 1875

1.12.1.1.1. tension between subjects: latin and greek, science and math

1.12.1.1.2. college entrance requirements do to so many disparities in entrance requirements

1.12.1.1.3. high school students should be prepared for life not college

1.12.1.1.4. all students should follow the same course of study regardless their need for further education

1.13. Post world war II 1945-1980

1.13.1. Progressive vs traditional

1.13.2. post war demands required more technical innovations and focused on social mobility

1.13.3. the battle standards for education vs the education opportunity for all

1.13.4. the college student movement of civil rights

1.13.4.1. U. of Michigan

1.13.4.2. U. of California at Berkley

1.13.4.3. San Franfransisco State U.

1.13.4.4. Kent State U.

1.14. Cycles of Reform Progressive v traditional

1.14.1. equality and equity

1.14.2. civil rights act 1963

1.14.3. plessy v Ferguson 1896

1.14.4. Brown v Topeka board of edu

1.14.5. desegregation was the main focus

1.14.6. schools and colleges opened doors for all

2. CH4. Sociological perspective

2.1. what is sociology

2.1.1. understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about societies and culture in which they live.

2.2. Persells model for analyzing school and societies relationship

2.2.1. societal

2.2.1.1. includes the most general levels of society such as political and econmic system and system of social stratification

2.2.2. institutional

2.2.2.1. includes family, schools, churches, buisness, governmental and media

2.2.3. interpersonal

2.2.3.1. all processes, symbols interactions within such organizations such as face to face interactions with gestures and rtuals

2.2.4. intrapsychic

2.2.4.1. individual thoughts, beliefs, values, and feelings which shaped societies institutions.

2.3. relation between schools and society

2.3.1. schools are agents of cultural transformation

2.3.2. students are taught the values and beliefs of society for them to think and act like other members

2.3.3. schools stratify students into tracks by curricular placements which result in how they are useful

2.3.4. schools select students fr educational mobility

2.4. three theoretical perspectives

2.4.1. functional

2.4.1.1. that society is best when it consensus rules

2.4.2. interactional

2.4.2.1. suggest that schools are

2.4.2.1.1. middle class organizations

2.4.2.1.2. lower classes are at a disadvantage

2.4.2.1.3. speech patterns are reflective of social backgrounds

2.4.3. conflict

2.4.3.1. schools are oppressive and students are rebellious.

2.4.3.1.1. notable philosophers for conflict theory

2.5. effects of schooling on individuas

2.5.1. knowledge and attitudes

2.5.1.1. higher the class higher the education level

2.5.1.2. differences between schools is not a significant impact

2.5.1.3. academically oriented schools have higher levels of student acheivment

2.5.2. employment

2.5.2.1. more education results in better jobs and opportunities

2.5.2.2. do schools determine who gets the job

2.5.3. schools don't prepare workers for job performance

2.6. effects of schooling on individuals

2.6.1. education and mobility

2.6.1.1. education is a great stabilizer in the great status race

2.6.1.2. where you attend has great impetus

2.6.1.3. poor and rich people see no effect on their social status as a result of their education

2.6.1.4. competition is not fair

2.6.1.5. rules are not always fair

2.6.2. inside schools

2.6.2.1. curriculum is determined by those who want to perpetrate certain values and beliefs

2.6.2.2. not all students study the same cirriculum

2.6.2.3. curriculum determines who goes to college

2.6.2.4. cultural transmission selective channeling of opportunity and social mobility are determined at the school level and its curriculum

2.6.3. teacher behavior

2.6.3.1. teachers may have as many as 1000 interactions with students daily

2.6.3.2. teacher expectations directly influence student achievement

2.6.3.3. self-fulfilling prophecy has a direct impact on student success

2.6.3.4. the more teachers demand from their students results in higher student self esteem and success

2.6.4. student peer groups and alienation

2.6.4.1. rebellious students and violence in schools

2.6.4.2. nerds, coolness, and athletes

2.6.4.3. four major types of college students

2.6.4.3.1. careerists- middle to upper middle class do not have good college experience

2.6.4.3.2. intellectuals- come from highly educated families academic honors and are politically motivated

2.6.4.3.3. strivers- come from middle and lower class hard workers and did not have great academic success.

2.6.4.3.4. unconnected- came from all backgrounds but did not participate or achieve academic success

2.6.5. education and inequality

2.6.5.1. inadequate schoools

2.6.5.1.1. affluent schools provide better social mobility than poorer school

2.6.5.1.2. tracking

2.6.6. De Fracto segregation

2.6.6.1. people segregate themselves into their comfort areas

2.6.6.2. racial integration benefits minorities more than majorities

2.6.6.3. integration does not seem to harm the majority

2.6.7. gender biases

2.6.7.1. men are all paid more for equivalent jobs

2.6.7.2. academics are leveling between the sexes

2.6.7.3. schools are still perpetuating gender equalities

2.7. the current education crisis

2.7.1. 1/3 of children are at risk of failing

2.7.2. 1/4 of preschool children live in poverty

2.7.3. 15 million are reared by single mothers

3. CH 5 Philosophy of Education

3.1. Branches of Phillosophy

3.1.1. Metaphysics- what is real

3.1.2. ethics- what is of value

3.1.3. aestetics- what is beauty

3.1.4. epistemology- how do we know

3.1.5. logic- how do we reason

3.1.6. political philosophy- how should societies be governed

3.2. Philosophical approach aids teachers in

3.2.1. selecting knowledge/ ordering classroom/ interacting with students, peers, parents and administrators/ selecting values

3.2.2. philosophy- who they are/ why they do what they do

3.3. Role of teacher- role model for classroom/ provoke thought, bring out what they are thinking

3.4. Idealism

3.4.1. methods of instruction- discussion, questioning, lecture on materials

3.4.2. curriculum- study great works/ all new problems have their roots in past/ study history, great literature, sciences, math , history philosophy/ a basic core function

3.5. perenialism

3.5.1. focus on classic ideas/ develop reason and moral qualities/ emphasis on human ties and great books/ teachers set curriculum/ focus on concepts rather than facts/ emphasis on learning for leanings sake

3.6. essentialism

3.6.1. emphasis on academics/ promotion is based on mastery/ academically rigorous/ curriculum is determined by administrators/ an cosists of basic subjects/ teaching across the curriculum

3.7. Realism

3.7.1. the material word is real, it exists without perceiving, the real word exists before the ideas, Aristotle develop a system of logical thinking, syllogism or a system of logical thinking.

3.7.1.1. 1. a major premise 2. a minor premise 3. conclusion 4. understand the facts then make assumptions and conclusions

3.7.1.1.1. curriculum- consists of a basic body of knowledge

3.8. Progressivism

3.8.1. education based on needs and interests of students/ students learn by doing well as from textbooks/ teaching through field trips and games/ emphasis on natural and social sciences/ experiential learning/ grouping by interest and abilities

3.9. Existentialism and phenomenology

3.9.1. existence proceeds essence/ we are who we are as a result of our decisions/perception of the world is based on one's ability to make sense of it

3.9.2. role of the teacher- the reflective teacher enables students to be reflective students. it is a very personal techer/student relationship.

3.9.3. each student has a different learning style. help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities, and working together.

3.9.4. STUDENTS SHOULD BE EXPOSED TO THE HARSH AND THE GOOD REALITIES OF THE WORLD.

3.10. NEO-MARXISM

4. CH 2. Politics of Education

4.1. Four puposes of Education

4.1.1. political- to inculcate allegience to the existing political order

4.1.2. Social- to help solve social problems, to work as one of many institutions, such as the family and the church to ensure social cohesion.

4.1.3. economic- to prepare students fo their later occupational roles and to select train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor.

4.1.4. intellectual- to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading,, writing, and mathmatics; to transmit knowledge

4.2. The role of the school-

4.2.1. conservitive- providing the necessary educational traing to ensure that the most talented and hard-working individuals recieve the tools necessary to maximize economic and social productivity

4.2.2. liberal- stresses the schools role in providing the necessary education to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succed in society

4.2.3. radical- schools reproduce economic, social, and political inequalilty within U.S. society

4.3. Explinations of unequal performance

4.3.1. conservative- individuals or groups of students rise and fall on their own intelligence, hard work, and initiative, and that achievement is based on hard work and sacrifice.

4.3.2. literal- individual students or groups of students begin school with different life chances and therefore some groups have significantly more advantages than others

4.3.3. radical- belief that students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds begin school with unequal opportunities

4.4. Educational problems

4.4.1. conservative

4.4.1.1. lowered standards, reduced quality (decline of standards)

4.4.1.2. watered down cirriculum, reduced heritage (decline of cultural literacy

4.4.1.3. lost teaching moral standards (decline of values or of cicilization

4.4.1.4. lost traditional diciplinary function (decline of authority

4.4.1.5. stifiled by bureaucracy and in efficiency

4.4.2. liberal

4.4.2.1. under achievment in poor and minority children

4.4.2.2. to much dicipline limiting students individual development

4.4.2.3. low and high socioeconomic backgrounds cause inequality options

4.4.2.4. traditional cirriculum leaves out diverse cultures that comprise the pluralistic societies

4.4.3. radical

4.4.3.1. system has failed poor, minorities, and women through classist, racist, sexist, and homophobic policies

4.4.3.2. schools stifled critical understanding of problems of american society

4.4.3.3. traditional curriculum classist, racist, sexist, and homophobic leave out the cultures, histories, and voices of the oppressed

4.4.3.4. educational system promotes inequalities of both opportunity and results

5. CH 7 Curriculum & Pedagogy

5.1. KNOW:

5.1.1. highly effective schools: 1. the administrator is highly visible, 2. involved and is the instructional leader, 3. student progress in constantly monitored, effective schools have safe and orderly environment, 4. clear mission and vision for school, high expectations for student achievement, 5. provides high level of family community involvement

5.2. pedagogy and the transmission of knowledge

5.2.1. social political, societies, cultural influences, and special interests

5.2.2. idealist say teach great works of mankind, conservatism say return to humanist foundation, teach math science reading history foreign languages and emphasize the influence of western civilization

5.2.3. conservatism of the 1980s and 1990 say we should teach what is fundamentally basic to a common culture, social efficiency curriculum advocates say we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive, different needs fro different people was their concern for curriculum

5.2.4. social efficiency became the cornerstone of progressive, conservationist say that social efficiency had diluted the curriculum to the point that it has lost the purpose of transmitting one common culture,

5.2.5. social melirists reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction, comunities reflect what is important to them as a society, the social class composition of the school and community have determined what is of value in the curriculum.

5.2.6. political influences of the curriculum have determined and set battle lines for domination of what should be taught

5.2.7. Private schools are gaining popularity because parents choose schools that support their belief, curriculum influence chart on page 287

5.2.8. other influences on the curriculum, evolutionists, creationists, science and math, nation at risk, NCLB, RTT

5.2.9. sociology of the curriculum, soiety influences the curriculum, formal -what is cognitivley taught subjects), informal or hidden - taught but not obvious to sight, null curriculum- what is not taught but is learned (values of the community)

5.2.10. social order determines the curriculum, a capitalists society perpetuates the curriculum for maintaining social order, multiculturalist influence on curriculum has promoted a diverse needs classroom, conservationists argue that multicultural curriculum had diluted western civilization values they say we have melted and lost our western cultural identity.

5.2.11. pedagogic influences, mimetic an trans-formative approaches to teaching, mimetic is conservative and says that there is a basic core of knowledge to be learned by all, trans formative says that students needs should be the main focus of the curriculum.

5.2.12. student centered or teacher centered, stratification of the curriculum, students are tracked an directed to a specific curriculum such as advanced diplomas and vocational diplomas, tracking begins in elementary and continues through secondary by means of testing.

5.2.13. the effects of curriculum, wht is learned an what is taught may have a laerge gap between them, schooling does have an impact on learning, effective school characteristics

5.2.14. how will you teach and what determines how you teach- love, maturity includes chronological maturity, social, emotional, culturally-valued, political maturity

6. CH 8 Equality of Opportunity

6.1. Do you have these beilefs

6.1.1. Public education has been conceived as a social vehicle for minimizing the importance of wealth and class as a determinant of who shall get ahead. or Americans believe that hard work, thrift and a bit of luck should determine who gets ahead.

6.2. Calculating Educational and life outcomes

6.2.1. Social stratification and life outcomes characteristic of societies., Human differences do not cause social stratification; social stratification causes human differences. pg 339

6.3. social stratification- three systems

6.3.1. few academic but many social impediments exist to graduate high school, democratic process of education, open to all,

6.3.2. Caste- a persons' social level is determined by race or religion, Estate systems- a persons' social level is determined by family value and worth, Class system- a persons' worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement. pg 340

6.3.2.1. The lower classes in America have led their ability to overcome decreased because of inflation, Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class, Educational achievement is directly related to financial success. pg 340

6.4. Class

6.4.1. Schools represent the middle and upper class, Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance. pg 342

6.5. Race

6.5.1. Race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves, Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans pg 343

6.6. Gender

6.6.1. In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment, Disparities still exist in education and job salaries pg 343

6.7. SAT and ACT test have become the determining factor for educational success, ACT and SAT test have favored the white Americans and upper and middle class students pg 357

6.8. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA (Educational of Handicapped 1975), IDEA 1996, REI- Regular Educational I initiative or mainstreaming pg 364

6.9. School differences and educational outcomes

6.9.1. Do differences in schools contribute to student success?, Does where you live determine your eductional success? pg 366

6.10. The Coleman study 1966

6.10.1. Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools, As a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle and upper class to improve their educational success. pg 367

6.10.2. The Coleman study 1982

6.10.2.1. Private school students outperform public school students, Differences in schools do make a difference, The difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students pg 368

6.10.2.2. Coleman study 2010 challenges

6.10.2.2.1. Where a student attends school is often related to race and socioeconomic background. The racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater impact on student outcomes than an individual's race or socioeconomic status pg 369, Therefore, schools do make a dufference

6.11. School segregation.

6.11.1. Despite decreases in segregation, racial and ethnic segregation is increasing, Evidence shows that highly segregated schools have lower achievement levels than integrated schools and minorities do better u=in integrated schools pg 372-373

6.12. Educational attainment and economic achievement

6.12.1. College graduates have higher salaries pg 375, The amount of education is directly related to life chances, Life chances are directly related to social level and race; however, schools do have a slight impact. pg 377

6.12.1.1. Education provides social and economic mobility but for the most part perpetuates the social classes. pg 377

7. CH 9 Educational Inequality

7.1. unequal education achievment

7.1.1. sociological explanations of inequality

7.1.1.1. functionalists theorists support the idea that each students' success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed

7.1.1.2. Conflict Theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment

7.1.1.3. Integrationists Theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family , social class schools and envirtonment

7.1.2. Other factors

7.1.2.1. Student centered explanations pg 421

7.1.2.1.1. Genetic differences explanations pg 422, cultural deprivation explanations pg 422, cultural differences explanations pg 423-427

7.1.3. School centered explanations

7.1.3.1. school financing p 428, effective schools p 431, between school differences p 433, curriculum and pedagogic within school differences pg 434, curriculum and ability grouping p 434-436

7.1.3.1.1. gender and schooling p 436-438

8. CH 10 Educational Reform

8.1. Characteristics of highly effective teachers

8.1.1. A calling for the profession, professional knowledge, personal qualities, with-it-ness, instructional effectiveness, good communicator, street smart, willing to go the extra mile, lifelong learner.

8.2. educational reform and school improvement

8.2.1. Federal involvement- America 2000 pg 514, Goals 2000 pg 515, NCLB pg 517, Race to the top pg 518

8.2.2. Approaches to reform- Noe liberal approach, societal

8.2.2.1. school based reforms pg 520, school choice, charter schools, tuition vouchers, intersectional choice plans (public to private), interactional choice plans (any public school in district)

8.2.2.1.1. Teacher quality p 531, the effective school movement p 531, plan on p 532, highly effective school characteristics p 533

8.2.3. Societal, community, economic and political reforms p 535- state takeovers pros and cons p 536

8.2.3.1. school finance reforms p 538- where you are born or live determines your advantage for a good education.

8.2.3.1.1. full service schools p 539, repair and educate the community

8.3. educational reform and school improvment

8.3.1. connecting school community and societal reforms p 540

8.3.1.1. A theory of educational problems and reforms p 541, solutions and proposals p 543-545, integrative realm p 542- basic skills and knowledge is the focus of our school improvement and student achievement.

8.3.1.1.1. developmental realm- focus is on developing the whole child by having schools become more humane institutions.

9. CH 1. limits and promises

9.1. educational problems

9.1.1. decline in literacy

9.1.2. crisis in urban education

9.1.3. achievement gaps

9.1.4. assessment issues

10. CH 6 Schools and Organizations

10.1. Structure of U.S. Schools

10.1.1. Governance

10.1.1.1. State is responsible for education, Department of Education was created in 1970 but has little power

10.1.2. Centralization

10.1.2.1. 55 million students education cost $650 billion, in 1930s 128,000 public school districts, 1980 slightly under 16,000 districts in U.S. Average Elem school has 450 students and high schools have 865

10.1.3. Student composition in public schools

10.1.3.1. 53.5% are white, 16 states have less than 50% white. 10 states have no minorities, large states are heavily multiracial, NYC has 85.6% minority, LA has 91.3% and Detroit 97.4%

10.1.4. Degree of openness

10.1.5. private school

10.1.5.1. 28,200 Elem and secondary in U.S., Constitute 25% of all schools but educate only 10% In 1930's less than 10,000 private schools 2009 21,780 private and secondary schools, Most located on the East or West coast. Conn. had he most Wyoming the least. 1980-1990 private schools were better

10.1.6. CREATED IN 1970 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE STATE

10.2. International Comparisons

10.2.1. Great Britian

10.2.1.1. 19th century England only the rich were educated, the church opposed the National education system, 1944 free Elem and secondary education for all, decentralized education system. Thatcher failed to reorganize the administrative structure in 1988 education reform act created better curriculum and system of assessments. Schools are stratified socially and economically comprehensive high schools have been eliminated

10.2.2. France

10.2.2.1. elitists educational system, only elite move up educational , rich an poor are separated, the system is very competitive, only top students go on to Grandes E'Coles and government controls all even classrooms.

10.2.3. Former Soviet Union

10.2.3.1. centralized system leaving no one in need, member of elite communist party benefits those children, stratified system downfall due to inequality that was created, due to so many nationalists there was little consensus among former USSR states

10.2.3.1.1. Japan

10.2.3.1.2. centralized its education system in 1880 after WWII focused on economic purpose Education is highly competitive an demanding vigorous college entrance exams, double system educated publicly and then peruse non formal (jukus) schools, 10,000 in Japan

10.2.3.2. Germany

10.2.3.2.1. students are sorted early toward their appropriate career, Hauptschule for lower blue collar workers, Realschule for lower white collar and tech. positions, Gymnasium is for intellectual and high management, System is highly stratified and competitive, the German system is opposite of the U.S. and academic achievement is associated with social class.

10.2.4. Finland

10.2.4.1. historically held highest scores in math, science, and literacy, racial and social class has few discrepancies, tracking is eliminated, no standardized test other than college entrance exams. emphasis is on formative evals, teachers are held at high regard and have competitive salaries. large amount of autonomy and high degree of job satisfaction and no issues with teacher retention or shortage of teachers.

10.3. School Processor and culture

10.3.1. schools are separate social organizations because

10.3.1.1. definitive populations, political structures, represent multitude of social groups, prevailed by the "we feeling" they have their own special culture

10.3.1.2. teacher student conflict, curriculum v social goals, administration v teachers conflict structure, communities conflict with administration studies show principle establishes goal level of academics and social expectations an the effectiveness of discipline

10.3.2. Effecting change is difficult, bureaucracies control everything, rules, regulations, conformity, Bureaucracies rationality suppress creativity changing school culture requires patience skill and good will "School of tomorrow......today project" in NYC schools focus on child centered teaching.

10.3.3. Changing a school

10.3.3.1. conflict is necessary, new behavior must be learned, team building must extend to all parts, process and content are interrelated

10.4. teachers, teaching and professionalism

10.4.1. less than 10% of seniors want to be teachers,

10.4.1.1. requirements according to NCLB: College degree, full certification, demonstrable content knowledge in subject area, praxis test, must meet state acceptance score

10.4.2. nature of teaching requires many hats and is very demanding, multiple roles are significant and may lead to teacher burn out, mus develop interpersonal skills more of an artist than a technical teacher, most effective feedback is from students, key to teaching is excising control, control precedes teaching, ability to turn each day into a special event.

10.4.3. Reality is hard to ignore, life is a struggle, John Goodlad said teachers must have major part in reform. In 2008, 75% teachers were women, 37% have BA 60% have MA, 1% had Doc, avg age is 46 and a shortage of teachers exists.

10.4.4. Under-qualified teachers, out of field teachers, prevalent in poorer schools, poor administration decisions, community pressure, and other disciplines are allowed to become a certified teacher such as tech for America

10.4.5. Other professions have more autonomy and professional development, teachers are expected to be created autonomous individuals but conditions of employment leave little room for autonomy, thoughtfulness, or expertise.

10.4.6. the center for educational renewal indicated studies show that causes of teacher burn out and shortages are a result of:

10.4.6.1. debilitating lack of prestige in teacher education, lack of program coherence, separation of theory and practice, a stifling regulated conformity