PSY2 14th July 2017

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PSY2 14th July 2017 by Mind Map: PSY2 14th July 2017

1. Approaches

1.1. Wundt

1.1.1. AO1 opened 1st Psychology lab 1880 moved us from philosophy to a scientific discipline developed introspection objective stimulus description

1.2. Psychodynamic

1.2.1. AO1 1900s Freud Role of Unconcious Tripartite Personality Psychosexual Stages Defence Mechanisms

1.2.2. AO3 Explanatory Power Case Study Method Untestable Concepts Practical Application - Psychoanalysis Psychic Determinism

1.3. Behaviourism

1.3.1. AO1 1930s Watson Observable Animals Tabula Rasa Pavlov Classical Conditioning Skinner Operant Conditioning

1.3.2. AO3 Scientific Real Life Application - token, SD Machine Reductionism Determinism Animals

1.4. Humanism

1.4.1. AO1 1950s Free Wil Idiographic Reject Psychodynamic as broken Reject Behaviourism - Animals Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Rogers Ideal Self Actual Self Congruence Conditions of Worth

1.4.2. AO3 Holistic Limited Application Positive Approach Untestable Concepts Culture - individualism

1.5. Cognitive

1.5.1. AO1 1960s Internal Mental Processes Computer Models Schema

1.5.2. AO3 Scientific Machine Reductionism No Everyday Application Overly theoretical Artificial Stimuli Application to AI Less Deterministic

1.6. Social Learning Theory

1.6.1. AO1 1960s Bandura Observation Imitation Role Models Meditational Processes

1.6.2. AO3 More comprehensive that behaviourism Lab Study Underestimates nature Explains Culture Less Determinism

1.7. Biological

1.7.1. AO1 1980s Genes Neurochemistry Neuroanatomy

1.7.2. AO3 Scientific Methods Real Life Application - drugs Difficulty with cause and effect Determinism Difficulty separating nature and nurture

1.8. Neuroscience

1.8.1. AO1 2000s Biological Structures Broca Brian Imaging

1.9. Comparison

1.9.1. Views on Origin of Behaviour (differ)

1.9.2. Nature vs Nurture

1.9.3. Reductionism vs Holism

1.9.4. Determinism vs Free Will

1.9.5. Idiographic Vs Nomothetic

1.9.6. Treatment of Atypical

2. Biopsychology

2.1. Nervous System

2.1.1. AO1 Collect, process and respond to info from environment coordinate bodily function Central Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Somatic Nervous System

2.2. Synaptic Transmission

2.2.1. AO1 Neurons soma, axon, dendrites, axon terminals, myelin sheath negatively charged action potential Motor Neuron Relay Neuron Sensory Neuron Synapse action potential reaches end of post synaptic cell excites vesicles to bind with membrance releases neurotransmitters into synapse binds with receptor sites several dozen NTs each fits like lock and key with specific function some inhibitory some excitatory

2.3. Endocrine System

2.3.1. AO1 slow but widespread and powerful glands, hormones, bloodstream pituitary brain master adrenal Hypothalamus Noradrenaline - trigger sympathetic Adrenal medulla - adrenal gland dilate pupils, increase breathing.. reproductive testes/ovary testosterone/oestrogen puberty changes pineal brain melotonin sleep

2.4. Localisation

2.4.1. AO1 left hemisphere = language right hemisphere = vision (face) Frontal - conscious movement Broca (L) Motor Cortex (back) Temporal - auditory Wernike (L) Parietal - Sensory Integration Somatosensory Occipital - Visual

2.4.2. AO3 Brain scan evidence Neurosurgical Evidence Case Study Evidence Holistic - Lashley Plasticity

2.5. Lateralisation

2.5.1. AO1 Left Hemisphere - Language Right Hemisphere - Vision Sperry Patients of Corpus Collosum cut Procedure Tests

2.5.2. AO3 Demonstrated Lateralised procedure Standardised Theoretical Importance Generalisation Oversimplified legacy

2.6. Plasticity

2.6.1. AO1 Synaptic Connections Evidence Taxi Driver Video Games Meditation Med Students Functional Recovery Unmasking Axonal Sprouting Reform Blood Vessels Recruit Homologous Areas

2.6.2. AO3 Practical application Negative Plasticity Age Support from Animals Cognitive Reserve

2.7. Ways of Studying the Brain

2.7.1. fMRI AO1 blood oxygenation 3d activation map AO3 no radiation high spatial resolution expensive poor temporal resolution

2.7.2. EEG AO1 electrical activity skull cap overall brain wave diagnose arrhythmic patterns AO3 good diagnostic tool good stages of sleep high temporal resolution very poor spatial resolution

2.7.3. ERP AO1 EEg technology baseline test specific stimuli AO3 Good temporal (like EEG) not easy to get rid of extraneous noise

2.7.4. Post Mortem AO1 dead brain good for rare disorders compare to typical brain HM AO3 vital in early days vital for medical knowledge Causation Consent

2.8. Circadian

2.8.1. AO1 24rs Siffre - Cave 24-25hrs body temp melotonin

2.8.2. AO3 application to shift work application to drug treatment Case Study / small sample Poor Control Individual differences

2.9. Exogenous & Endogenous

2.9.1. AO1 Endo SCN Animal Studies Pineal Gland Exo Entrainment Light (knees) Social (babies)

2.9.2. AO3 over simplified (more than master clock) Overstated effects of exo Method issues Interactionism

2.10. Infradian & Ultradian

2.10.1. AO1 Infradian Greater than 24hr (the cycle is longer than 24hrs) Menstrual SAD Ultradian less than 24hr (the cycle is shorter than 24hrs) Sleep Stages 90mins Stage 1-2 Stage 3-4 Stage 5

2.10.2. AO3 Evolutionary basis of menstrual cycle Method issues Supporting evidence for sleep stages Animal studies Practical Application - SAD

3. Research Methods Pt1

3.1. Aims

3.1.1. Purpose

3.2. Hypothesis

3.2.1. directional

3.2.2. non directional

3.2.3. null

3.2.4. difference

3.2.5. relationship

3.2.6. Levels of IV

3.2.7. Operationalise

3.3. Variables

3.3.1. IV Levels

3.3.2. DV

3.3.3. Extraneous

3.3.4. Confounding

3.3.5. Co

3.3.6. Intervening

3.3.7. Operationalise

3.4. Control

3.4.1. Random Allocation

3.4.2. Counterbalacing

3.4.3. Pilot

3.4.4. Randomisation

3.4.5. Standardisation

3.4.6. Blinds

3.5. Sampling

3.5.1. Terms Population Sample Bias Generalisation

3.5.2. Techniques Random Out of a hat (equal chance) Systematic Nth Stratified Subgroups then random Opportunity Whoever is there Volunteer Advert

3.5.3. Strengths / limitations Researcher bias Time/complexity Bias Representativeness

3.5.4. suitability

3.5.5. comparison

3.6. Participants & Investigator

3.6.1. Participant Reactivity Demand Charactgeristics Social Desirability Hawthorne Effect Evaluation Apprehension

3.6.2. Investigator Expectancy Bias

3.7. Ethics

3.7.1. Issues Decepetion Informed Consent Confidentiality Protection

3.7.2. Dealing Code Committee Debrief Presumptive Content Retrospective Consent General Prior Consent Anonymity Right to Withdraw

3.8. Experiments

3.8.1. Types Lab Controlled Setting IV Manipulated Field Natural Setting IV Manipulated Natual Natural Setting Naturally manipulated IV Quasi Pre-existing, unchangeable IV Evaluation Control Realism Ethics Demancharactersits Cause and Effect

3.8.2. Designs Repeated Measures Order Effects Demand Charactersitics Counterbalancing Equivalent Tests Independent Groups Participant Variables Random Allocation Standardisation Cost of PPs Matched Pairs Practical limits

3.9. Observation

3.9.1. Types Controlled Naturalistic Covert Overt Participant Non-Participant Evaluation Control Ethics REactivity Objectivity

3.9.2. Design Behaviour Categories Complete Mutually Exclusive Objective Event Sampling Time Sampling Recording/CCTV Inter-Observer Reliability

3.10. Self-Report

3.10.1. Types Questionnaire Structured Interview Unstructured Interview Evaluation Number of People Ease of Analysis Social Desirability Anonymity Quality of Info Rapport

3.10.2. Design Open Questions Closed Questions Filler Questions Bad Question Leading Questions Unclear Double-Barrelled Jargon

4. Research Methods Pt2

4.1. Other Research Methods

4.1.1. Correlation Preliminarty Tool Quick - Secondary Cuase and Effect Intervening V

4.1.2. Content Analysis Coding Thematic Analysis

4.1.3. Case Study Detail Generalisability

4.1.4. Longitudinal

4.1.5. Meta Analysis

4.2. Peer Review

4.2.1. What

4.2.2. How

4.3. Economy

4.3.1. Jobs

4.3.2. Innovation

4.3.3. Health

4.3.4. Productivity

4.4. Validity and Reliability

4.4.1. Validity types internal external face concurrent improving Control Standardisation Blinds anonymity in self report covert observations

4.4.2. Reliability assesment test-retest split half inter-rater improving Improve Questions Remove subjectivity standardise control EVs behavioural categories

4.5. Science

4.5.1. Replication

4.5.2. Objectivity

4.5.3. Control

4.5.4. Kuhn & Popper

4.5.5. Empricism

4.5.6. Theory Construction

4.6. Reporting

4.6.1. Abstract

4.6.2. Introduction

4.6.3. Method

4.6.4. Results

4.6.5. Discussion

4.6.6. References

4.7. Data

4.7.1. Types Qualitative Quantitative Primary Seoncdary

4.7.2. Levels Nominal Ordinal Interval

4.8. Descriptive

4.8.1. Central Tendency Mean Median Mode

4.8.2. Dispersion Range Standard Deviation

4.8.3. Correlations Strength Direction

4.8.4. Presentation Bat Chart Histogram Tables Scattergram

4.8.5. Distribution Normal Positive Skew Negative Skew

4.9. Stats Tests

4.9.1. Data Diff - Unrelated Diff - Related

4.9.2. Nominal Chi Squared Sign

4.9.3. Ordinal Mann Whitney Wilcoxon

4.9.4. Interval Unrelated t test Related t test

4.10. Prob / Sig

4.10.1. Null Hypothesis

4.10.2. Levels of Significance P<0.05 P<0.10 P<0.01

4.10.3. Calculated Value given or calculate (s)

4.10.4. Critical Value Level of Sig N One tail Two tail

4.10.5. Errors Type 1 False Positive Type 2 False Negative