PSY2 14th July 2017

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PSY2 14th July 2017 by Mind Map: PSY2 14th July 2017

1. Approaches

1.1. Wundt

1.1.1. AO1

1.1.1.1. opened 1st Psychology lab

1.1.1.2. 1880

1.1.1.3. moved us from philosophy to a scientific discipline

1.1.1.4. developed introspection

1.1.1.4.1. objective

1.1.1.4.2. stimulus description

1.2. Psychodynamic

1.2.1. AO1

1.2.1.1. 1900s

1.2.1.2. Freud

1.2.1.2.1. Role of Unconcious

1.2.1.2.2. Tripartite Personality

1.2.1.2.3. Psychosexual Stages

1.2.1.2.4. Defence Mechanisms

1.2.2. AO3

1.2.2.1. Explanatory Power

1.2.2.2. Case Study Method

1.2.2.3. Untestable Concepts

1.2.2.4. Practical Application - Psychoanalysis

1.2.2.5. Psychic Determinism

1.3. Behaviourism

1.3.1. AO1

1.3.1.1. 1930s

1.3.1.2. Watson

1.3.1.2.1. Observable

1.3.1.2.2. Animals

1.3.1.2.3. Tabula Rasa

1.3.1.3. Pavlov

1.3.1.3.1. Classical Conditioning

1.3.1.4. Skinner

1.3.1.4.1. Operant Conditioning

1.3.2. AO3

1.3.2.1. Scientific

1.3.2.2. Real Life Application - token, SD

1.3.2.3. Machine Reductionism

1.3.2.4. Determinism

1.3.2.5. Animals

1.4. Humanism

1.4.1. AO1

1.4.1.1. 1950s

1.4.1.1.1. Free Wil

1.4.1.1.2. Idiographic

1.4.1.1.3. Reject Psychodynamic as broken

1.4.1.1.4. Reject Behaviourism - Animals

1.4.1.2. Maslow

1.4.1.2.1. Hierarchy of Needs

1.4.1.3. Rogers

1.4.1.3.1. Ideal Self

1.4.1.3.2. Actual Self

1.4.1.3.3. Congruence

1.4.1.3.4. Conditions of Worth

1.4.2. AO3

1.4.2.1. Holistic

1.4.2.2. Limited Application

1.4.2.3. Positive Approach

1.4.2.4. Untestable Concepts

1.4.2.5. Culture - individualism

1.5. Cognitive

1.5.1. AO1

1.5.1.1. 1960s

1.5.1.1.1. Internal Mental Processes

1.5.1.1.2. Computer Models

1.5.1.1.3. Schema

1.5.2. AO3

1.5.2.1. Scientific

1.5.2.2. Machine Reductionism

1.5.2.3. No Everyday Application

1.5.2.3.1. Overly theoretical

1.5.2.3.2. Artificial Stimuli

1.5.2.4. Application to AI

1.5.2.5. Less Deterministic

1.6. Social Learning Theory

1.6.1. AO1

1.6.1.1. 1960s

1.6.1.2. Bandura

1.6.1.2.1. Observation

1.6.1.2.2. Imitation

1.6.1.2.3. Role Models

1.6.1.2.4. Meditational Processes

1.6.2. AO3

1.6.2.1. More comprehensive that behaviourism

1.6.2.2. Lab Study

1.6.2.3. Underestimates nature

1.6.2.4. Explains Culture

1.6.2.5. Less Determinism

1.7. Biological

1.7.1. AO1

1.7.1.1. 1980s

1.7.1.1.1. Genes

1.7.1.1.2. Neurochemistry

1.7.1.1.3. Neuroanatomy

1.7.2. AO3

1.7.2.1. Scientific Methods

1.7.2.2. Real Life Application - drugs

1.7.2.3. Difficulty with cause and effect

1.7.2.4. Determinism

1.7.2.5. Difficulty separating nature and nurture

1.8. Neuroscience

1.8.1. AO1

1.8.1.1. 2000s

1.8.1.1.1. Biological Structures

1.8.1.1.2. Broca

1.8.1.1.3. Brian Imaging

1.9. Comparison

1.9.1. Views on Origin of Behaviour (differ)

1.9.2. Nature vs Nurture

1.9.3. Reductionism vs Holism

1.9.4. Determinism vs Free Will

1.9.5. Idiographic Vs Nomothetic

1.9.6. Treatment of Atypical

2. Biopsychology

2.1. Nervous System

2.1.1. AO1

2.1.1.1. Collect, process and respond to info from environment

2.1.1.2. coordinate bodily function

2.1.1.3. Central Nervous System

2.1.1.3.1. Brain

2.1.1.3.2. Spinal Cord

2.1.1.4. Peripheral Nervous System

2.1.1.4.1. Autonomic Nervous System

2.1.1.4.2. Somatic Nervous System

2.2. Synaptic Transmission

2.2.1. AO1

2.2.1.1. Neurons

2.2.1.1.1. soma, axon, dendrites, axon terminals, myelin sheath

2.2.1.1.2. negatively charged

2.2.1.1.3. action potential

2.2.1.1.4. Motor Neuron

2.2.1.1.5. Relay Neuron

2.2.1.1.6. Sensory Neuron

2.2.1.2. Synapse

2.2.1.2.1. action potential reaches end of post synaptic cell

2.2.1.2.2. excites vesicles to bind with membrance

2.2.1.2.3. releases neurotransmitters into synapse

2.2.1.2.4. binds with receptor sites

2.2.1.2.5. several dozen NTs each fits like lock and key with specific function

2.2.1.2.6. some inhibitory

2.2.1.2.7. some excitatory

2.3. Endocrine System

2.3.1. AO1

2.3.1.1. slow but widespread and powerful

2.3.1.2. glands, hormones, bloodstream

2.3.1.3. pituitary

2.3.1.3.1. brain

2.3.1.3.2. master

2.3.1.4. adrenal

2.3.1.4.1. Hypothalamus

2.3.1.4.2. Noradrenaline - trigger sympathetic

2.3.1.4.3. Adrenal medulla - adrenal gland

2.3.1.4.4. dilate pupils, increase breathing..

2.3.1.5. reproductive

2.3.1.5.1. testes/ovary

2.3.1.5.2. testosterone/oestrogen

2.3.1.5.3. puberty changes

2.3.1.6. pineal

2.3.1.6.1. brain

2.3.1.6.2. melotonin

2.3.1.6.3. sleep

2.4. Localisation

2.4.1. AO1

2.4.1.1. left hemisphere = language

2.4.1.2. right hemisphere = vision (face)

2.4.1.3. Frontal - conscious movement

2.4.1.3.1. Broca (L)

2.4.1.3.2. Motor Cortex (back)

2.4.1.4. Temporal - auditory

2.4.1.4.1. Wernike (L)

2.4.1.5. Parietal - Sensory Integration

2.4.1.5.1. Somatosensory

2.4.1.6. Occipital - Visual

2.4.2. AO3

2.4.2.1. Brain scan evidence

2.4.2.2. Neurosurgical Evidence

2.4.2.3. Case Study Evidence

2.4.2.4. Holistic - Lashley

2.4.2.5. Plasticity

2.5. Lateralisation

2.5.1. AO1

2.5.1.1. Left Hemisphere - Language

2.5.1.2. Right Hemisphere - Vision

2.5.1.3. Sperry

2.5.1.3.1. Patients of Corpus Collosum cut

2.5.1.3.2. Procedure

2.5.1.3.3. Tests

2.5.2. AO3

2.5.2.1. Demonstrated Lateralised procedure

2.5.2.2. Standardised

2.5.2.3. Theoretical Importance

2.5.2.4. Generalisation

2.5.2.5. Oversimplified legacy

2.6. Plasticity

2.6.1. AO1

2.6.1.1. Synaptic Connections

2.6.1.2. Evidence

2.6.1.2.1. Taxi Driver

2.6.1.2.2. Video Games

2.6.1.2.3. Meditation

2.6.1.2.4. Med Students

2.6.1.3. Functional Recovery

2.6.1.3.1. Unmasking

2.6.1.3.2. Axonal Sprouting

2.6.1.3.3. Reform Blood Vessels

2.6.1.3.4. Recruit Homologous Areas

2.6.2. AO3

2.6.2.1. Practical application

2.6.2.2. Negative Plasticity

2.6.2.3. Age

2.6.2.4. Support from Animals

2.6.2.5. Cognitive Reserve

2.7. Ways of Studying the Brain

2.7.1. fMRI

2.7.1.1. AO1

2.7.1.1.1. blood oxygenation

2.7.1.1.2. 3d

2.7.1.1.3. activation map

2.7.1.2. AO3

2.7.1.2.1. no radiation

2.7.1.2.2. high spatial resolution

2.7.1.2.3. expensive

2.7.1.2.4. poor temporal resolution

2.7.2. EEG

2.7.2.1. AO1

2.7.2.1.1. electrical activity

2.7.2.1.2. skull cap

2.7.2.1.3. overall brain wave

2.7.2.1.4. diagnose arrhythmic patterns

2.7.2.2. AO3

2.7.2.2.1. good diagnostic tool

2.7.2.2.2. good stages of sleep

2.7.2.2.3. high temporal resolution

2.7.2.2.4. very poor spatial resolution

2.7.3. ERP

2.7.3.1. AO1

2.7.3.1.1. EEg technology

2.7.3.1.2. baseline test

2.7.3.1.3. specific stimuli

2.7.3.2. AO3

2.7.3.2.1. Good temporal (like EEG)

2.7.3.2.2. not easy to get rid of extraneous noise

2.7.4. Post Mortem

2.7.4.1. AO1

2.7.4.1.1. dead brain

2.7.4.1.2. good for rare disorders

2.7.4.1.3. compare to typical brain

2.7.4.1.4. HM

2.7.4.2. AO3

2.7.4.2.1. vital in early days

2.7.4.2.2. vital for medical knowledge

2.7.4.2.3. Causation

2.7.4.2.4. Consent

2.8. Circadian

2.8.1. AO1

2.8.1.1. 24rs

2.8.1.2. Siffre - Cave

2.8.1.3. 24-25hrs

2.8.1.4. body temp

2.8.1.5. melotonin

2.8.2. AO3

2.8.2.1. application to shift work

2.8.2.2. application to drug treatment

2.8.2.3. Case Study / small sample

2.8.2.4. Poor Control

2.8.2.5. Individual differences

2.9. Exogenous & Endogenous

2.9.1. AO1

2.9.1.1. Endo

2.9.1.1.1. SCN

2.9.1.1.2. Animal Studies

2.9.1.1.3. Pineal Gland

2.9.1.2. Exo

2.9.1.2.1. Entrainment

2.9.1.2.2. Light (knees)

2.9.1.2.3. Social (babies)

2.9.2. AO3

2.9.2.1. over simplified (more than master clock)

2.9.2.2. Overstated effects of exo

2.9.2.3. Method issues

2.9.2.4. Interactionism

2.10. Infradian & Ultradian

2.10.1. AO1

2.10.1.1. Infradian

2.10.1.1.1. Greater than 24hr (the cycle is longer than 24hrs)

2.10.1.1.2. Menstrual

2.10.1.1.3. SAD

2.10.1.2. Ultradian

2.10.1.2.1. less than 24hr (the cycle is shorter than 24hrs)

2.10.1.2.2. Sleep Stages

2.10.1.2.3. 90mins

2.10.1.2.4. Stage 1-2

2.10.1.2.5. Stage 3-4

2.10.1.2.6. Stage 5

2.10.2. AO3

2.10.2.1. Evolutionary basis of menstrual cycle

2.10.2.2. Method issues

2.10.2.3. Supporting evidence for sleep stages

2.10.2.4. Animal studies

2.10.2.5. Practical Application - SAD

3. Research Methods Pt1

3.1. Aims

3.1.1. Purpose

3.2. Hypothesis

3.2.1. directional

3.2.2. non directional

3.2.3. null

3.2.4. difference

3.2.5. relationship

3.2.6. Levels of IV

3.2.7. Operationalise

3.3. Variables

3.3.1. IV

3.3.1.1. Levels

3.3.2. DV

3.3.3. Extraneous

3.3.4. Confounding

3.3.5. Co

3.3.6. Intervening

3.3.7. Operationalise

3.4. Control

3.4.1. Random Allocation

3.4.2. Counterbalacing

3.4.3. Pilot

3.4.4. Randomisation

3.4.5. Standardisation

3.4.6. Blinds

3.5. Sampling

3.5.1. Terms

3.5.1.1. Population

3.5.1.2. Sample

3.5.1.3. Bias

3.5.1.4. Generalisation

3.5.2. Techniques

3.5.2.1. Random

3.5.2.1.1. Out of a hat (equal chance)

3.5.2.2. Systematic

3.5.2.2.1. Nth

3.5.2.3. Stratified

3.5.2.3.1. Subgroups then random

3.5.2.4. Opportunity

3.5.2.4.1. Whoever is there

3.5.2.5. Volunteer

3.5.2.5.1. Advert

3.5.3. Strengths / limitations

3.5.3.1. Researcher bias

3.5.3.2. Time/complexity

3.5.3.3. Bias

3.5.3.4. Representativeness

3.5.4. suitability

3.5.5. comparison

3.6. Participants & Investigator

3.6.1. Participant Reactivity

3.6.1.1. Demand Charactgeristics

3.6.1.2. Social Desirability

3.6.1.3. Hawthorne Effect

3.6.1.4. Evaluation Apprehension

3.6.2. Investigator

3.6.2.1. Expectancy Bias

3.7. Ethics

3.7.1. Issues

3.7.1.1. Decepetion

3.7.1.2. Informed Consent

3.7.1.3. Confidentiality

3.7.1.4. Protection

3.7.2. Dealing

3.7.2.1. Code

3.7.2.2. Committee

3.7.2.3. Debrief

3.7.2.4. Presumptive Content

3.7.2.5. Retrospective Consent

3.7.2.6. General Prior Consent

3.7.2.7. Anonymity

3.7.2.8. Right to Withdraw

3.8. Experiments

3.8.1. Types

3.8.1.1. Lab

3.8.1.1.1. Controlled Setting

3.8.1.1.2. IV Manipulated

3.8.1.2. Field

3.8.1.2.1. Natural Setting

3.8.1.2.2. IV Manipulated

3.8.1.3. Natual

3.8.1.3.1. Natural Setting

3.8.1.3.2. Naturally manipulated IV

3.8.1.4. Quasi

3.8.1.4.1. Pre-existing, unchangeable IV

3.8.1.5. Evaluation

3.8.1.5.1. Control

3.8.1.5.2. Realism

3.8.1.5.3. Ethics

3.8.1.5.4. Demancharactersits

3.8.1.5.5. Cause and Effect

3.8.2. Designs

3.8.2.1. Repeated Measures

3.8.2.1.1. Order Effects

3.8.2.1.2. Demand Charactersitics

3.8.2.1.3. Counterbalancing

3.8.2.1.4. Equivalent Tests

3.8.2.2. Independent Groups

3.8.2.2.1. Participant Variables

3.8.2.2.2. Random Allocation

3.8.2.2.3. Standardisation

3.8.2.2.4. Cost of PPs

3.8.2.3. Matched Pairs

3.8.2.3.1. Practical limits

3.9. Observation

3.9.1. Types

3.9.1.1. Controlled

3.9.1.2. Naturalistic

3.9.1.3. Covert

3.9.1.4. Overt

3.9.1.5. Participant

3.9.1.6. Non-Participant

3.9.1.7. Evaluation

3.9.1.7.1. Control

3.9.1.7.2. Ethics

3.9.1.7.3. REactivity

3.9.1.7.4. Objectivity

3.9.2. Design

3.9.2.1. Behaviour Categories

3.9.2.1.1. Complete

3.9.2.1.2. Mutually Exclusive

3.9.2.1.3. Objective

3.9.2.2. Event Sampling

3.9.2.3. Time Sampling

3.9.2.4. Recording/CCTV

3.9.2.5. Inter-Observer Reliability

3.10. Self-Report

3.10.1. Types

3.10.1.1. Questionnaire

3.10.1.2. Structured Interview

3.10.1.3. Unstructured Interview

3.10.1.4. Evaluation

3.10.1.4.1. Number of People

3.10.1.4.2. Ease of Analysis

3.10.1.4.3. Social Desirability

3.10.1.4.4. Anonymity

3.10.1.4.5. Quality of Info

3.10.1.4.6. Rapport

3.10.2. Design

3.10.2.1. Open Questions

3.10.2.2. Closed Questions

3.10.2.3. Filler Questions

3.10.2.4. Bad Question

3.10.2.4.1. Leading Questions

3.10.2.4.2. Unclear

3.10.2.4.3. Double-Barrelled

3.10.2.4.4. Jargon

4. Research Methods Pt2

4.1. Other Research Methods

4.1.1. Correlation

4.1.1.1. Preliminarty Tool

4.1.1.2. Quick - Secondary

4.1.1.3. Cuase and Effect

4.1.1.4. Intervening V

4.1.2. Content Analysis

4.1.2.1. Coding

4.1.2.2. Thematic Analysis

4.1.3. Case Study

4.1.3.1. Detail

4.1.3.2. Generalisability

4.1.4. Longitudinal

4.1.5. Meta Analysis

4.2. Peer Review

4.2.1. What

4.2.2. How

4.3. Economy

4.3.1. Jobs

4.3.2. Innovation

4.3.3. Health

4.3.4. Productivity

4.4. Validity and Reliability

4.4.1. Validity

4.4.1.1. types

4.4.1.1.1. internal

4.4.1.1.2. external

4.4.1.1.3. face

4.4.1.1.4. concurrent

4.4.1.2. improving

4.4.1.2.1. Control

4.4.1.2.2. Standardisation

4.4.1.2.3. Blinds

4.4.1.2.4. anonymity in self report

4.4.1.2.5. covert observations

4.4.2. Reliability

4.4.2.1. assesment

4.4.2.1.1. test-retest

4.4.2.1.2. split half

4.4.2.1.3. inter-rater

4.4.2.2. improving

4.4.2.2.1. Improve Questions

4.4.2.2.2. Remove subjectivity

4.4.2.2.3. standardise

4.4.2.2.4. control EVs

4.4.2.2.5. behavioural categories

4.5. Science

4.5.1. Replication

4.5.2. Objectivity

4.5.3. Control

4.5.4. Kuhn & Popper

4.5.5. Empricism

4.5.6. Theory Construction

4.6. Reporting

4.6.1. Abstract

4.6.2. Introduction

4.6.3. Method

4.6.4. Results

4.6.5. Discussion

4.6.6. References

4.7. Data

4.7.1. Types

4.7.1.1. Qualitative

4.7.1.2. Quantitative

4.7.1.3. Primary

4.7.1.4. Seoncdary

4.7.2. Levels

4.7.2.1. Nominal

4.7.2.2. Ordinal

4.7.2.3. Interval

4.8. Descriptive

4.8.1. Central Tendency

4.8.1.1. Mean

4.8.1.2. Median

4.8.1.3. Mode

4.8.2. Dispersion

4.8.2.1. Range

4.8.2.2. Standard Deviation

4.8.3. Correlations

4.8.3.1. Strength

4.8.3.2. Direction

4.8.4. Presentation

4.8.4.1. Bat Chart

4.8.4.2. Histogram

4.8.4.3. Tables

4.8.4.4. Scattergram

4.8.5. Distribution

4.8.5.1. Normal

4.8.5.2. Positive Skew

4.8.5.3. Negative Skew

4.9. Stats Tests

4.9.1. Data

4.9.1.1. Diff - Unrelated

4.9.1.1.1. Diff - Related

4.9.2. Nominal

4.9.2.1. Chi Squared

4.9.2.1.1. Sign

4.9.3. Ordinal

4.9.3.1. Mann Whitney

4.9.3.1.1. Wilcoxon

4.9.4. Interval

4.9.4.1. Unrelated t test

4.9.4.1.1. Related t test

4.10. Prob / Sig

4.10.1. Null Hypothesis

4.10.2. Levels of Significance

4.10.2.1. P<0.05

4.10.2.2. P<0.10

4.10.2.3. P<0.01

4.10.3. Calculated Value

4.10.3.1. given or calculate (s)

4.10.4. Critical Value

4.10.4.1. Level of Sig

4.10.4.2. N

4.10.4.3. One tail

4.10.4.4. Two tail

4.10.5. Errors

4.10.5.1. Type 1

4.10.5.1.1. False Positive

4.10.5.2. Type 2

4.10.5.2.1. False Negative