Chemical Processes

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Chemical Processes by Mind Map: Chemical Processes

1. Nomenclature

1.1. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space (has volume)

1.2. A physical property is a property that describes the physical appearance and composition of a substance.

1.3. A chemical property is a property that describes the ability of a substance to change into a new substance or substances.

1.4. A pure substance is made up of only one kind of matter and has a unique set of properties, such as colour, hardness, melting point, and conductivity. A pure substance is either an element or a compound.

1.5. An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into any simpler substance by chemical means. Iron, oxygen, and neon are examples of elements.

1.6. A compound is a pure substance that is made from two or more elements that are combined together chemically. For example, methane (CH4) is a compound containing the elements carbon and hydrogen.

1.7. A mixture is a combination of pure substances. The proportions of the pure substances in a mixture can vary, so the properties of the mixture vary as well.

1.8. A homogeneous mixture is a mixture that looks the same throughout and the separate components are not visible. Solutions are homogeneous mixtures. For example, iced tea is a solution of sugar and other substances dissolved in water

1.9. A heterogeneous mixture is one in which different parts of the mixture are visible. In a suspension, a cloudy mixture is formed in which tiny particles of one substance are held within another substance. Salad dressing is an example of a suspension

1.10. Another kind of mixture, called a mechanical mixture, may contain several solids combined together, such as in a chocolate-chip cookie.

1.11. Atomic theory is the study of the nature of atoms and how atoms combine to form all types of matter.

1.12. Neutrons are neutral, tInside an atom, protons and neutrons are in a tiny central core called a nucleus they can also be said to have a charge of 0.

1.13. Surrounding the nucleus, and more than 10 000 times larger than it, are a series of cloud-like energy levels called shells. These shells are occupied by electrons.

1.14. A Bohr diagram is an illustration of an atom that shows the arrangement and number of electrons in each shell.

1.15. The valence shell holds six electrons.

1.16. The electrons in the valence shell of an atom are called valence electrons.

1.17. The horizontal rows of the periodic table are called periods.

1.18. The vertical columns are called families(or groups).Elements in the same family in the periodic table have similar physical and chemical properties.

1.19. Metals are on the left and in the centre of the table. Metals are elements with the following properties: they are good conductors of heat and electricity, they are ductile and malleable, they are shiny and usually silver coloured, and all but one are solids at room temperature. Mercury is a metal, but it is liquid at room temperature.

1.20. Non-metals are located on the right-hand side of the table. Non-metals are elements that share these properties: they are not metals, and they generally are poor conductors of heat and electricity. At room temperature, some non-metals are solids, some are gases, and one, bromine, is a liquid.

1.21. Metals are separated from non-metals by a staircase of elements called the metalloids. Metalloids are elements with properties intermediate between the properties of metals and non-metals.

1.22. Alkali metals(group1):soft,silver-grey metals that react easily with water and with oxygen in the air. Note that hydrogen is not an alkali metal.

1.23. Alkaline earth metals (group 2): silver-grey metals that are harder and less reactive than group 1 metals. A reactive atom combines easily with other atoms.

1.24. Halogens (group17): coloured non-metals that are very reactive

1.25. Noble gases (group18): non-metals that are colourless,odourless gases and very nonreactive. An nonreactive atom does not combine easily with other atoms.

1.26. The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom of an element.

1.27. The atomic mass of an element is a measure of the average mass of an atom of that element.

1.28. An ion is an atom or group of atoms with a negative charge or a positive charge.

1.29. Atoms of some elements can gain or lose electrons during chemical change. An atom that gains electrons becomes a negatively charged ion. An atom that loses electrons becomes a positively charged ion.

1.30. Writing Formulas for Iconic Compounds

1.30.1. writes the symbols of the two elements in the compound in the order given in the name

1.30.2. pencil in the valences of each

1.30.3. balance the charges

1.30.4. erase the penciled in valences

1.30.5. if you use the crossover rule (valence #1 = subscript on atom #2 and valence #2 = subscript on atom #1)

1.30.6. make sure to reduce the subscripts to their lowest terms at the end

1.31. Rules for Naming Covalent Compounds

1.31.1. the first element says its name

1.31.2. the second element says its name

1.31.3. the subscripts become the prefixes

1.31.4. the prefixes are Greek

1.32. Greek Prefixes (prefix - number of atoms)

1.32.1. mono - 1

1.32.2. di - 2

1.32.3. tri - 3

1.32.4. tetra - 4

1.32.5. penta - 5

1.32.6. hexa - 6

1.32.7. hepta - 7

1.32.8. octa - 8

1.32.9. nona - 9

1.32.10. deca - 10

1.33. Writing Formulas for Covalent Compounds

1.33.1. write the symbols of the two elements in the compound in the order given in the name

1.33.2. the prefix = the subscript for the atom

1.33.3. Please note that for covalent compounds you do not reduce the subscripts to lowest terms at the end

1.34. Rules for Naming Oxy Acids

1.34.1. name the element after the hydrogen

1.34.2. take the root of the name and add “ic” to it

1.34.3. add acid to the name

1.35. Writing Acid Formulas Summary

1.35.1. Binary Acid hydro____ic acid H non-metal atomic symbol (balance the charges)

1.35.2. Oxy Acid ____ic acid H non- metal atomic symbol O (consult your chart for subscripts)

1.36. Rules for Naming Binary Acids

1.36.1. the first element, or hydrogen part of the name is “hydro”

1.36.2. the second element ending changes to “ic”

1.36.3. the name is always followed by the word “acid”

1.37. Rules for Writing the Formulas for Binary Acids

1.37.1. write the atomic symbols for the elements in the acid

1.37.2. pencil in the charges up top

1.37.3. using the crisscross rule, balance the charges by putting in subscripts as needed

1.37.4. erase the charges

1.38. Naming Oxy Acid Salts Summary

1.38.1. oxy acid salt (metal+polyatomic non-metal) metal states its name polyatomic non-metal states its name

1.39. Transition Metal

1.39.1. metal states its name

1.39.2. roman numeral used to indicate charge on the metal ion

1.39.3. polyatomic non-metal states its name

2. The Chemical Reaction

2.1. A Chemical Change = A Chemical Reaction

2.1.1. A chemical reaction occurs when a substance or substances change into one or more different substances. You can tell a chemical reaction has occurred if you observe one or more of the following: an unexpected colour change the production of heat, light or sound the appearance or disappearance of an odour the formation of a precipitate the formation of a gas

2.2. → means to produce

2.3. + means reacts with or is produced with

2.4. Five common types of chemical reactions are:

2.4.1. Synthesis A+B→AB

2.4.2. Decomposition AB→A+B

2.4.3. Single Displacement AB+C→CB+A

2.4.4. Double Displacement AB+CD→AD+CB

2.4.5. Combustion CxHy+O2→CO2+H2O

3. Balancing Equations

3.1. The skeletal equation is very useful because it shows the "participants" involved in the reaction.

3.2. LCM dictates the need to resolve this imbalance by balancing the equation.

3.3. A balanced chemical equation the number of reactants and products required and contains an equal number of atoms of each element at the start and end of the reaction.

3.4. A chemical formula tells you two things:

3.4.1. What kinds of atoms there are in a compound

3.4.2. How many of each atom there is in a compound.

3.5. Tips for Balancing Equations of Reaction

3.5.1. Write a word equation and convert it to a skeletal equation

3.5.2. Write the reactants and the products using proper chemical notation.

3.5.3. Place a box around all of the formulas in your equation so you are not tempted to change them. You are not allowed to change the subscripts of a formula - the formula is the formula. You are only allowed to change coefficients - the numbers that go in front of the formula.

3.5.4. Make yourself a balance sheet.

3.5.5. Balance the atoms other than H and O first.

3.5.6. Balance H atoms next.

3.5.7. Balance O atoms last.

3.5.8. If you have polyatomic ions that are the same on both sides, balance them as a group.