Diabetes Mellitus

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Diabetes Mellitus by Mind Map: Diabetes Mellitus

1. Type 1 insulin dep

1.1. Pathophyology

1.1.1. T-cells infiltrate pancreas kill insulin producing B cells

1.1.2. Autoantibiodies are formed against pancreatic cells

1.2. Genetic Risk factors

1.2.1. HLA 2 Allels gene mutation; HLA DR3,4, inappropriate autoimmune activation

1.2.1.1. Aspartic acid on position 57 mutates and changes shape of the molecule, decreasing its ability to bind to T-cells

1.3. Causitive Factors

1.3.1. Genetic factors not exclusively responsible for disorder, viral infections activate autoimmune response

2. Treatments

2.1. Insulin

2.2. Carbohydrate limitation

2.3. Exercise: increases insulin sensitivity

3. Type 2

3.1. Autosomal Dominate

3.2. Obesity

3.2.1. Insulin Resistance

3.2.1.1. MODY: mature onset diabetes of youth

3.2.1.1.1. Cause:Mutations of Glucokinase genes and 5 other genes that regulate insulin in the pancreas

3.3. Gene mutations

3.3.1. KCNJ11; Potassium channel glucose secretion pathology

3.3.2. TCF 12; endcodes for secretion of insulin

3.3.3. PPAR-y; adpocyte differentiation & glucose metabolization

4. Diagnostic Test

4.1. HemeA1c

4.2. Blood Glucose Monitoring

4.3. Genetic marker testing

5. Pathophysiology

5.1. Blindness

5.2. Heart Disease

5.3. Kidney Failure

5.4. Elevated Blood Glucose

5.5. Insulin Resistance

6. Chromosome 11

6.1. Mutations on CTLA 4 ; cytotoxic lymphosyte

6.2. PTPN22; lymphoid tyrosine phosphate

6.2.1. negatively regulates T-cell activation, also linked to Lupus, Arthritis, Thyroid disease