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MITE 6330 Mindmap Du Fei2010884765 by Mind Map: MITE 6330 Mindmap Du
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MITE 6330 Mindmap Du Fei2010884765

Session 1

Design of learning/instructional design

learning outlines

Teaching materials, Prezi Moodle

Learning outlines, What is an instructional designer?, Who?, Roles, Areas, LT products, In Educational institutes, In class, e-learning, distance learning, staff straining, In Commercial environment, training, Context for Development, Project Development, stages, Members, Different industries, E-learning design, What products we design?, E-learning designer, Case study


Paper1, instructional design, Definition, Features, (a) design,Co)development,(c) utilizationor implementation, (d) management, and(e) evaluation, instructional media, What is it?, New Definition, the physical means, other than the teacher, chalkboard, and textbook, via which instruction is presented to learners., The history, School museum, The visual instruction movement and instructional films, The audiovisual instruction movement and instructional radio, World war 2, the growth of the audiovisual instruction movement, Post-WW2 developments and media research, after the war there was a renewed interest in using audiovisual devices in the schools, Theories of Communication, Instructional Television, shifting terminology, computers, since 1950s, Recent development, Internet, CD-ROM

Paper 2, Definition of the filed of instructional design and technology, History of instructional design, the origins of instructional design WW2, More early developments, The popularization of behavioral objects, 1.Preparing Objec- tives for Programmed Instruction (1962), 2.Taxonomy of Educa- tional Objectives (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956)., The criterion-referenced testing movement, what is it?, intended to measure how well an individual can perform a particular behavior or set of behav- iors, irrespective of how well others perform, Robert M. Gagne, Domains of Learning, Events of Instruction, and Hierarchical Analysis, Sputnik, The Indirect Launching of Formative Evaluation, Early instructional design models, 1970s, Burgeoning of Interest in the Systems Approach, models increased, 1980s, Growth and Redirection, continued to grow during the 1980s. Interest in the instructional design process remained strong in business and industry ,the military and in the international arena, 1990s, Changing Views and Practices, performance technology movement, growing interest in constructivism, a collection of similar views of learning and instruction that gained increasing popularity throughout the decade

Paper 3, Abstrct, Key words, Participants, six-month- long programme, profile, Study questions, Procedure, Results: private theories of the four cases in the study, P 1 Tom, Participant two: Eleanor, Participant three: Nicole, Participant four: Jane, Discussion of results and recommendations, Tom's design--prototype, Tom's digital resources, areas of teacher's private learning, Summary and recommendations for further studies

Paper 4, ID and teaching, ID can help teaching effectively., ISD, ID, Purposes of the study, questions of the study, selected teachers, a experienced master teacher, Sarah, The school, One of the 7 public middle school in the southeastern US, Data collection strategies, 7 months, Results, 8th grade science classroom, the classroom like another social group, changed the school practice regarding to science fair project, To sth that she believed more creative, However ,some rules ,routines and norms that were not taught explicitly and directly., The teacher's experienced world., all students were able to perform well if they put their best effort into learning, figure

extended learning

instructional design, The process, How to understand instruction?, a paper, intruction, process model, ADDIE model, foundation of ID, instructional design community, instructional design in E-learning, differerntID models, What does an instructional designer do???

synthesis of ideas and reflection

useful model

The qualification of an instructional designer

Session 2

Instructional Design Models and Analysis Stage of a Process

Learning outlines

Teaching Materials, Prezi MOODLE

Learning outlines, ID products development 5 stages, ID AS What?, Special component of design stage, quality assruance, project manegenment, Learning object models analysis stage of instruction, Linear model by Dick & Carey, Spiral model by Romiszowski 1981, Rapid prototyping model by Tripp&Bichelmeyer, Oval model by Kemp, To-to-bottom Model By Braden, Learning Theories and ID, Conducting analysis, What to analysis?, Needs assessment, system/technology analysis, content analysis, feasibilityanalysis, Risk analysis, user or audience analysis, Project analysis tools, Write Project proposal, How to write


Paper 1, What are theories and models?, Learning theories, The basic 3 theories, Behaviorism, Pavlov, Thorndike, Watson, Skinner, cognitivism, The developments, Due to the limitations of behaviorism, what is congnitivism?, Key concepts of cognitivism, Schema, Three-stage information processing, sensory register, short-term memory, Long-term memory, Meaningful effects, Serial Position Effects, Practice Effects, Transfer Effects, Interference Effects, Organization Effects, Levels of Processing Effects, State Dependent Effects, Mnemonic Effects, Schema Effects, Advance Organizers, constructivism, Merrill's assumption of constructivism, Realistic constructivism, Radical constructivism, Some strengths and weakness, Learning theories and instructional design, The history of LT in ID, Behaviorism and ID, behavioral objectives movement, ABCD, Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning, Gagne's Taxonomy of Learning, Mastery Learning, Military and Industrial Approach, Accountability Movement, teaching machine phase, programmed instruction movement, individualized instructional approaches, computer-assisted learning, systems approach to instruction, cognitivism and ID, constructivism and ID, Leaning theories and the practice of ID, IS there one best LT for ID???

Paper 2, The events of instruction, Instruct students, The nature of instruction, A set of communication, A process of learning, Self-instruction and self-leaner, Engage in a great deal of self-instruction, Skill increased by age based on experience, Self learner, Instruction and learning, The purpose of instruction, Provide support to the processes of learning, Learning theories and instruction, Cognitivism, sensory refister, short memory, Also called working memory, long-lerm memory, Retrieved when need to act, By response generator, Kinds of processing, Attention, Selective perception, Rehearsal, Semantic encoding, Instructional events, Definition, Relation to processes of learning, gaining attention, informing the learner of the objective, Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning, Presenting the stimulus material, Providing learning guidance, Eliciting the performance, Providing feedback about performance correctness, Assessing the performance, enhancing retention and transfer, And learning outcomes, The events of instruction in a lesson, design of a computer-based lesson

Paper 3, ID 1, What is ID1, 9 limitations of ID1, 1.content analysis does not use integrated wholes which are essential for understanding complex and dynamic phenomena., 2.haslimitedprescriptionsforknowledgeacquisition, 3.haslimitedprescriptionsforcourseorganization, 4.theories are essentially closed systems, 5.fails to integrate the phases of instructional development, 6.teaches pieces but not integrated wholes, 7.instruction is often passive rather than interactive, 8.presentation must be constructed from small components, labor intensive, ID 2, What should ID2 like?, Key aspects, Analyzing and Representing Knowledge for Integrated Goals, cognitive rather than behavioral, Instructional Strategies and Transactions, An Open System -- Mini-Experts, Integration of the ID Phases - A Single Knowledge Representation, Comparison with Other Approaches

Paper 4, Guide lines, what is the cisco system, What is the Reusable Information Object Strategy?, RIO, granular, reusable chunk of information that is media independent, Why Are RIOs Important to Cisco?, Paradigm Shift, Benefits for Authors, Benefits for Learners, What is the RLO-RIO Structure?, RLO, Reusable Learning Object, inside the RLO, inside the RIO, The structure, New node, Phase I: Design, • Needs Assessment • Tasks Analysis • Learning Objectives • RIO Types, 7 ± 2 Rule, Phase II: Development, • Build the RLO • Build the RIOs • Conduct an Alpha Review • Conduct an Beta Review, Phase III: Delivery, Dynamic Web packages CD-ROMs Instructor-Led training materials, Phase IV: Evaluation, Level 1: Survey, Level 2: Assessment, Level 3: Transfer, Level 4: Impact, Guidelines for Building the RLO, 1. Overview, 2. Summary, 3. Assessment, Pre-RLO Assessment, Post-RLO Assessment, Guidelines for Building RIOs, Practice Items, Assessment Items, Cognitive Level, concept, fact, Procedure, Process, Principle

Extended learning

Learning theories and ID, extended reading, A summary of theories, From the student aspect

Is There One Best Learning Theory for Instructional Design

synthesis of ideas and reflection

The process of ID ADDIE is useful

While as a educator we need learning theories support during design, How to choose

Session 3

Design Stage

learning outlines

teaching materials, Prezi MOODLE

Design Stage, Define a goal, Conduct instructional design analysis, Task analysis, job description, Documents related to jobs, observation/recording work, discuss at pacific job, extrapolation of tasks from a customer;s stated needs, Tasks analysis examples, Analyze learners and context, Writing performance and learning objectives, Learning objective, BLOOM, Knowledge, attitude, skills, cognitive, affective, psychomotor, Write learning outcomes, Develop assessment strategy, Drill and practice, essays, Problem solving, Tasks, Develop instructional strategy, Arrange instructional events, Session 2 chapter 10, CISCO RLO strategy, Flawchart


Paper 1, The promise of multimedia learning, Key words, CBL, CBI, Online training,multimedia learning, why multimedia learning?, Example, Words learning, Multimedia learning, Multimedia instructional message?, What is it?, The goal, Foster meaningful learning, How does multimedia learning work?, A cognitive learning theory learning explanation, Methods, Multimedia effect, Coherence effect with text-and-illustrations and narration-and-animation, Contiguity effect with text-and-illustrations and text-and-animation, Personalization effect with animation-and-narration and animation-and-text, The results

Paper 2, 4C/ID model, COmplex learning, constituent skills, make up the moderately complex cognitive skill, The 4 blueprint components, Learning Tasks, Supportive Information, bridge between learners’ prior knowledge and the learning tasks, JIT Information, Just in time, Part-task Practice

Paper 3, ITT, Introduction, CDT, Purpose, Instructional theory, What to teach, Selection, Representation, How to teach, The Computer Program Assumption, Data Processed, The Gagné Assumption, Different kinds of learning outcomes, Require unique conditions for learning, Instructional Transactions, 13 classes, Knowledge Objects, Definition, containers consisting of compartments (slots) for different related elements of knowledge, Framework, name, portrayal, and description, portrayal: text, audio, video, graphic, animation, Goals of ITT, Effective instruction, Efficient instructional development, Instructional learning environments., Adaptive instruction, Scope of ITT, References examples 5, Part Location, Function, and Naming, Procedure Learning, Goal, learning environment is to learn the necessary and sufficient steps for removing and replacing the valve in the pipe., 4 level, Level 1, "hands-off" demonstration., Guides performance each steps in turn, Level 2, "Simon Says" demonstration/simulation, Tell students the step to perform, Level 3, "Do the next step" simulation, Guides presents massage, Level 4, "performance" or "You-do-it" simulation, In this practice the student can perform any of the steps in the procedure and see the consequence of this step subject to the constraints of the system (that is, some steps cannot be performed until a prior step has been completed., Explanation, Prediction, and Trouble-Shooting, 3 level of explanation, Instructional transaction, Learning environment, Goal, enable the student to explore some device or setting, Knowledge Structure, PEA net, process, entity, activity network, Simulation engine, exploration and guidance, Effective, Identify (Component) Transaction, Goal, Students identify goal and location, Presentation, Practice, Execute (Activity) Transaction, Goal, execute a series of actions which lead to some goal, Interpret (Process) Transaction, Goal, Given a set of conditions, the student is able to predict the consequence of an event

extended learning

stages of instructional design, brief 8 stages if instructional design, 10 stages of ID

synthesis of ideas and reflection

different models in this design step

Learning outcomes, How to write learning outcomes?, how to write LO

Session 5

Review of Key LTD frameworks  

Learning outlines

Multimedia learning theory, Mayer 2003, Multimedia principle, learning objects should contain, verbal, visual, Split-attention principle, words and pictures should be physically and temporally integrated, Redundancy principle, same information should not be presented in more than one format., Modality principle, words should be spoken rather than written, Segmenting principle, multimedia messages should be presented in student-paced segments., Pre-training principle, names and characteristics of main concepts should be familiar to students, Coherence, extraneous material should be excluded, Signaling, cues should be used to highlight the organization of the essential material

Teaching materials, google docs

Learning by doing, 4C/ID,,, Case-based Reasoning, Kolb Learning Cycle,, New node, Dufour’s ‘Learning by Doing’,, New node

Resource-based learning, Four key components of a learning environment

Jonassen’s Constructivist Learning Environment



Paper 1, Digital age change, nature of resources and information, transform basic social and economic enterprises, resourse-based learning environment, RBLES, Potencial, involve the reuse of available assets to support varied learning, Digital information system, such as: www, evolution of resources for teaching and learning, What should learning resource be?, be contextualized to determine situational rele- vance and meaning, be recontextualized to enable the use of informa- tion gleaned from various resources, For leaners, find and adapt resources to meet learning needs unlike those for which it was initially created, Predigital perspectives, Predigital resources, Static nature, pieces of resources like one chapter or video cannot address different needs., Prevailing instructional materials, Often combine with visual cues and aural cues, Single medium, Text video audio, ancillary educational materials, Are they add-ons???, Should be integral learning resources, The physical location of a resource, significant challenge, Packaging, information conveyed, same information, address different situations, Emerging perspectives, The nature of resource develops based on, knowledge-object technology, creation of standards for cataloging, classifying digital media, resources, IMS, a joint academic-industry–government initiative, The same resource may support vastly differ- ent learning needs, Intact resources, Toward resourse-based teaching and learning, resourse-based TL, emphasize problem solving and critical think- ing, characteristics, Component, resources, Static, Dynamic, Contexts, Externally directed, Learner generated, Tools, Searching tools, Processing tools, Manipulating tools, Communicating tools, Scaffolds, conceptual, metacognitive, procedural, and strategic., New node, Challenge and opportunities, Standards and conventions for creating and distrib- uting digital resources remain inconsistent, The role and design of enabling contexts have not been well established, Resource credibility, content validity, and reliability are unregulated, Directed approaches tend to engender compliance and reliance over independent thinking, Students lack sufficient metacognitive awareness and comprehension monitoring skill to make effective choices., Contemporary school accountability standards typi- cally emphasize breadth over depth, while open-learn- ing RBLEs emphasize depth over breadth, Generative learning goals require varied rather than singular learning strategies., Resources designed to support a given approach or perspective may not support different perspectives, Student-centered learning complicates identification and selection of appropriate resources, RBLEs may cultivate transferable skills critical for living and working in the digital era independent of the particular epistemological perspective underlying their use, Given the ability of RBLEs to support varied episte- mological perspectives, designers need to adhere to grounded practices that support individual needs and intentions, RBLE participants, including teachers as well as stu- dents, lack necessary skills to access, process, and use information and ideas, The process used to integrate multiple resources into a coherent learning environment has not been well established

paper 2, Online Learning, why use online learning?, Flexibility, provide a capacity to tailor courses to the needs of learners, provide support for program delivery to new markets, Economy, cost saving, Enhanced learning, provide enhanced learning opportunities for students, a means to help students become self-sufficient and capable self-learners, Materials for online learning, Information Access, a broad array of resources, eg.Web, a variety of different perspectives, eg: cultural political, a variety of media forms, eg:graphics, animations, sound and video, large amounts of information, how to select and judge information, literacy, information accessibility, no location limitation, reduced printing, electronic resources, timely delivery of information, post materials before lecture, Interactive Learning, reflectiondecision making and provide feedback in response to learner actions, interactive learning elements, search and review documents, reflect and to select, select options to effect particular processing outcomes, database searching, selection processes, simulation control;, control of microprocessor controlled remote devices, program modules, shockwave movies, virtual reality environments etc, From a learning perspective, immediate feedback, recognise the discrete needs of individuals, tutorial type activities, simulations of real life events, Networked Learning, communication!!, communicative, collaborative and cooperative activities, common ways, email, bulletin boards and chat rooms, audioconferencing and videoconferencing, audioconferencing and videoconferencing, Materials Development, for learners to create and publish materials, use of the technology as a tool for developing and presenting products and artefacts, historical stories, diaries, case studies, reports, documentaries, stories, publishing tool, powerpoint, Frameworks for online learning settings, Components of Teaching and Learning Settings, Instructional forms and learning, Initial Knowledge, need:, create materials with a structure that presents information in a planned and considered fashion, Advanced Knowledge, need:, higher levels of student control with appropriate coaching and scaffolding provided by the instructor, Expertise, Learning as knowledge construction, Learning environments that support knowledge construction, Electronic Performance Support Systems, Instructional Design for Web-based learning, Learning Tasks, Learning Resources, Learning Supports, Approaches, Resource-based learning, Teacher-centred learning, task-based learning, Designing online settings that support knowledge construction, Learning Tasks, Learning Resources, Learning Supports, Learning Tasks, what is learning tasks?, Content-based design, learning outcomes present, Task-based design, learning outcomes present, 2.1Task-based learning, learning tasks, learning resources, presentation, Courseware delivery systems, WebCt, LMS, LCMS, 2.2 Planning learning tasks, Inquiry tasks, Projects, learners are asked to develop the project, Investigations, give a problem and seek for solutions, PBL, problem solving steps, Authentic Tasks, real life PBS in school, use of authentic setting, charactor, Examples of authentic tasks, 2.3 Authentic assessment, Assessment in Online Settings, a. Online postings, b. Identity, c. Electronic submissions, d. Integrated assessment, Learning Resources, 3.1 Content Pages, content, face-to-face learning environment, textbooks and sets of reading materials, online, Web pages as information sources, Creating text for online presentation, Page Index, graphics and images, elaborations, hyperlinks, information presentation, web ---weakness, 3.2 Making use of the media, sound, vedio, Virtual Reality, PDF documents, Creative ideas for designing online learning resources, 3.3 interactive learning resources, example, • tutorials; • quizzes; • simulations and • worksheets., Learning Supports, 4.1 Online learning support strategies, a. Learning Guides, b. Learning Contracts, Learning Schedules, 4.2 Supporting self-regulated learning, 4.3 Social construction of knowledge, a. Groupwork and Collaboration, b. Successful Collaborative Groups, c. Contexts for Collaborative Activity, d. Cooperative learning in on-line settings, 4.4 Learning scaffolds, 4.5 Learning communities

Extended learning

storyboard steps, 8 Easy Steps to Create a Storyboard

4C/ID – Four Component Instructional Design Model, The Four-Component Instructional Design Model: Multimedia Principles in Environments for Complex Learning

prototype, to session 6

synthesis of ideas and reflection

learning by doing, Entrepreneurship Education: Learning by Doing

design the learning environment, The Design of Learning Environments

Session 4

Design stage

learning outlines

Teaching materials---Prezi MOODLE

Flow chart, Create flowchart, Powerpoint,

Storyboard, Examples, evaluating storyboard, Reviewed by various people, Project team, Editor, a client, a content matter expert, a perspetive of a real user, evaluated for, content accuracy, Media, Padagogy, Technical issue


Paper 1, Goal of this theory, foster problem solving and conceptual development. It is intended for ill-defined or ill-structured domains., Values, question, case, project, a problem or learning goal that is "owned" by the learner, instruction that consists of experiences which facilitate knowledge construction (meaning making),, learning that is active and authentic., Constructivist conception of learning, Knowledge is individually construct and socially co-constructed by learners based on their interpretations of experience in the world., Models for CLEs, New node, Question/case/problem/project, The problem drives learning!, CLES can be constructed to support different based learning, Question-based, learning begins with a question with uncertain or controversial answer, The 5 kinds of learnings all assumption abt Constructive, active and authentic learning, issue-based, case-based, Students acquire knowledge and require thinking skills by studying cases, project-based, Focus on relatively long-term , integrated units of instruction where learning focus on complex projects, Problem- based, Integrates courses at a curricular level, learners do self-direct learning, Problems in CLES, 1.Problem Context, Performance environment, Community of practitioners/performers/stakeholders, 2.Problem Representation/Simulation, The representation of the problem is critical to learner buy-in. It must be interesting, appealing, and engaging. It must perturb the learner. The Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (1992)*, 3. Problem Manipulation Space, A critical characteristic of meaningful learning is mindful activity. In order for learners to be active, they must manipulate something (construct a product, manipulate parameters, make decisions) and affect the environment in some way., Related Cases, By scaffolding memory, Recall a similar case, then try to map the previous, A rich set of related cases will help students to solve the current one, enhancing cognitive flexibility, by providing multiple perspectives, themes, or interpretations on the problems or issues being examined by the learners., Information resources, What kind of information the learner need, WWW, Cognitive(knowledge-construction)Tools, a number of intellectual functions in helping learners interactive with CLES, How?, Problem/task representation tools, visualization tools, Static and dynamic knowledge modeling tools, such as databases, spreadsheets, semantic networks, expert systems, and hypermedia construction., performance support tools, such as calculators or database shells, Information gathering tools, Library, Search engine, WEB, conversation and collaboration tools, many example I have already used(based on own experience), Social/Contextual support, workshop conference community, Steps, Modeling, Behavioral modeling of the overt performance, Focus on how expert performers function, Cognitive modeling of the cognitive process, Coaching, A good coach motivates learners, analyzes their performances, provides feedback and advice on the performances and how to learn about how to perform, and provokes reflection on and articulation of what was learned., Focus on learner's performance, Scaffolding, Scaffolding is a more systemic approach to supporting the learner, focusing on the task, the environment, the teacher, and the learner.

Paper 2, Constructivism, Understanding is in our interaction with the environment, Understanding is an individual construction, whole its level can be tested, Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organization and nature of what is learned., Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of individual understandings, Roel of social environment, is critical to the development of our individual understanding as well as to the development of the body of propositions we call knowledge., is to develop a set of propositions we call knowledge., Instructional principles, 1. Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem., 2. Support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task, 3. Design an authentic task., 4. Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment they should be able to function in at the end of learning., 5. Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution, 6. Design the learning environment to support and challenge the learner's thinking., 7. Encourage testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts., Problem-Based Learning, PBL, a few of the critical features., Learning goals, simulate, and hence engage the learner in, the problem solving behavior that it is hoped a practicing physician would be engaged in, Problem Generation, problems must raise the concepts and principles relevant to the content domain, problems must be "real", Problem Presentation, First, if the students are to engage in authentic problem solving, then they must own the problem, to be certain that the data presented does not highlight critical factors in the case, Facilitator Role

Paper 3, What is a problem?, First, a problem is an unknown entity in some situation (the difference between a goal state and a current state), Second, finding or solv- ing for the unknown must have some social, cul- tural, or intellectual value., Different kinds of problems, Problem solving, "any goal-directed sequence of cognitive operations", Skills, New node, PROBLEM VARIATIONS, Problems vary in their nature, in the way they are presented or represented, and in their com- ponents and interactions among them, Structuredness, Jonassen (1997) distinguished well-structured from ill-structured problems and recommended different design models for each, well-structured problems, Present all elements of the problem to the learners. • Require the application of a limited number of regular and well-structured rules and prin- ciples that are organized in predictive and prescriptive ways. • Have knowable, comprehensible solutions where the relationship between decision choices and all problem states is known or probabilistic (Wood, 1983)., Ill one, Possess problem elements that are unknown or not known with any degree of confidence (Wood, 1983). Possess multiple solutions, solution paths, or no solutions at all (Kitchner, 1983). Possess multiple criteria for evaluating solu- tions, so there is uncertainty about which concepts, rules, and principles are necessary for the solution and how they are organized. • Often require learners to make judgments and express personal opinions or beliefs, Domain Specificity (Abstract-Situated), PROBLEM REPRESENTATIONS, Problems also vary in terms of how they are rep- resented to and perceived by the problem solver, INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, Familiarity, Domain and Structural Knowledge, Cognitive Controls, Metacognition, Epistemological Beliefs, Affectlve and Conative, general Problem-SolvingSkills, TYPOLOGYOF PROBLEMSOWING, Logical Problems, Algorithmic Problems

Paper 4, REALs, explanation, comprehensive instructional systems that are consistent with constructivist theories., promote study and investigation within authentic context, encourage student's growth of, responsibility, initiative, decision making, intentional learning, Increase the collaboration between students and teachers, higher-order thinking and develop rich and complex knowledge structure, definition, It is about, It is not, a delivery technology, not computer based or learner support environment, not physical attributes, foundation, relate to constructivism, Main attributes, students responsibility and initiative, Intentional learning, Questioning, higher-order questioning skills, Self-Reflection, Metacognitive Skills, REAL Strategy: Reciprocal Teaching, Generative Learning Activities, REAL Strategy: Cognitive Apprenticeship, Authentic Learning Contexts, learning takes place within an authentic context, REAL Strategy, CET, cognitive flexibility theory, Anchored Instruction, Authentic assessment strategies, learning in design, Co-operative support, PBL, Education needs change, why?, One element is the changing society we are facing now, Learners need to, New node, Weakness within the current system, inert knowledge, Depth problem, No time dealing with topics in depth, skills have no contextual cues to relate to new situations, practice, unrealistic and over-simplified, fail to solve problems in real lives, no development for them to be, life-long learner and daily problem solver, students are not evaluated in authentic ways, Exam problem, motivation low, erroneous assumption, knowledge transfer to real life very easily, learners are “receivers” of knowledge in verbal forms from books, experts, and teachers, learning is entirely behavioristic involving the strengthening of bonds between stimuli and correct responses, learners are blank slates ready to be written upon and filled with knowledge;, skills and knowledge are best acquired independent of realistic contexts, We need to look at other ways, as educators, establish new learning goal, developing independent thinkers and learners who engage in life-long learning, other assumptions

Extended learning


PBL, a overview of PBL, Applying Learning Design concepts to problem-based learning, key words, Problem-Based Learning, LAMS sequences, MOODLE, activities

storyboard, How to make a storyboard, Instructional Design Storyboards: the How and Why

synthesis of ideas and reflection

flowchart and storyboard practice

Problem-based learning

Session 6

Developing and Evaluating a Prototype

Learning reflection

Teaching materials

prototype, Definition, A working model and a representation of your final project, Provides sufficient information to allow a client and the team to have glimpse into the final product, Used as important evolution tool, Designs, interface design, Layout, Size of display area, Resolution, Color, Interaction design, Presentation design, Prototype Evaluatiopn

Useful application, Adobe inllustrator, Flash, photo shop.


Paper 2, Key words, Concept learning, conceptual change, assessment, knowledge representation, concepts, definition, Concepts are mental representations of categories of objects, events, or other entities., Plato, oncepts are the essences of things and, as such, they are abstract, unworldly, and eternal, importances, Concepts are the basis for meaning making and communication, eg:robin, Concepts play essential roles in human reasoning, including categorization, learning, memory, deductive inference, explanation, problem solving, generalization, analogical inference, language comprehension, and language production, concepts and instructional design, concepts are the primary learning outcome, existed issue, Concepts can only be fully understood as processes of conceptual change, the reorganization of conceptual frameworks, little research abt it, Some views abt concepts, Classical-Attribute Isolation View, limitations, Prototype or Probabilistic View of Concepts, probabilistic view, categorization is driven by similarity among examples of any category, prototype view, seeks more typical instances that have more of the characteristics associated with that category, Exemplar View of Concepts, conservative about discarding information that facilitates predictions, Similarity views, assume, Limitations, Numerous conceptual problems are associated with concepts that are learned in isolation based on the similarity of their properties, their inability to account for concepts in use, lack coherence, inability to account for the varying functions of concepts, OTHER VIEWS, The most common function, Spaulding and Ross (1994),communication, CONCEPTS AND CONCEPTUAL CHANGE, Conceptual change, when, learners change their understanding of the concepts they use and how they are organized within a conceptual framework, process, various from different theories, implication of CC for Concept learning and assessment, Implications for Assessment: Propositions, structural knowledge, Eliciting Conceptual Patterns, Free word associations, Similarity ratings, Card sort, Representing Conceptual Patterns, Cognitive maps, like mindmap, Concept maps, New node, Implications for Instruction: Propositions, Implications for Assessment: Concepts-in-Use, Semistructured Interviews, Think-Aloud Problem Solving, Implications for Instruction: Concepts-in-Use

paper 3, purpose of this paper, Due to, Activity theory, a framework for analyzing needs,tasks and outcomes of CLEs, focus on interaction, Activity theory, roots, German Phlosophy, activity must be understood or analyzed outside the context in which it occurs, Activity system, The model, subject, object, physical or mental product that is sought, tools, Activity consists of a goal-directed hierachy, Assumption of activity theory, Activity minds in context, activities are the human interactions with the objective world and the conscious activities that are a part of those interactions, Eg:instructional designers understand the instructions design process only through practicing instructional design in some context, New node, consciousness in the world, what is the consciousness under CLES, the way that instructional designers typically analyze conscious, "you are what you do", Intentionality, interaction in environment, to fulfill goals, activity theory focus on the purposeful actions that are realized through conscious intentions, intentions are planned before interactions, object-orientedness, intentions are directed at objects of activity, community: a dialectic context, The context of community, Historical-cultural dimension, instructional design can only be understood by its historical development, Tool Mediation, artifacts, collaboration, applying activity theory to design, 1. clarify purpose of activity system, clarify content, understand the context within which activities occur, motivations and goals, How to, analyze formal and informal documents, users observation, interviewing, Phychoanalyses, significance, The most important step, guide the construction of the problem space, determine whose perspectives are important to represent in the related cases, 2.analyzethe activity system, content, components of given activities namely the subject object community rules and division of labor, How to, 3.analyzethe activity structure, all activities, How to, define the activity itself, decompose the activity into its component actions and opearations, 4.analysetools and mediators, sgnificance, mediated by signs and tools ----interactions, Tool rule role, 5. analyzing the context, Learning environment, internal, external, 6. analyzing activity system dynamic, step back from the system described

Paper 1, 3 general views, learner-centered, constructivist, sociocultural, THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON COLLABORATIVE LEARNING TOOLS, learner centered view on collaborative technology, what is learner-centered technology looks like, technology-enhanced instructional settings, such as distance learning, offer special opportunities for implementing learner-centered principles and demonstrating them in action, 14 LCPs from APA, Cognitive and Metacognitive Factors, technology is often touted as affecting the nature and goals of the learning process, Motivational and Affective Factors, role of nov- elty, optimal difficulty, curiosity, personal choice, control, effort, and emo- tions, Developmental and Social Factors, developmental and social factors in learning, Individual Differences, individual differences in learning such as prior knowledge (LCP #12), linguistic and cultural backgrounds (LCP #13), and challenging standards (LCP #14), each can be linked to col- laborative learning technologies, A Constructivist View on Collaborative Technology, Cognitive Constructivistic Teaching Practices and Principles, Social Constructivistic Teaching Practices and Principles, tools like CSCL, Sociocultural Views on Collaborative Technology, Mediation, Sociocultural Theory and Principles for CSCL Environments, Zone of Proximal Development, an individual acquires new mental functions and patterns of thought, ZPD, Internalization, Cognitive Apprenticeship, Assisted Learning, pedagogical role of the teacher, different views, Teleapprenticeship, Scaffolded Instruction., Intersubjectivity, Activity Setting as Unit of Analysis, Distributed Intelligence in a Learning Community

extended learning

prototype, evaluating prototype

synthesis of ideas and reflection

In this session, the motion of prototype is understood. how to design the prototype and how to evaluate it   design for concept learning

session 7

learning outlines

Web 2.0 Learning Technologies

Teaching materials

what is web2.0

Collection of Web 2.0 sites, Go2web20

Tools, Blog, Digital Story Telling, "citizen journalism", WIKI, Social Repositories, Youtube, Flicker, RSS Feeds, Aggregator, Podcasting, Social Networking, facebook, Myspace, Web as a Platform, zoho, google docs, Open Source, sourceforge, Mobile Web 2.0, smartphone


Paper, What is Web 2.0?, a metaphor for a spectrum of emerging novel Internet applications(For brief), like blogs wikis social spaces and podcasting, read-write web, users not only to consume but also to create information and contribute to the sites, Like Blogs and Wikis, subscribing to information, users subscribe to an information service and information is delivered to them when it becomes available, RSS, Social spaes, collective activities in a social space, The internet as a platform, like Google Docs, Open sources, Accuracy problem, it is accuracy~~, The wide spread of Web 2.0, users, Digital end citizens, news and Numbers of increasing using web2.0 applications, Education and Web 2.0, E-learning 2.0, Ways, new forms of assessment, such as digital portfolio, use of Internet-mediated social learning spaces, My space, New Learning objects, new models for resources sharing and supporting for technology integration of communities of teachers, Youtube, new generations of learning LMS, M-learning

extended learning

FOSS, Free and open source software, definition, FLOSS Weekly,, website, FOSS and education

synthesis of ideas and reflection

Under web 2.0 learning environment, free open source can be used for education. In instructional design, designers are also looking for some softwares like this. I ever use Prezi, slideshare for presentation. Scratch for design learning games,etc. This is good!

session 8

Web 2.0 Learning Technologies

Learning outlines

Teaching materials

Mobile-technologies, Phone, eg:Iphone smartphone, Tablet PC, Ultra-PC, Touch Pad Technology, eg: itouch, Gaming Devices, PSP, E-book readers, Smart Watches

For early Enculturation, Apple school

Functions of a Device

Previous Studies with Devices in Education

Limitations, Small screen&nature of interaction, Sollutions, IPad

Affordance of Mobile technology in Education, Multimedia Access Tool, Connectivity Tool, Capture Tool, Analytic Tool, Presentational Tool

Functional Framework


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Arguing statement

Related work, Most popular applications for handhelds, referential, Presentational

Functionality framework, Administration, information storage and retrieval, scheduling, calendars and grading, Personal information Managers, Reference, office style’ tools, allow for the accessing of content at the place where learning activities occur by making use of the por- tability and mobility of handheld devices, examples of e-book tools, Microsoftreader, Adobe reader, Interactive, Microworld, LImitation with M-devices, computational limitations, Data collection, Scientific, Reflective, medical education, Multimedia, capturing images, sound and video and this ability can be put to a number of uses, Location aware, museum guides, treasure hunts, Collaborative

Pedagogical underpinning, framework, Administration, little, Referential, Interactive, Interaction and feedback, Microworld, constructionist approach, Data collection, Location aware, con- textual approach, Collaborative, collaboration

Collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications, TxtIT, overcome2 problems, shyness and large class sizes, Mapping challenge, GPRS, SortIT

extended learning

M-learning, M-learning website, Where is Mobile Learning Going?, M-Learning - a New Stage of ␣-Learning

synthesis of ideas and reflection

The new trend of M-learning