Morgan Reyes map

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1. Respiratory

1.1. Age-Related Changes

1.1.1. calcification of costal cartilage and trachea

1.1.2. rib cage more rigid

1.1.3. increased residual capacity and reduced vital capacity

1.1.4. high risk for respiratory infections inability to remove secretions

1.2. Pathologies

1.2.1. Pneumonia

1.2.2. Asthma high risk for bronchiectasis, cardiac problems assess for causative factors EDUCATION

1.2.3. Chronic Bronchitis persistent, productive cough wheezing current respiratory infections shortness of breath Treatment Prevent OBSTRUCTION of airway

2. Cardiovascular

2.1. Age-Related Changes

2.1.1. heart dimensions are unchanged

2.1.2. heart muscle loses efficiency and contractile strength reduced cardiac output reduced activity tolerance

2.1.3. valves become thick and rigid

2.1.4. blood vessels reduce elasticity

2.1.5. oxygen used less efiiciently

2.2. Pathologies

2.2.1. Hypertension consistent blood pressure reading >140/90 dull headache impaired memory disorientation confusion

2.2.2. Postural hypotension decline in systolic blood pressure of 20mm Hg or more after rising and standing for 1 minute safety major issue

2.2.3. Atherosclerosis hardening and narrowing of arteries due to plaque build up in vessel walls decline in blood flow

3. Gastrointestinal

3.1. Age-Related Changes

3.1.1. less acute taste sensations atrophy of tongue

3.1.2. decreased esophageal motility

3.1.3. atrophy of the small and large intestines

3.1.4. increased risk of aspiration, indigestion, constipation

3.1.5. decreased saliva production xerostomia saliva substitutes sipping water sugarless candy/gum

3.2. Pathologies

3.2.1. Dental Problems can restrict food intake constipation malnutrition affects appearance and socialization potential financial limitations

3.2.2. Chronic constipation diet low in fiber inactivity decreased blood flow to Gi system interventions to promote bowel elimination increase fluids increase fiber in diet medications

3.2.3. Intestinal Obstruction Causes Impacted stool hernias adhesions from surgeries large intestine cancer small intestine adhesions or hernias Clinical Manifestations severe abdominal pain nausea vomiting inability to pass stool Treatment surgery medical procedure NPO

4. Musculoskeletal

4.1. Age-Related Changes

4.1.1. thinning disks and shortened vertebrae

4.1.2. reduced muscle mass, strength and movement

4.1.3. decreased bone mineral and mass

4.1.4. diminished calcium absorption

4.1.5. increased risk of fractures

4.2. Pathologies

4.2.1. Fractures Risks poor posture unstable slow reaction time malnutrition common places hips wrists complications immobility

4.2.2. Osteoarthritis progressive deterioration of joint cartilage with the formation of new bone at joint surface crepitus joint genetic causes/obesity pain management

5. Endocrine

5.1. Age-Related Changes

5.1.1. thyroid gland activity decreases

5.1.2. ACTH secretion decreases

5.1.3. Pituitary gland decreases

5.1.4. Insulin release by beta cells is delayed and insufficient Higher blood glucose in non diabetic patients

5.1.5. Ability to metabolize glucose is reduced

5.2. Pathologies

6. Immune

6.1. Age-Related Changes

6.1.1. Depressed immune system T-Cell activity declines Cell-mediated immunity declines Risk for infection increases Inflammatory defenses decline

6.2. Pathologies

6.2.1. Cancer Rapid and uncontrollable growth of cell, invading other organs

7. Sensory

7.1. Normal Age-Related Changes

7.1.1. Crystalized itelligence knowledge accumulated over a lifetime: arises from dominant hemisphere of brain

7.1.2. Fluid intelligence involves new information from nondominant hemisphere controls emotions creative capacities spatial perceptions aesthentic appreciation

7.1.3. Presbycusis progressive hearing loss that occurs distortion of HIGH- pitched sounds cerumen increases alteration in equilibrium

7.1.4. Presbyopia inability to focus on close objects clearly narrowing of visual fields pupil size reduction and less reactive to light depth perception distortion decline in visual acuity

7.1.5. Touch decrease in tactile sensation reduction in sense to pressure, discomfort, temperature chang

8. Physical

8.1. Normal Age-Related Changes

8.1.1. Hair loss, graying, wrinkles

8.1.2. Loss of tissue elasticity, elongated ears, baggy eyelids, double chin

8.1.3. Loss of subcutaneous fat Have difficult time regulated temperature

8.1.4. Diminished stature related to reduced hydration, loss of cartilage and thinning vertebrae risk for falls risk for fractures/ injury

9. Urinary

9.1. Age-Related Changes

9.1.1. decline in renal blood flow and GFR approximately 50% by age 90

9.1.2. reduced bladder capacity urinary freuquency urgency nocturia frequent urination at night

9.2. Pathologies

9.2.1. Incontinence types stress functional urgency neurogenic overflow assess medial history medications functional status cognition treatment goal is to identify cause

9.2.2. Bladder Cancer causes excessive alcohol use tobacco use clinical manifestation hematuria urinate more often having weak stream lower back pain on one side loss of appetite and weight loss

10. Nervous

10.1. Age-Related Changes

10.1.1. decline in weight and blood flow to brain does NOT affect thinking and behavior

10.1.2. reduction in neurons, nerve fibers, cerebral blood flow

10.1.3. slower response to change in balance

10.1.4. hypothalamus less effective in temperature regulation

10.1.5. Changes in sleep patterns with frequent awakening

10.2. Pathologies

10.2.1. Parkison's Disease affects ability of the CNS to control body movements tremor, stiffness, manlike facies , dyskinesia

10.2.2. TIA temporary or intermittent reduction in cerebral perfusion increased risk for cerebral vascular accident s/s treatment

11. Integumentary

11.1. Age-Related Changes

11.1.1. skin less elastic, dry and fragile

11.1.2. decreased subcutaneous fat

11.1.3. increased benign and malignant skin neoplasms

11.1.4. reduced sweat gland activity

11.2. Pathologies

11.2.1. Pruritis itching and discomfort potential for skin breakdown and infection assess the underlying cause treat with topical steroids, antihistamines, comfort measures

11.2.2. Stasis Dermatitis inflammatory condition clinical manifestations itching scaling hyper pigmentation ulceration treatment facilitate healing interventions to enhance venous return R/T chronic venous insufficiency