Mastering Biology Chapter 6: Tour of a Cell

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Mastering Biology Chapter 6: Tour of a Cell by Mind Map: Mastering Biology Chapter 6: Tour of a Cell

1. Concept 6.4 Endomembrane System

1.1. interconnected tubes,sac,tiny floating vesicles

1.2. Change shape and size

1.3. Separate contents frm rest of cytoplasm

1.3.1. 1. Nuclear enevlope

1.3.2. 2. Endoplasmic Reticulum

1.3.2.1. Storage, manufacturing, and making

1.3.2.2. Smooth

1.3.2.2.1. Rough

1.3.2.2.2. Has bound ribosomes all over it

1.3.2.2.3. makes protein for export

1.3.2.2.4. makes more membrane

1.3.2.2.5. Glycoproteins

1.3.2.3. Enzymes make lipids(steroids)

1.3.2.4. detoxifitions (add -OH)

1.3.2.5. Drug resistance

1.3.2.6. Store Ca+

1.3.2.7. Lacks ribosomes its outsuface

1.3.2.8. phospholipids

1.3.3. 3. Golgi apparatus

1.3.3.1. finishes, packages, sorts and ships

1.3.3.2. Vesicles from ER to GA

1.3.3.3. Stack of flat sacs

1.3.3.3.1. cisternae

1.3.3.4. each layer further modifies products

1.3.3.5. final layer sorts into vesicles for transport

1.3.3.6. proteins are modified and stored

1.3.3.7. refines product of ER

1.3.4. 4. Lysosomes

1.3.4.1. looks like a vacuoles

1.3.4.1.1. digestive cells

1.3.4.2. contain enzymes that break down chemical bonds

1.3.4.2.1. sent to other places for cell specilaization

1.3.4.3. Recycle organelles

1.3.4.3.1. autophagy

1.3.4.4. self destruct cell

1.3.4.4.1. autolysis

1.3.4.5. common in animals

1.3.4.6. in plants sometimes???

1.3.5. 4. Vacuoles

1.3.5.1. "little emptiness"

1.3.5.1.1. actually full of water/ clear liquid

1.3.5.2. Large vesicles

1.3.5.3. often storage/organization

1.3.5.3.1. food,water, toxins(process of eating)

1.3.5.4. contractile vacuole

1.3.5.4.1. squirting H20 out of cell

1.4. some & others connected vial travelling vesicles

1.5. 50% of membrane in many cells

1.5.1. Vesicles of membrane bubble off to wherever the membrane( Vesicles contents) are needed.

1.5.1.1. Membrane grows, not stactic

1.5.1.1.1. dynamic(Moving, shifitng, growing, shrinking)

2. Concpet 6.1: Studying the Cell

2.1. 3 Paramters of control amount of informatin in a micrscope image

2.2. Magnigication

2.2.1. Ratio of image size to object size

2.2.1.1. Light Microscope

2.3. Resolution

2.3.1. The minimum distance between two distinguishable points

2.4. Contrast

2.4.1. Visible range of brightness

2.5. Types of Microscopes

2.5.1. Electron Microscope

2.5.1.1. Beam of electron thru the specimen or into its surface

2.5.2. Trasmisson

2.5.2.1. thin samples

2.5.2.2. electrons thru samples

2.5.2.3. heavy metal staining

2.5.3. Scanning

2.5.3.1. Thicker samples

2.5.3.2. Depth of image

2.5.3.3. Gold-plated sample

3. Concept 6.3 Genetic Information: Nucleus to Ribosomes

3.1. Nucleus

3.1.1. where proteins begin

3.1.1.1. DNA recipes for every protein

3.1.1.1.1. one gene

3.1.1.1.2. Ribsomes are made here

3.1.1.2. DNA locked inside nucleus

3.1.1.2.1. mRNA is working copy

3.1.2. Genes and other DNA

3.1.2.1. Most genes in eukoryotic cells

3.1.2.2. Chromosomes are the stuctes that carry gentic info

3.1.2.2.1. Chromatin is the protein that makes up chromosomes

3.1.3. Connection to rough ER

3.1.3.1. Nuclear membrane is 2 double layers of phospholipids

3.1.3.1.1. double membrane w/ a gap between them

3.2. Envelope

3.2.1. nuclear pore

3.2.1.1. Each pore is ringed by protein particles

3.2.2. Nuclear envelope

3.2.2.1. enclosed nucles

3.2.2.1.1. sperating contents from the cytoplasm

3.2.2.2. Nuclear lamina

3.2.2.2.1. Intermediate filaments

3.3. Ribosomes

3.3.1. Read mRNA copies of DNA's instructions

3.3.1.1. made in nucleus

3.3.1.1.1. free or bound from nucleus

3.3.2. Not membrane bound

3.3.2.1. not considered organells

3.3.2.1.1. protein synthesis

3.3.3. Free in cytosol

3.3.4. bound outside nuclear envelope

4. Concept 6.2: Eukaryotic vs Prokaryotic (Pg 100-101)

4.1. ALL CELLS HAVE

4.2. Plasma Membrane

4.2.1. Cell Membrane

4.2.1.1. Barrier

4.2.2. passage of oxygen, nurtirents & waste

4.2.3. it makes itself

4.2.3.1. phospholidpis form double layer in water

4.2.3.1.1. Light Microscope

4.2.3.2. self healing

4.2.3.3. Can pinch of parts form membrane bubbles

4.2.3.3.1. in or out of cell

4.3. Cytosol

4.3.1. gel-like liquid

4.4. Chromosomes

4.4.1. Protein recipes

4.5. Ribosomes

4.5.1. Protein markers

4.6. Cell Fractionation

4.6.1. to separation different organelles to study their function separate from the rest of the cell

4.7. Prokaryotes

4.7.1. Small, singles cell oragnisms

4.7.1.1. Bacteria & Archaea

4.7.2. No membrane around DNA (nucleoid)

4.7.3. Lack an internal membrane compartment

4.8. Major difference

4.8.1. Location of DNA

4.9. Eukaryotes

4.9.1. Larger, multicellular

4.9.1.1. some unicellular(Protist)

4.9.1.1.1. Animal Cells

4.9.2. Membrane bound

4.9.2.1. Nuclues

4.9.2.1.1. other organelles

4.9.3. Double lay of phospholipids & other lipids

4.10. Cytosol

4.10.1. semi fulid

4.10.1.1. jelly like

4.11. Cytoplasm

4.11.1. between nucleus and plasma membrane

4.11.1.1. nucleus has its fluid

4.12. Fungi

4.12.1. not plants

4.12.1.1. mushrooms, Penicillin, yeast, mycorrhizae

4.12.2. cell wall

4.12.3. no chloroplasts

4.12.4. Heterotrophic

5. Concept 6.5 Engery-Converting Organelles

5.1. 1. Mitochondria

5.1.1. All eukaryote cells

5.1.1.1. cellular respiration

5.1.1.1.1. outer & inner membrane (Cristae)

5.1.2. Use energy from sugars

5.1.2.1. ATP(andenosine triphosphate)

5.1.2.1.1. immediate energy source

5.1.3. mDNA

5.1.3.1. free ribosomes

5.1.3.1.1. reproduce in cells

5.1.4. Matrix

5.1.4.1. DNA & ribosomes enclosed by the inner membrane

5.1.5. need to make things between 2 membranes

5.2. 2. Chloroplast

5.2.1. some plant cells

5.2.1.1. fruit, root plants & animals don't have it

5.2.2. 3 layers of outer & inner membrane

5.2.3. own circular DNA

5.2.4. Filled w/thick fluid=stroma

5.2.4.1. where sugars are born

5.2.4.2. DNA & ribosomes

5.2.5. contain stacks(granum) of thylakoids

5.2.5.1. chlorophyll inside

5.2.5.1.1. chlorophll collects sunlight

5.2.6. using stored energy

5.2.6.1. mitochondrion

5.2.6.1.1. can't surivie on its own. too dependent

5.3. 3.Peroxisomes

5.3.1. oxidation organelles

5.3.1.1. single membrane

5.3.1.1.1. many oxidation reactions

5.3.2. Prepare fatty acids for mitochondria

5.3.2.1. detox

5.3.2.1.1. Glyoxysomoes

6. Concepte 6.6 Cytoskeleton

6.1. Cell Skeleton

6.1.1. shape to cell

6.1.1.1. Movement of organelles/whole cell

6.1.1.2. activity of cell

6.1.2. extending thru cytoplasm

6.1.3. organizing structure

6.2. Microfilaments

6.2.1. Actin(globular protein)

6.2.1.1. holds things together

6.2.1.1.1. easily movable

6.2.2. myosin & actin filaments in muscle

6.2.3. eukaryotic cells bear tenison

6.2.3.1. pulling force

6.3. Intermediate filaments

6.3.1. cable structure of several proteins

6.3.2. permanent

6.3.3. long term structure to cell

6.3.4. remain after cell death

6.3.4.1. Keratin in skin

6.3.5. reinforcing shape

6.3.6. fixing position of cell

6.3.7. certain organelles

6.4. Microtubules

6.4.1. tubulin

6.4.1.1. cilia

6.4.1.1.1. large #s

6.4.2. organize chromosomes during cell divison

6.4.3. unstable ends are different

6.4.3.1. +end grows & disassembles faster

6.4.3.2. -end grows&disassembles slower

6.4.3.3. length can change rapidly

6.4.4. coverage on centrosome(near nucleus)

6.4.4.1. go out supporting cell

6.4.4.2. providing tracing from center to surface cell

7. Concept 6.7 Connection between cells

7.1. Plant cell walls

7.1.1. made of cellulose (polysaccharide)

7.1.1.1. protects each cell

7.1.1.1.1. provides support for plants weight

7.1.2. prevents excessive uptake of H2O

7.1.3. found in prokaryotes fungi

7.1.3.1. some unicellular Eukaryotes

7.1.4. Secondary

7.1.4.1. between plasma membrane

7.1.4.1.1. primary wall cell protection & support

7.1.5. Primary

7.1.5.1. thin & flexible

7.1.5.1.1. cell growth

7.1.6. Middle Lamella

7.1.6.1. thin & sticky

7.1.6.1.1. Polysaccharides

7.2. Animals' extracellular matrix

7.2.1. Matrix (embedded)

7.2.2. like a skeleton outside cell

7.2.3. holds tissue together

7.2.4. communicates w/ cells

7.2.5. affects gene expression

7.2.6. made largely of glycoproteins

7.2.6.1. proteins + carbs

7.2.6.1.1. collagen

7.2.6.1.2. most abundant/main ingredient

7.2.6.1.3. strong; hanging on matrix

7.2.6.1.4. regulates cell behavior

7.2.7. Intergrins

7.2.7.1. proteins binding cell membrane to ECM

7.2.7.2. Connected to cytoskeleton

7.3. Cell junctions in animal cells

7.3.1. 1. Tight

7.3.1.1. makes a layer of cells fluid tight

7.3.2. 2. Anchoring

7.3.2.1. desmosomes

7.3.2.1.1. like bolting

7.3.2.2. very strong connections

7.3.3. 3. Gap

7.3.3.1. allow transport

7.3.3.2. communication

7.3.3.3. have gaps

7.3.3.3.1. heart muscles

7.3.4. Plasmodesmata

7.3.4.1. in plants