Mastering Biology Chapter 6: Tour of a Cell

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Mastering Biology Chapter 6: Tour of a Cell by Mind Map: Mastering Biology Chapter 6: Tour of a Cell

1. Concept 6.4 Endomembrane System

1.1. interconnected tubes,sac,tiny floating vesicles

1.2. Change shape and size

1.3. Separate contents frm rest of cytoplasm

1.3.1. 1. Nuclear enevlope

1.3.2. 2. Endoplasmic Reticulum Storage, manufacturing, and making Smooth Rough Has bound ribosomes all over it makes protein for export makes more membrane Glycoproteins Enzymes make lipids(steroids) detoxifitions (add -OH) Drug resistance Store Ca+ Lacks ribosomes its outsuface phospholipids

1.3.3. 3. Golgi apparatus finishes, packages, sorts and ships Vesicles from ER to GA Stack of flat sacs cisternae each layer further modifies products final layer sorts into vesicles for transport proteins are modified and stored refines product of ER

1.3.4. 4. Lysosomes looks like a vacuoles digestive cells contain enzymes that break down chemical bonds sent to other places for cell specilaization Recycle organelles autophagy self destruct cell autolysis common in animals in plants sometimes???

1.3.5. 4. Vacuoles "little emptiness" actually full of water/ clear liquid Large vesicles often storage/organization food,water, toxins(process of eating) contractile vacuole squirting H20 out of cell

1.4. some & others connected vial travelling vesicles

1.5. 50% of membrane in many cells

1.5.1. Vesicles of membrane bubble off to wherever the membrane( Vesicles contents) are needed. Membrane grows, not stactic dynamic(Moving, shifitng, growing, shrinking)

2. Concpet 6.1: Studying the Cell

2.1. 3 Paramters of control amount of informatin in a micrscope image

2.2. Magnigication

2.2.1. Ratio of image size to object size Light Microscope

2.3. Resolution

2.3.1. The minimum distance between two distinguishable points

2.4. Contrast

2.4.1. Visible range of brightness

2.5. Types of Microscopes

2.5.1. Electron Microscope Beam of electron thru the specimen or into its surface

2.5.2. Trasmisson thin samples electrons thru samples heavy metal staining

2.5.3. Scanning Thicker samples Depth of image Gold-plated sample

3. Concept 6.3 Genetic Information: Nucleus to Ribosomes

3.1. Nucleus

3.1.1. where proteins begin DNA recipes for every protein one gene Ribsomes are made here DNA locked inside nucleus mRNA is working copy

3.1.2. Genes and other DNA Most genes in eukoryotic cells Chromosomes are the stuctes that carry gentic info Chromatin is the protein that makes up chromosomes

3.1.3. Connection to rough ER Nuclear membrane is 2 double layers of phospholipids double membrane w/ a gap between them

3.2. Envelope

3.2.1. nuclear pore Each pore is ringed by protein particles

3.2.2. Nuclear envelope enclosed nucles sperating contents from the cytoplasm Nuclear lamina Intermediate filaments

3.3. Ribosomes

3.3.1. Read mRNA copies of DNA's instructions made in nucleus free or bound from nucleus

3.3.2. Not membrane bound not considered organells protein synthesis

3.3.3. Free in cytosol

3.3.4. bound outside nuclear envelope

4. Concept 6.2: Eukaryotic vs Prokaryotic (Pg 100-101)


4.2. Plasma Membrane

4.2.1. Cell Membrane Barrier

4.2.2. passage of oxygen, nurtirents & waste

4.2.3. it makes itself phospholidpis form double layer in water Light Microscope self healing Can pinch of parts form membrane bubbles in or out of cell

4.3. Cytosol

4.3.1. gel-like liquid

4.4. Chromosomes

4.4.1. Protein recipes

4.5. Ribosomes

4.5.1. Protein markers

4.6. Cell Fractionation

4.6.1. to separation different organelles to study their function separate from the rest of the cell

4.7. Prokaryotes

4.7.1. Small, singles cell oragnisms Bacteria & Archaea

4.7.2. No membrane around DNA (nucleoid)

4.7.3. Lack an internal membrane compartment

4.8. Major difference

4.8.1. Location of DNA

4.9. Eukaryotes

4.9.1. Larger, multicellular some unicellular(Protist) Animal Cells

4.9.2. Membrane bound Nuclues other organelles

4.9.3. Double lay of phospholipids & other lipids

4.10. Cytosol

4.10.1. semi fulid jelly like

4.11. Cytoplasm

4.11.1. between nucleus and plasma membrane nucleus has its fluid

4.12. Fungi

4.12.1. not plants mushrooms, Penicillin, yeast, mycorrhizae

4.12.2. cell wall

4.12.3. no chloroplasts

4.12.4. Heterotrophic

5. Concept 6.5 Engery-Converting Organelles

5.1. 1. Mitochondria

5.1.1. All eukaryote cells cellular respiration outer & inner membrane (Cristae)

5.1.2. Use energy from sugars ATP(andenosine triphosphate) immediate energy source

5.1.3. mDNA free ribosomes reproduce in cells

5.1.4. Matrix DNA & ribosomes enclosed by the inner membrane

5.1.5. need to make things between 2 membranes

5.2. 2. Chloroplast

5.2.1. some plant cells fruit, root plants & animals don't have it

5.2.2. 3 layers of outer & inner membrane

5.2.3. own circular DNA

5.2.4. Filled w/thick fluid=stroma where sugars are born DNA & ribosomes

5.2.5. contain stacks(granum) of thylakoids chlorophyll inside chlorophll collects sunlight

5.2.6. using stored energy mitochondrion can't surivie on its own. too dependent

5.3. 3.Peroxisomes

5.3.1. oxidation organelles single membrane many oxidation reactions

5.3.2. Prepare fatty acids for mitochondria detox Glyoxysomoes

6. Concepte 6.6 Cytoskeleton

6.1. Cell Skeleton

6.1.1. shape to cell Movement of organelles/whole cell activity of cell

6.1.2. extending thru cytoplasm

6.1.3. organizing structure

6.2. Microfilaments

6.2.1. Actin(globular protein) holds things together easily movable

6.2.2. myosin & actin filaments in muscle

6.2.3. eukaryotic cells bear tenison pulling force

6.3. Intermediate filaments

6.3.1. cable structure of several proteins

6.3.2. permanent

6.3.3. long term structure to cell

6.3.4. remain after cell death Keratin in skin

6.3.5. reinforcing shape

6.3.6. fixing position of cell

6.3.7. certain organelles

6.4. Microtubules

6.4.1. tubulin cilia large #s

6.4.2. organize chromosomes during cell divison

6.4.3. unstable ends are different +end grows & disassembles faster -end grows&disassembles slower length can change rapidly

6.4.4. coverage on centrosome(near nucleus) go out supporting cell providing tracing from center to surface cell

7. Concept 6.7 Connection between cells

7.1. Plant cell walls

7.1.1. made of cellulose (polysaccharide) protects each cell provides support for plants weight

7.1.2. prevents excessive uptake of H2O

7.1.3. found in prokaryotes fungi some unicellular Eukaryotes

7.1.4. Secondary between plasma membrane primary wall cell protection & support

7.1.5. Primary thin & flexible cell growth

7.1.6. Middle Lamella thin & sticky Polysaccharides

7.2. Animals' extracellular matrix

7.2.1. Matrix (embedded)

7.2.2. like a skeleton outside cell

7.2.3. holds tissue together

7.2.4. communicates w/ cells

7.2.5. affects gene expression

7.2.6. made largely of glycoproteins proteins + carbs collagen most abundant/main ingredient strong; hanging on matrix regulates cell behavior

7.2.7. Intergrins proteins binding cell membrane to ECM Connected to cytoskeleton

7.3. Cell junctions in animal cells

7.3.1. 1. Tight makes a layer of cells fluid tight

7.3.2. 2. Anchoring desmosomes like bolting very strong connections

7.3.3. 3. Gap allow transport communication have gaps heart muscles

7.3.4. Plasmodesmata in plants