Learning, Teaching & Development : Mind Map Césan Martin-Asmus

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Learning, Teaching & Development : Mind Map Césan Martin-Asmus by Mind Map: Learning, Teaching & Development : Mind Map Césan Martin-Asmus

1. FREE WILL

2. Week 2

2.1. Considering Developmental Differences

2.1.1. What Adults can learn from ..kids

2.1.1.1. TED TALK

2.1.1.1.1. Why does being CHILDISH mean you are being "dumb" or immature

2.1.2. The Power of Yet

2.1.2.1. - Kids are able to dream about perfection – adults see the limitations over the possibilities - We should expect more from kids, challenge them. They will rise to the challenge

2.2. Principles of Development

2.2.1. Teachers must teach each topic in its respective learning progrression

2.2.2. Teachers must allow time, and preferably practice, in order for academic concepts to be fully understood

2.2.3. Teachers must strive to improve HOW students know, not just HOW MUCH they know

2.2.3.1. Growth Mindset

2.2.3.1.1. embrace challenges

2.2.3.1.2. persist in the face of setbacks

2.2.3.1.3. see effort as the path of mastery

2.2.3.1.4. learn from criticism

2.2.3.1.5. find lessons and inspiration in the success of other

2.2.4. Teachers must consider that within their classroom it is normal and expected that some children will learn faster or slower than others

2.2.5. TEACHERS MUST RECOGNIZE THAT THEIR ABILITY TO EITHER POSITIVELY OR NEGATIVELY AFFECT HOW MUCH OF EACH CHILD'S ACADEMIC AND SOCIAL POTENTIAL IS REALIZED

2.3. Types of Development

2.3.1. Early Learning...

2.3.1.1. Executive Cognitive Functioning

2.3.1.2. Innate Curiosity

2.3.1.2.1. Learning How to Learn

2.3.2. Cognitive/Learning Development

2.3.3. Physical/Biological Development

2.3.4. Psychological Structures of Learning

2.3.4.1. Innate Drive to Organize

2.3.4.2. Innate Drive to Adjust (Adapt)

2.3.4.2.1. Disequilibrium to equilibrium : assimilate or accommodate

2.4. Effective Planning

2.4.1. Kids are able to dream about perfection – adults see the limitations over the possibilities We should expect more from kids, challenge them. They will rise to the challenge

3. Week 3

3.1. Constructivism

3.1.1. Ways that students build their own conclusions from their own experiences.

3.1.1.1. Role playing

3.1.1.2. Debating

3.1.1.3. Utilizing Co-op Learning Groups

3.1.1.4. Engaging in real world activities

3.1.1.5. Personal experiences

3.1.2. COLLABORATION IS KEY

3.1.3. Dewey

3.1.3.1. Education should be grounded in real experiences

3.1.4. Piaget

3.1.4.1. Discovery learning, sensitivity to childrens' readiness, acceptance of individual differences and learners don't have knowledge forced in them...they create it for themselves

3.1.5. Bruner

3.1.5.1. Learning through dialogue, encouraging the learner to come to enlighten themselves through reflection.

3.2. Social Constructivism

3.2.1. Emphasis is on the collaborative nature of learning and the importance of cultural and social context

3.2.2. All cognitive functions are believed to originate in, and are explained as products of social interactions

3.2.3. Learning is more than the assimilation of new knowledge by learners; it was the process by which learners were integrated into a knowledge community

3.2.4. Believed that constructivists such as Piaget had overlooked the essentially social nature of language and consequently failed to understand that learning is a collaborative process.

3.2.5. Vygotsky

3.2.5.1. Constructed by him: Rejected the idea that it was possible to separate learning from its social context **

3.2.6. The Zone of Proximal Development

3.2.6.1. Intersubjectivity, Scaffolding, guided participation

4. Week 4

4.1. Tony Wagner

4.1.1. Ted Talk

4.1.1.1. Play, Passion and Purpose

4.1.1.1.1. "Knowledge today is a commodity"

4.1.1.1.2. Do you have the skill and do you have the will

4.2. The Resilient Student

4.3. Dynamic Classroom Management

4.3.1. Develop caring, supportive relationships with and among students

4.3.2. Organize and implement instruction in ways that optimize students' success to learning

4.3.3. Use group management methods that encourage students' engagement in academic tasks

4.3.4. Promote the development of students social skills and self-regulation

4.3.5. Use appropriate interventions to assist students with behaviour problems

4.3.6. IMPLIMENTATION

4.3.6.1. Positive behaviour support

4.3.6.2. Classroom discourse research

4.3.6.2.1. an emphasis is placed on proactive and explanatory teacher-student discourse that is collaborative

4.3.6.2.2. Overtly EXPLICIT (not IMPLICIT) rules as well as development and use of reminder mechanisms

4.3.6.3. Self-Regulatory Behaviour

4.3.6.3.1. making choices

4.3.6.3.2. reflecting on the personal meaningfulness of these choices

4.3.6.3.3. reflecting on the outcomes of their actions

4.3.7. DMC: Primary Steps

4.3.7.1. Concept presented to all students at school assembly...

4.3.7.1.1. Teacher and students develop classroom rules as well as rewards and negative consequences...

4.4. Behaviours that Diminish Student Behaviour Problems

4.4.1. positive feedback

4.4.2. sustained feedback

4.4.3. intervene in misbehaviour at a low rate

4.4.4. respond positively to students in general

5. Week1

5.1. The Little Red School House

5.1.1. Classroom and behaviour management is always an important issue

5.1.2. Pre-instructional assessments to assess learning...DO NOT ASSUME WHAT THEY MAY ALREADY KNOW!

5.1.3. Analyze curriculum guides for similar outcomes and goals.

5.1.3.1. Link common approaches to maintain a streamlined focus of learning

5.1.4. Educational Psychology

5.1.4.1. Learning & Cognition

5.1.4.2. DEVELOPMENT

5.1.4.3. Motivation

5.1.4.4. Individual Differences

5.1.4.5. Assessment & Evaluation

5.1.4.5.1. Social & Cultural Differences

5.1.4.6. Teaching and Instruction

5.1.4.7. Psychological Foundations of Curricula

5.1.4.8. Behaviour & Classroom Management

5.1.5. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS

5.1.5.1. They are, in many ways, more important than summative assessments when promoting active learning environments.

5.1.6. Reflective Practice

5.1.6.1. A great teacher takes the time to self-evaluate and see the ways that they can improve.

5.1.6.1.1. Driven by ethical and moral responsibility to the students in your care

5.1.6.2. The clinician-professional teacher as most widely accepted model

5.1.6.2.1. 3 WAYS TEACHERS CAN RELATE TO SCHOLARLY KNOWLEDGE

5.1.7. Respect the Research

5.1.7.1. Quantitative, Qualitative - descriptive, experimental, idiographic, ethnographic

6. Week 5

6.1. Diagnostic assessment

6.2. Role of the learning objective

6.3. Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive skills

6.4. Stiggins' targets

6.5. Developing an overall approach to instruction

6.6. Meaningful instruction

6.6.1. Motivating students to learn

6.7. Specialized instructional strategies

6.8. Meta-cognitive executive functioning

6.9. Constructivist Learning

6.9.1. Learners are active in constructing their own personal knowledge –they actively seek meaning • Social negotiating is important to knowledge construction /learning • Learning includes developing skills to solve problems, think critically, answer questions, accept multiple views • Self-determination is needed to further knowledge development

6.9.2. Application in the Classroom

6.9.2.1. • Dialogue & Instructional Conversations • Inquiry Learning • Problem-based Learning • Teacher and Peer Learning • Cognitive Apprenticeships • Collaborative Learning

6.9.2.2. Complex, challenging

6.9.2.3. Real world

6.9.2.4. Social Negotiation

6.9.2.5. Multiple Representation

6.9.2.6. Becoming self-regulated learners

6.9.2.7. Student ownership of learning

6.9.3. Bloom's Taxonomy

6.9.3.1. • Hierarchical classification of cognitive learning objectives

6.9.3.1.1. • Six levels 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation

6.10. Universal Instructional Design

6.10.1. Instructional system designed and delivered with the needs of the least independently able students in mind

6.10.2. Results in instruction that is accessible and effective for all students

6.11. Child as an Explorer vs. Child as a Messenger

6.11.1. INQUIRY BASED LEARNING

6.12. How People Learn

6.12.1. • Knowledge-Centredness • Learner-Centeredness • Community-Centredness • Assessment-Centredness

6.13. Cognitive Verbs

6.13.1. Indicate the thinking required for particular learning objectives

6.13.1.1. 1. Remembering 2. Understanding 3. Applying 4. Analyzing 5. Creating 6. Evaluating

7. Week 6

7.1. Blooms Taxonomy

7.2. Backwards Design

7.2.1. Teach, Access for Understanding, and Transfer

7.3. Individual Education Plans

7.4. How people learn...

7.5. Positive & Negative Assessment Experiences

7.5.1. Screening Assessment

7.5.1.1. Early ID

7.5.1.2. Phonological Awareness

7.5.1.2.1. Where is there language development and reading assessment

7.5.1.3. Grade 1 - Literacy

7.5.1.4. DRA

7.5.1.5. Speech & Language

7.5.1.6. Insight - Grade 4 TVDSB

7.5.1.7. WIAT

7.5.1.8. WISC

7.5.1.9. Adaptive Functioning

7.6. Lesson Plans and Learning Objectives

7.6.1. Backwards Design

7.6.1.1. 1. What do I want my Students to learn

7.6.1.2. 2. How will I determine whether or not they have learned

7.6.1.3. 3. What will I teach?

7.6.1.4. 4. How will I teach it?

7.6.2. Elements of BD

7.6.2.1. instructional activities that connect to and build understanding

7.6.2.2. assessment that deliberately measures student progress toward curricular goals

7.6.2.3. the development of a variety of ongoing formal and informal assessment tools

7.6.2.4. the articulation of why certain assessments are appropriate and for what purpose

7.7. Universal Instructional Design

7.7.1. Advocates for physical spaces and objects that consider the needs of all users and especially those of individuals with disabilities.

7.7.1.1. ACCESSIBILITY AND UTILITY

8. Week 7

8.1. Challenging our lenses

8.1.1. How we view our students with exceptionalities

8.1.1.1. medical model

8.1.1.2. social model

8.1.1.3. cultural model

8.1.2. SEAC

8.1.2.1. Networking

8.1.2.1.1. Schools

8.1.2.1.2. Systems

8.1.2.1.3. Communities

8.1.3. Disability vs. Handicap

8.1.3.1. Are you disabled? No, I'm Michelle.

8.1.4. What is intelligence

8.1.4.1. Learning from experience & adapting to one's environment

8.1.4.2. Intelligence is a very vast term and I believe that thesis are different KINDS of intelligence

8.1.4.3. High-Incidence Exceptionalities

8.1.5. WE ARE LEARNING MORE FROM OUR YOUTH WITH EXCEPTIONALITIES THAN THEY ARE LEARNING FROM US.

8.1.6. Do Schools Kill Creativity

8.1.6.1. Creativity and Range - No idea what will happen

8.1.6.1.1. Children have a massive levels of creativity

8.1.6.1.2. Creativity and Literacy are equally important

8.1.6.1.3. Everyone has an interesting education

8.1.6.2. WE STIGMATIZE MISTAKES

8.1.6.2.1. WE MUST REMAIN ARTISTS WHEN WE GROW UP

8.1.6.3. In most systems, arts come last in the hierarchy...

8.1.6.3.1. WHY?

8.1.6.4. All schools have the goal of going to university and not on promoting a unique form of education

8.1.6.4.1. A degree means nothing anymore

8.1.6.5. Intelligence is diverse, dynamic, interactive, distinct

8.1.6.5.1. Creativity brings all aspects of the brains together to bring something new to the front

8.1.6.5.2. WOMEN ARE AMAZINGLY CREATIVE AND CAN MULTITASK ON A HIGHER LEVEL

9. Week 8

9.1. How do we know we are making a difference?

9.1.1. 1. Board policies, programs, guidelines, and practices

9.1.2. 2. Shared and committed leadership

9.1.3. 3. School-community relationships

9.1.4. 4. Inclusive curriculum and assessment practices

9.1.5. 5. Religious accommodation

9.1.6. 6. School climate and the prevention of discrimination and harassment

9.1.7. 7. Professional learning

9.1.8. 8. Accountability and transparency

9.1.9. The Ontario Human Rights Code’s prohibited grounds of discrimination include: age, ancestry, citizenship, colour, creed, disability, ethnic origin, family status, gender identity and gender expression, marital status,

9.1.9.1. We need to accommodate all students and approach their learning needs understanding that no matter who they are, they all have needs and different ways of learning

9.1.9.1.1. There is no one way of teaching

9.1.9.1.2. Utilizing a schools support systems and family and peer support is essential in providing an equitable environment

9.1.10. Ontario’s Equity and Inclusive Education Strategy, 2009 sets out a vision for an equitable and inclusive education system in which: • all students, parents, and members of the school community are welcomed and respected; • every student is supported and inspired to succeed in a culture of high expectations for learning

9.2. INCREASING DIVERSITY IN SCHOOLS

9.2.1. Languages Spoken

9.2.2. Aboriginal Students

9.2.2.1. High Risk of:

9.2.2.1.1. early school failures

9.2.2.1.2. moving school to school

9.2.2.1.3. lack of parental support

9.2.2.1.4. difficulty transitioning from elementary to secondary schools

9.2.2.1.5. poor home to school communication

9.2.2.1.6. lack of qualified teachers with proficiency in Aboriginal languages and studies

9.2.2.2. Protective Factors:

9.2.2.2.1. Early intervention

9.2.2.2.2. Resiliency

9.2.2.2.3. Positive self-image

9.2.2.2.4. Engagement of families

9.2.2.2.5. Community involvement

9.2.2.2.6. Relevant planning

9.2.2.2.7. Connections to Aboriginal role models and supports

9.2.3. One-parent families

9.2.4. Same-sex couples

9.2.5. Newcomers to Canada

9.2.6. Religious Practices

9.2.7. Teachers must know the following: Their own cultural assumptions - How to inquire about students’ backgrounds -How to develop teaching approaches and curriculum to meet needs of culturally diverse learners - How to establish links across cultures

9.2.7.1. MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION

9.2.7.1.1. Banks' Model

9.3. Student Dilemmas

9.3.1. Individualism

9.3.2. Collectivism

9.4. Critical Consciousness

9.4.1. Political values & beliefs

9.4.2. ideological clarity

9.4.3. Socio-cultural consciousness

9.4.3.1. Differences within identified groups

9.4.3.2. Positioning Cultural Identity within the Individual

10. Week 9

10.1. Standardized Achievements Tests

10.1.1. Testing Issues

10.1.1.1. • Biased tests • Stressful for students and teachers • Results in teaching to the test • Takes up too much time • Does not enhance student learning • Content of tests does not reflect instruction

10.1.1.2. Validity relates to how accurately the test results actually reflect the students’ knowledge about the subject. Standardized tests use a minimum number of questions and getting even one or two wrong due to environmental reasons will affect the individual student’s results. The factors that affect a student getting a question right or wrong may be infinite and could be organized into (a) situational/environmental confounding factors, (b) personal/emotional factors, and (c) grade-spread requirement in standardized testing.

10.1.2. Aptitude Tests

10.1.3. Stakeholders' Views of Standardized Testing

10.1.4. Misconceptions

10.1.5. 5 Essential Elements

10.1.5.1. The test must assess important curricular goals

10.1.5.2. The curricular goals must be teachable

10.1.5.3. The assessed knowledge and skills must be clearly described and accurately reflect effective learning

10.1.5.4. The test must be specific enough to directly guide instruction

10.1.5.5. The assessment process must be minimally intrusive on classrooms

10.1.6. Standardized Testing in Canada

10.1.6.1. Federal

10.1.6.1.1. Achievement levels of 13 year olds (math, reading, and science)

10.1.6.2. Provincial

10.1.6.2.1. Different uses including math and literacy testing at certain grade levels and Grade 12 exit exams

10.1.6.3. Standardized Tests

10.1.6.3.1. Contain the same questions for all test-takers • Are administered to all test-takers in same fashion • Are scored in systematic and uniform manner • Are different from teacher-made tests and aptitude tests

10.1.6.3.2. Types

10.1.6.3.3. Original Purpose