Nutrient Word Wall

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Nutrient Word Wall by Mind Map: Nutrient Word Wall

1. Macronutrient - nutrients needed in large(r) amounts/quanties

1.1. Macrominerals -minerals needed in larger amounts

1.1.1. Phosphorus

1.1.1.1. Functions - works with calcium to build bones and teeth.

1.1.1.2. Sources - beef, poultry, pork - eggs - fish - milk products

1.1.2. Magnesium

1.1.2.1. Functions - builds teeth and bone - necessary in functioning of nervous, muscular and circulatory system

1.1.2.2. Sources - whole grain cereal - fish - legumes

1.1.3. Sodium

1.1.3.1. Functions - helps control blood pressure - necessary for muscle and nerve function

1.1.3.2. Deficient Symptoms - weakness - muscle cramps - fatigue

1.1.3.3. Symptoms of Toxic Level - high blood pressure - kidney disease - irregular heartbeat

1.1.4. Potassium

1.1.4.1. Functions - maintains body's fluid balance - helps with muscular function and digestion

1.1.4.2. Sources Banana, white beans, potatoes

1.1.5. Chloride

1.1.5.1. Function In addition to its functions as an electrolyte, chloride combines with hydrogen in the stomach to make hydrochloric acid, a powerful digestive enzyme that is responsible for the break down of proteins, absorption of other metallic minerals

1.1.5.2. Sources Seaweed, rye, tomatoes, lettuce, celery, and olives

1.2. Water -an essential nutrient because it is required in amounts that exceed the body's ability to produce it

1.2.1. Calorie -the energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius

1.3. Fat -the body uses fat as a fuel source, and fat is the major storage form of energy in the body

1.3.1. Cholesterol - a compound of the sterol type found in most body tissues

1.3.2. Unsaturated Fat - a type of fat containing a high proportion of fatty acid molecules with at least one double bond, considered to be healthier in the diet than saturated fat

1.3.3. Monounsaturated Fat -fat molecules that have one unsaturated carbon bond in the molecule

1.3.4. Polyunsaturated Fat -fat molecules that have more than one unsaturated carbon bond in the molecule

1.3.5. Saturated Fat -a type of fat containing a high proportion of fatty acid molecules without double bonds

1.3.6. Trans Fat -an unsaturated fatty acid of a type occurring in margarines and manufactured cooking oils

1.4. Carbohydrates - any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods

1.4.1. Dietary Fibre - the indigestible portion of food derived from plants

1.4.2. Glycogen -a substance deposited in bodily tissues as a store of carbohydrates

1.4.3. Monosaccharide - any of the class of sugars (e.g., glucose) that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar.

1.4.4. Disaccharide -a class of sugars whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residues

1.4.5. Polysaccharide - sugar with many monosaccharide

1.4.6. Simple carbohydrates - are sugars - all simple carbohydrates are made of just one or two sugar molecules.

1.4.6.1. Sugar - any of the class of soluble, crystalline, typically sweet-tasting carbohydrates found in living tissues and exemplified by glucose and sucrose

1.4.6.1.1. Starches an odorless tasteless white substance occurring widely in plant tissue and obtained chiefly from cereals and potatoes

1.5. Proteins - organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms

1.5.1. Amino Acid -a simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl and an amino group

1.5.2. Complementing Protein -proteins that don’t have to be consumed in one meal, as long as they are consumed over the course of the day.

1.5.3. Complete Protein -source of protein that contains an adequate proportion of all nine of the essential amino acids necessary for the dietary needs

1.5.4. Incomplete Protein - proteins that are low or lacking in one or more of the amino acids we need to build cells

2. Micronutrients - nutrients needed in small(er) amounts/quantities

2.1. Trace Minerals - minerals needed in smaller amounts

2.1.1. Zinc

2.1.1.1. Health Benefits Boosts immunity and supports the healing process. Contributes to healthy skin, nails, eyes, growth and sexual development, DNA and protein synthesis, and enzyme activity.

2.1.1.2. Mineral Source Avocado, Dates, Meat, seafood, and liver, eggs, milk, whole-grain products

2.1.2. Iron

2.1.2.1. Health Benefits Essential element of haemoglobin that kelps red blood cells to transport oxygen through the body.

2.1.2.2. Mineral Source Fortified Cereals, Spinach and other Brassicas, Red Meat, Dried Fruits

2.1.3. Copper

2.1.3.1. Health Benefits Vital for healthy performance of red blood cells and brain. Promotes connective tissue synthesis.

2.1.3.2. Mineral Source Seafood, nuts, legumes, green leafy vegetables, dried fruits (such as prunes and cocoa), yeast, organ meats, nuts, potatoes, grains, beans

2.1.4. Manganese

2.1.4.1. Health Benefits Collaborates with sodium and phosphorus to aid healthy muscle and nerve function. Controls calcium levels in the body, and helps it to maintain skeletal structure.

2.1.4.2. Mineral Source Yogurt, Eggs, Artichoke, Dates, Rolled Oats, Wheat Germ, Nuts, Seeds, Wheat Bran, meat, fish, poultry, green vegetables, legumes

2.1.5. Flouride

2.1.5.1. Health Benefits Needed to form and to maintain our teeth, and to prevent tooth decay. Deficiency in humans is common in areas with low fluoride in the mains drinking water.

2.1.5.2. Mineral Source Grape products, dried fruit, dried beans, cocoa powder, and walnuts

2.1.6. Selenium

2.1.6.1. Health Benefits Selenium is an extremely vital mineral for the human body as it increases immunity, takes part in antioxidant activity that defends against free radical damage and inflammation, and plays a key role in maintaining a healthy metabolism.

2.1.6.2. Mineral Source Seafood, wholewheat bread, seeds, pork, lamb.

2.2. Vitamins -Vitamins are organic compounds that are needed in small quantities to sustain life

2.2.1. Water-soluble Vitamins - are able to dissolve in water

2.2.1.1. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) -Deficiency: Symptoms include bruising, gum infections, lethargy, dental cavities, tissue swelling, dry hair and skin, bleeding gums, dry eyes, Long-term deficiency results in scurvy. -Toxicity: Possible problems with very large vitamin C doses including kidney stones, rebound scurvy, increased oxidative stress. -Sources: Guava, bell pepper, kiwi, orange, grapefruit, strawberries, Brussels sprouts, cantaloupe, papaya, broccoli, sweet potato, pineapple, cauliflower, kale, lemon juice, parsley

2.2.1.2. B Vitamins -these essential nutrients help convert our food into fuel, allowing us to stay energized throughout the day.

2.2.1.2.1. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) -Deficiency: Symptoms include burning feet, weakness in extremities, rapid heart rate, swelling, anorexia, nausea, fatigue, and gastrointestinal problems. -Toxicity: None known. -Sources: Sunflower seeds, asparagus, lettuce,

2.2.1.2.2. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Deficiency: Symptoms include cracks, fissures and sores at corner of mouth and lips, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, photophobia, glossitis of tongue, anxiety, loss of appetite, and fatigue. Toxicity: Excess riboflavin may increase the risk of DNA strand breaks in the presence of chromium. High-dose riboflavin therapy will intensify urine color to a bright yellow (flavinuria) – but this is harmless. Sources: Almonds, soybeans/tempeh, mushrooms, spinach, whole wheat,

2.2.1.2.3. Vitamin B3 (Niacin) -Deficiency: Symptoms include dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and stomatitis. -Toxicity: Niacin from foods is not known to cause adverse effects. -Sources: Mushrooms, asparagus, peanuts, brown rice, corn, green leafy vegetables, sweet potato

2.2.1.2.4. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) -Deficiency: Very unlikely. Only in severe malnutrition may one notice tingling of feet. -Toxicity: Nausea, heartburn and diarrhea may be noticed with high dose supplements. -Sources: Broccoli, lentils, split peas, avocado, whole wheat, mushrooms, sweet potato, sunflower seeds, cauliflower

2.2.1.2.5. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) -Deficiency: Symptoms include nervous system disorders, sleeplessness, confusion, nervousness, depression, irritability -Toxicity: High doses of supplemental vitamin B6 may result in painful neurological symptoms. -Sources: Whole wheat, brown rice, green leafy vegetables, sunflower seeds, potato, garbanzo beans, banana, trout, spinach, tomatoes

2.2.1.2.6. Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) -Folate is the naturally occurring form found in foods. Folic acid is the synthetic form used in commercially available supplements and fortified foods. Inadequate folate status is associated with neural tube defects and some cancers. -Deficiency: One may notice anemia (macrocytic/megaloblastic), sprue, Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, weakness, weight loss, cracking and redness of tongue and mouth, and diarrhea. In pregnancy there is a risk of low birth weight and preterm delivery. -Toxicity: None from food. -Sources: Green leafy vegetables, asparagus, broccoli, baked beans, green peas, avocado, peanuts, lettuce, tomato juice, banana, papaya, organ meats

2.2.1.2.7. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) -Vitamin B12 must combine with intrinsic factor before it’s absorbed into the bloodstream. -Deficiency: Symptoms include pernicious anemia, neurological problems and sprue. -Toxicity: None known from supplements or food. Only a small amount is absorbed via the oral route, thus the potential for toxicity is low. -Sources: Fortified cereals, liver, trout, salmon, tuna, haddock, egg

2.2.2. Fat-soluble Vitamins - are able to dissolve in fat

2.2.2.1. Vitamin A (Retinoids) -Carotenoids that can be converted by the body into retinol are referred to as provitamin A carotenoids. -Deficiency: One may notice difficulty seeing in dim light and rough/dry skin. -Toxicity: Hypervitaminosis A is caused by consuming excessive amounts of preformed vitamin A, not the plant carotenoids. Preformed vitamin A is rapidly absorbed and slowly cleared from the body. Nausea, headache, fatigue, loss of appetite, dizziness, and dry skin can result. -Sources: Carrots, sweet potato, pumpkin, green leafy vegetables, squash, cantaloupe, bell pepper, Chinese cabbage, beef, eggs, peaches

2.2.2.2. Vitamin D (Calciferol) -Deficiency: In children a vitamin D deficiency can result in rickets, deformed bones, retarded growth, and soft teeth. In adults a vitamin D deficiency can result in osteomalacia, softened bones, spontaneous fractures, and tooth decay. Those at risk for deficiency include infants, elderly, dark skinned individuals, those with minimal sun exposure, fat malabsorption syndromes, inflammatory bowel diseases, kidney failure, and seizure disorders. -Toxicity: Hypervitaminosis D is not a result of sun exposure but from chronic supplementation. Excessive supplement use will elevate blood calcium levels and cause loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, excessive thirst. Calcification of soft tissues can also occur. -Sources: Sunlight, fortified foods, mushrooms, salmon, mackerel, sardines, tuna, eggs

2.2.2.3. Vitamin E (tocopherol) -Deficiency: Only noticed in those with severe malnutrition. However, suboptimal intake of vitamin E is relatively common. -Toxicity: Minimal side effects have been noted in adults taking supplements in doses less than 2000 mg/day. There is a potential for impaired blood clotting. Infants are more vulnerable. -Sources: Green leafy vegetables, almonds, sunflower seeds, olives, blueberries, most nuts, most seeds, tomatoes, avocado

2.2.2.4. Vitamin K -Deficiency: Tendency to bleed or hemorrhage and anemia. -Toxicity: May interfere with glutathione. No known toxicity with high doses. -Sources: Broccoli, green leafy vegetables, parsley, watercress, asparagus, Brussels sprouts, green beans, green peas, carrots

2.3. Minerals - an inorganic substance needed by the human body for good health.

3. Diet -the kinds of food that a person, animal, or community habitually eats. - a special course of food to which one restricts oneself, either to lose weight or for medical reason

4. Nutrition -the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth