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life (organism) by Mind Map: life (organism)

1. prokaryote

1.1. Oldest organisms living on earth. Cell membranes and wall lack peptidoglycan. Cell walls are much more resistance to physical and chemical disruption than those of other organism. As a result, Archaea inhabit extreme environments: hot springs arctic ice highly acidic water intestines of mammals They do not cause disease.

1.2. Archaea

1.3. Bacteria

1.3.1. Bacteria have 3 common shapes: Coccus (round) Bacillus (rod-shaped) Spirillum (spiral)

1.3.2. -Cytoplasm: composed of water, enzymes nutrients, wastes and gases. -Plasmid: Small loop of DNA that carries a small number of genes, floating in the cytoplasm (no true nucleus) -single circular chromosome. -Ribosomes: for building proteins. -Pilli: small hair like structures that help the cell attach to other cells or surfaces. -Flagella: used for movement.

1.3.3. Cell wall: plasma membrane peptidoglycan layer (long chains) outer membrane capsule and plasma membrane: surround cytoplasm

1.3.4. A stain called Gram Stain, is a technique used to differentiate two large groups of bacteria based on their different cell wall makeup. Gram-Positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer on their cell wall and stain purple. Gram-Negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer on their cell wall and stain pink.

1.3.5. They often occur in the following arrangements: Diplo- Pairs Staphylo- Clumps Strapto- Strings

1.3.6. Most are heterotrophic: Cannot manufacture its own food and instead obtains its food and energy by taking in organic substances eg. parasites Some are autotrophic: Make their own food. Photoautotrophs - are capable of synthesizing their own food from inorganic substances using light as an energy source. Chemoautotrophs - are capable of synthesizing their own food from inorganic substances using the oxidation of electrons as an energy source.

1.3.7. Three Types: Obligate Aerobes: Bacteria that need Oxygen to live. Facultative Aerobes: Bacteria that makes energy by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present, but is capable of switching to anaerobic respiration if oxygen is not present. Obligate Anaerobes: Bacteria that cannot live in environments where there is oxygen or they will die.

2. eukarya (eukaryote)

2.1. single cellular

2.1.1. protista algae -Unicellular or multicellular -Autotrophs - contain chlorophyll or other pigments (can photosynthesize). -Red algae can be used to make agar, food thickener, medicine capsules -May live alone or in colonies -Survive in great depths of the ocean. Amoeba -Live in freshwater lakes, ponds, damp soil -Shapeless, single-celled organisms. -Move using pseudopods. -Engulf their food with their bodies (heterotrophs). -Reproduces by splitting into two equal parts. -Responds to stimuli – can sense light and move away from it. ciliates (paramecium) - Found in freshwater ponds with a lot of decomposition. -Heterotroph. -Use cilia for movement. -Cilia also pull food towards the oral groove; which then encloses the food in a vacuole -May reproduce through fission or conjugation. flagellates -Move using flagella (tails). -Many are parasitic and can be found in the blood or intestines of host organisms. -Some are able to respond to light stimulus. -Capable of sexual or asexual reproduction. slime moulds ~Plasmodial -made from one large cell. -can be seen on decaying plant material in forests and fields. -may have many nuclei in their single cell. ~Cellular -single-celled protists that can join together as a single organism, therefore can only be seen when they gather in a clump. -Survive as decomposers; can engulf other particles -Moves very slowly. -Consumes dead material. water moulds - Most live on decaying organic matter. -Unicellular organisms. -Reproduce sexually or asexually. -Made of branching strands of cells. -Can be parasites of plants or fish – extend their threads into the host tissues to absorb nutrients. eulgena -Either autotrophs or photosynthetic -Unicellular -Usually have two flagella for moving moves toward the light - positive phototropism -Has a red eyespot, which is light sensitive diatoms -Freshwater and marine environments -Unicellular -Asexual or sexual reproduction -Shells made of silica -Produce large amounts of oxygen Dinoflagelates -Live in marine environments. -May be bioluminescent (emit light). -Can cause the phenomenon referred to as red tide. -There is not “typical” protist. -Protists identify to eukaryotic organisms, meaning having membrane-bound organelles within their cell membranes and a nucleus. -The only characteristic that all protists share is that they cannot be classified as animals, plants or fungi. -Exhibit a wide variety of cell features, different ways of moving, obtaining nutrients and reproducing. -Range in size from microscopic unicellular organisms to giant multicellular species.

2.2. ferns

2.2.1. -Lycophytes (club mosses) and Pterophytes (ferns) are a group of VASCULAR, SEEDLESS plants -Have vessels to transport food and water (xylem and phloem) -They have roots, stems or leaves

2.3. Multicellular

2.3.1. fungi chytrids - Primitive fungi -spores are zoospores -A zoospore is a motile asexual spore that uses a flagellum for locomotion -decomposers -single or multicellular eukaryotes -found in marine and freshwater ecosystem, as well as damp soil. zygospore -many are parasites of insects (used commercially as a pesticide) -soil fungi -include bread and fruit molds, reproduce sexually (meiosi) or asexually (mitosis) AM fungi -Soil borne fungi. -Form symbiotic relationship with plant roots. -Essential to ecosystem function - water, nutrient uptake by plants e.g. Mycorrhizae sac fungi -Together with Basidiomycota form the largest phylum of fungi -asexual reproduction - spore shooters (produces ascus). E.g. yeast, truffles and morels (can also be classified as Ascomycota or sac fungi). -produce their spores, called ascospores, in special pods or sac-like structures called asci (singular ascus) club fungi - Decomposers -Symbiotic relationship with plants -Reproduce sexually; sometimes asexually -Spores are basidiomycetes -most familiar fungi e.g. mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs -Fungi (singular; fungus) -Like plants, fungi are … ~Sessile (stationary) ~Multicellular eukaryotes ~Grown in the ground -Unlike plants, fungi are ~Heterotrophs

2.3.2. Aves (birds)

2.3.3. Plantae plants mosses and liverworts angiosperms Gymnosperms

2.3.4. Animalia eumetazoa radiata Bilateria