Pneumonia

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Pneumonia by Mind Map: Pneumonia

1. Signs and Symptoms

1.1. Slower and more insidious onset with a nonproductive cough, mild fever, chest pain (Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirksen, Bucher & Camera, 2014)

2. Causative Agents

2.1. Chlamydophilla Pneumoniae, influenzavirus, RSV, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma pneumonia (Thibodeau & Viera, 2004)

3. Signs and Symptoms

3.1. Pleuritic Chest pain, Rapid onset of fever, productive cough, tachycardia, crackles upon ausculation, fluid build up increasing tactile fremitus( Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirksen, Bucher & Camera, 2014)

4. Causative Agents

4.1. Bacterial agents such as streptococcus (Lutfiyya, Henley, Chang & Reyburn, 2006)

5. Typical Community Acquired Pneumonia

6. Atypical Community Acquired Pneumonia

7. Encourage adequate rest with moderate activity. Promote adequate nutritional intake (Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirksen, Bucher & Camera, 2014)

8. Institute isolation precautions as appropriate (Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirksen, Bucher & Camera, 2014)

9. Review with patients the importance of the cessation of smoking, alcohol and substance abuse (Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirksen, Bucher & Camera, 2014)

10. ventilation, bed rest and analgesics to relieve pleuritic chest pain, IV supplemental fluids (Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirksen, Bucher & Camera, 2014)

11. It is important to provide oral care for patients on respiratory ventilators to prevent pneumonia associated with a ventilator (Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirksen, Bucher & Camera, 2014)

12. Patient teachings are encouraged about effective coughing techniques, proper diet, and fluid intake (Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirksen, Bucher & Camera, 2014)

13. Monitor and observe the patient for altered LOC, new onset of signs and symptoms such as confusion or a productive cough (Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirksen, Bucher & Camera, 2014)

14. Laboratory Testing Findings

15. Chest Radiography is the number one diagnostic testing used in order to find if there is any fluid present in the lungs (Lutfiyya, Henley, Chang & Reyburn, 2006)

16. To look for any positive gram stains, an increase in WBC, and lastly if blood cultures are positive (Lutfiyya, Henley, Chang & Reyburn, 2006)

17. Targets bacterial pneumococcal pneumonia, H,influenzae, enteric gram-negative bacilli. The main drug choice is fluoroquinolonnes. (Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirksen, Bucher & Camera, 2014).

18. Signs and Symptoms

19. Causative Agents

20. Flu-like symptoms, decreased blood pressure, tachycardia, cough, chest pain, shortness of breath ("Hospital-acquired pneumonia",2017)

21. Gram-negative bacteria include Pseudomonas aerginosa, and E.Coli. Gram-positive organisms include Staphylococcus aeureus (Mills, Nelson, Winslow & Springer, 2009))

22. Elderly and immunocompromised individuals (Lutfiyya, Henley, Chang & Reyburn, 2006)

23. Co-morbidities

24. Host

25. Life-style factors

26. Smoking (Baik, Curhan, Rimm, Bendich, Willett & Fawzi, 2000)

27. Alcohol or substance abuse (Baik, Curhan, Rimm, Bendich, Willett & Fawzi, 2000)

28. Respiratory issues such as Asthma, COPD, Cystic fibrosis, Diabetes, and heart disease. (Farr, Bartlett, Wadsworth & Miller, 2000)

29. living conditions (Baik, Curhan, Rimm, Bendich, Willett & Fawzi, 2000)

30. The treatment involves adminstering an anti-pneumococcal beta-lactam antibiotic, as well as macrolies such as clarithromycin (Baer, 2017)

31. Hospital Acquired Pneumonia

32. In an outpatient setting treatment involves a macrolides which reduce the chances of anti-biotic resistance (Lutfiyya, Henley, Chang & Reyburn, 2006)

33. Community Acquired Pneumonia

34. Noscomial Pneumonia

35. Treatment

36. Pathophysiology ("Acute Respiratory Failure", 2017; Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirksen, Bucher & Camera, 2014)

36.1. Microorganisms cause an acute infection, leading to an inflammatory process

36.1.1. Leading to vasodilation of the capillaries which results in the leaking of exudate into the interstitial space and into the alveoli which results in alveolar consolidation

36.1.1.1. This further exacerbates into hypoxemia and hypercapnia which can be identified as a type 2 respiratory failure

36.1.1.1.1. In young patients it is seen as short of breath, painful near the chest region and a productive cough with a fever

36.1.1.1.2. In older individuals it is seen with reduced productive coughing, same quality of pain in the chest region, and reduced mental impairments such as confusion or lethargy

36.2. The most common cause of community acquired pneumonia is the aspiration of oral contents during sleep, as well as inhalation of droplets, another main cause would be bloodstream infections

37. Diagnostic Testing

38. Nursing interventions

39. Risk factors

40. Community Acquired Pneumonia