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1. Developmental Appropriateness

2. Week 5: Making Instructional Decisions

2.1. Developing an overall approach to instruction

2.1.1. Motivating Students to Learn Challenging and meaningful tasks Being able to effectively use learning strategies Having teacher support Being required to demonstrate knowledge Feeling that the teacher cares for them

2.2. Meaningful instruction

2.3. Specialized instructional strategies

2.3.1. Universal Instructional Design designed and delivered with the needs of the least independently able students in mind . 3 Primary Principles 1. Provide Multiple Means of Representation PerceptionLanguage, expressions, and symbolsComprehension 2. Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression Physical actionExpression and communication Executive function 3. Provide Multiple Means of Engagement Recruiting interestSustaining effort and persistence Self-regulation https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=NLENqU4hPJU

2.3.2. How students Learn Knowledge-Centredness Learner-Centeredness Community-Centredness Assessment-Centredness

2.4. Examination of Practices to Effectively Engage all Students

2.4.1. Support and Challenge

2.5. Examination of Effective Classroom Environments

2.5.1. Developmentally Appropriate schools Child as Explorer Have active learners More playful learning (guided play) Whole child approach -- brains and heart Integrated curricula

2.5.2. Direct instruction schools  Child as empty vessel metaphor More passive learners Learning is more compartmentalized,

2.5.3. Teaching to make critical learners

2.6. Bloom’s Taxonomy • Six levels

2.6.1. • Hierarchical classification of cognitive learning objectives 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation

3. teaching=practice

4. Cognitive Verbs for Learning Objectives

4.1. 1. Remembering

4.2. 2. Understanding

4.3. 3. Applying

4.4. 4. Analyzing

4.5. 5. Creating

4.6. 6. Evaluating

5. Week 6: Knowing that the Students Know and Making Education Meaningful by helping Students become lifelong learners and critical thinkers.

5.1. Design Framework

5.1.1. 1. Focus on teaching and assessing for understanding and learning transfer

5.1.2. 2. Design curriculum backward from those ends

5.2. Integrated Learning in the Classroom

5.2.1. an emphasis on backward planning from student needs/interests

5.2.2. a combination of subjects

5.2.3. a focus on relationships among concepts

5.2.4. an emphasis on projects/tasks

5.2.5. flexible scheduling/flexible student groupings

5.2.6. use of authentic sources that go beyond textbooks

5.2.7. Guidelines Think Big Think real-world Think broad

5.2.8. 7 Principles 1. Learning is enhanced when teacher thing purposefully about curriculum planning 2. Focus curriculum and teaching on the development and deepening of student understanding 3. Understanding is revealed when students autonomously make sense of and transfer their learning through authentic performance. (Capacity to explain, interpret, apply, shift perspective, empathize, and self assess) 4. Curriculum is most effective when planned backward from long-term desired results through a three-stage design process (Desired Results, Evidence, and Learning Plan). 5. Teachers are coaches of understanding not just transferring knowledge, skill or activity 6. Regularly reviewing units and curriculum against design standards enhances curricular quality and effectiveness, provides engaging and professional discussions 7. Reflects a continual improvement approach to student achievement and teacher craft

5.3. Learner Centred

5.3.1. Students construct new knowledge by building on prior knowledge

5.4. Knowledge Centred

5.4.1. Teachers helps to build that bridge from prior knowledge to new knowledge Foster understanding and skill building. Encourage experimentation and discovery. Students ask questions, and share their ideas. Students organize knowledge and apply concepts to new situations.

5.4.2. TEDxPhilly - Chris Lehmann - Education is broken

5.5. Making Education Meaningful by helping Students become lifelong learners and critical thinkers.

5.6. Assessment Centred

5.6.1. Emphasize concepts behind knowledge instead of relying heavily on memorization of facts. Guide students in becoming "lifelong learners." Reinforce student organization of knowledge. Build metacognition and self assessment skills. Gauge what knowledge has been gained. Give opportunity for demonstrating improvement.

5.6.2. Amazing Grace Middle School STEM Bridge Project Team Sister 2 Sister, November 2012

5.7. Community Centred

5.7.1. Respectful learning environments where individual ideas are welcomed.

5.7.2. It is okay to not know a correct answer.

5.7.3. Focus on mastering content.

5.7.4. Enable students to learn on their own.

5.7.5. Improve upon on students’ abilities to solve complex problems.

5.7.6. How to Teach Math as a Social Activity

6. Week 7: Individual Differences-Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

6.1. Models for working with Exceptional Pupils

6.1.1. Schools, systems, and communities, assistive technology, other professionals in education, special education plans and the Special Education Advisory Committee One is not sufficient to understand the whole child - 360 degree approach

6.1.2. Big ideas- Focus on the trifecta of support (triangle) - school, systems, and communities - student in the middle.

6.1.3. tensions between the social model of disability

6.1.4. A laminated system whereby we draw information from multiple facets, including the medical model, social model, cultural model

6.2. Our belief systems

6.3. Individual Differences

6.3.1. Individual Differences Labelling What are the advantages of and problems with labels? What is the difference between a disability and a handicap? What is peoples-first language? Do your friends, family members, professors… did you associate Labeling Exceptional Students Disability = inability to do something Handicap = a disadvantage in certain situations

6.3.2. How can we include children with exceptionalities? Including Students with Exceptionalities By Dr. Sheila Bennett • Focus on Inclusion rather than integration and mainstreaming, normalization • Principals and admin play a huge role - extra training beneficial • pre-school - better to be integrated for students with exceptionalities • students in inclusive settings are shown to perform better on academic measures as well as on measures of social competences • Examine your own beliefs, work with the school team including the student, use a variety of instructional methods including differentiated instruction and universal design, extend inclusion to the whole school

6.3.3. Do schools kill creativity?

6.4. Intelligence

6.4.1. No agreed definition 1. Ability to learn from experience 2. Ability to adapt to ones environment 3. Ability to know about and control ones' own thinking

6.4.2. Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) verbal/linguistic logical/mathematical visual/spatial musical/rhythmic bodily/kinaesthetic interpersonal intrapersonal naturalist

6.4.3. How can we measure this? Standardized Aptitude and Achievement Tests What about exceptionalities? We can dream.... School Processes for identification and support

6.4.4. Physical vs Cognitive Access Physical - sensory and motor access - ability to see text and images, hear sound and speech and manipulate materials and expressive tools. Individuals with physical or sensory disabilities may encounter barriers when using traditional materials such as books Cognitive - understand assignments, plan and execute approaches to tasks, use materials effectively, comprehend content presented in carious media, organize work, understand and use feedback, and express ideas effectively

7. Week 8: Socio-Cultural Considerations

7.1. Narrowing Gaps Between Best Pedagogical Practices Benefiting All Learners

7.1.1. Sharing Personal Stories Very important in the classroom PART of Aboriginal Pedagogy The equity lens The airplane game: Who would you sit beside? Shows we should leave our bias In London they have the child youth network Eliminating poverty Allow people the time to tell their stories

7.1.2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=_uOncGZWxDc

7.1.3. Learning how to involve children's culture but not single them out https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=D9Ihs241zeg How can we integrate specific life experiences/ diff backgrounds of students into daily instruction Cultural can be empresses: pot lucks with different cultural foods Coat of arms on the walls Flags on the walls Class discussions Projects on cultures we don't know Venn diagrams Charades Involving parents Bringing mentors in Access the impact on student leaning achievement audio evaluation exit tickets reflections charades When we do not acknowledge the complexity of culture and difference, what happens? Isolation Underrepresentation Misinformation/misunderstanding Lack of education Bullying Don’t feel safe

7.1.4. What can you do as an educator? Tribes Training Inclusion Share your personal story Building a Culturally Responsive Practice

7.2. Increasing diversity in schools

7.2.1. Diverse learners teachers attitudes and expectations universal design for learning Recognition learning Strategies learning Affective learning

7.2.2. Knowledge grows and changes cultural responsive teaching

7.2.3. Educators should know there own cultural assumptions How to inquire about students backgrounds how to develop teaching approaches and curriculum to meet needs of culturally diverse learners how to establish links across cultures

7.2.4. Aboriginal Education Multicultural Education Aboriginal Pedagogy

7.3. Introduce Aboriginal Pedagogy in your classroom

7.3.1. Acknowledge the land you reside on

7.3.2. Have a mentor come in and talk about their experiences

7.3.3. Understand why the language is declining

7.3.4. Use a talking circle

8. Week 9: End of the School Year and Standardized Assessments

8.1. Standardized Tests

8.1.1. How EQAO Tests are Created, Administered and Scored

8.1.2. In Canada • Federal • Achievement levels of 13 year olds (math, reading, and science) • Provincial/Territorial • Different uses including math and literacy testing at certain grade levels and Grade 12 exit exams

8.1.3. What are they? Contain the same questions for all test-takers • Are administered to all test-takers in same fashion • Are scored in systematic and uniform manner • Are different from teacher-made tests and aptitude tests What Types Test Types • Criterion-Referenced • Student’s score determined by comparing performance to established criteria • Norm-Referenced • Student’s score determined by comparing performance to that of other students Why have them if all students learn in different ways? Original purpose: •To assess effectiveness of instruction

8.1.4. Cristicisms Biased tests Stressful for students and teachers Emotional Side Results in teaching to the test Takes up too much time Does not enhance student learning Content of tests does not reflect instruction Environmental Side Even though standardized testing attempts to minimize confounding variables by requiring students to write in similar situations, it may be that some students are writing in situations that are significantly different from other students, for example, it might be too bright or too dark or even too cold or too hot.

8.1.5. What can we do/change about these tests? • Be based on the same curriculum framework • Address the same cognitive demands • Incorporate similar tasks • Use common standards for judging quality of work • Use same benchmarks to represent learning over time All tests are imperfect instruments ~ • Even the highest quality tests are problematic if used for improper applications

8.1.6. How to prepare students? Convey positive attitudes about testing Teach test-taking skills Simulate use of time limits during testing Familiarize students with types of questions Get motivation used Involve students in marking questions of each type

9. Behaviours become more adaptive

10. Week 2: Considering Developmental Differences

10.1. Assessment Cycle

10.1.1. Plan

10.1.2. Implement

10.1.3. Assessment

10.1.4. Report/revise

10.2. Instructional Approaches

10.2.1. -Universal Design for Learning

10.2.2. - Differentiated Instruction

10.2.3. - Response to Intervention

10.3. Development

10.3.1. Physical, cognitive, and social changes. Learning becomes more organized

10.3.2. Principles of Development Orderly progression/gradual process Periods of rapid and slow growth Quantitative and qualitative changes Individuals develop at different rates Genetics set developmental potential Environment determines potential realized

10.4. Growth Mindset Picture (can't upload picture)

10.4.1. -"you must lend an ear today, because we are the leaders of tomorrow" -kids need opportunities to lead and succeed

10.4.2. What adults can learn from kids The power of YET The power of believing that you can improve -Growth mindset is great, engaged deeply with a challenge -Fixed mindset, would probably cheat next time after a failure or look for someone who did worse to make them feel better. -Rewarded for effort, strategy and process and because of this more effort over longer period of time instead of right and wrong. -Pushing out of comfort zone, helps brain build stronger connections and over time it builds smarter children

10.4.3. -kids full of inspiration, dream about it before it is reality -kids think of good ideas not how hard it will be -adults should start learning from kids -shouldn’t just be a teacher at the front, learning goes both ways, lack of trust so we place restrictions -adults underestimate kids abilities, low expectations, supportive parents and teachers -Kids need opportunities to lead and succeed -"you must lend an ear today, because we are the leaders of tomorrow"

11. Week 1: Early August: Planning for the Upcoming School Year

11.1. Educational Psychology: Includes knowledge and methods: 9 Central topics

11.1.1. Learning and Cognition

11.1.2. Social and Cultural Influences

11.1.3. Motivation

11.1.4. Behaviour/Classroom management

11.1.5. Individual Differences

11.1.6. Assessment and Evaluation

11.1.7. Teaching and Instruction

11.1.8. Psychological Foundations of Curricula

11.2. Planning in the Classroom: To be Effective

11.2.1. 4 Commonplaces of Education 1. Teacher 2. Topic 3. Setting 4. Student

11.2.2. Multiple Approaches of Instruction Teacher centred: Teacher provides direction, content, sets tone Student centred Approach

11.3. Practice=Teaching

12. Week 4: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

12.1. Our Belief System

12.1.1. School systems are not responsible for meeting every need of their students. But when the need directly affects learning, the school must meet the challenge.

12.2. Teacher Effects Student Achievement

12.2.1. 1. Designs classroom curriculum to facilitate student learning.

12.2.2. 2. Makes wise choices about the most effective instructional strategies to employ

12.2.3. 3. Makes effective use of classroom management techniques

12.3. Controlling Instructional Variables:/Classroom Management

12.3.1. Difficulty level

12.3.2. Space

12.3.3. Time

12.3.4. Language

12.3.5.  Interpersonal relations (SEL)

12.3.6. Keys to Bump System  Proximity  Touch  Student’s Name  Gesture  The Look  The Pause  Ignore  Signal to Begin / Signal for Attention  Deal with the problem not the student

12.4. Resilient Children

12.4.1.  Good self-esteem

12.4.2.  Sense of competence

12.4.3.  Optimistic

12.4.4.  Personal control

12.4.5.  Feel connected

12.4.6.  Motivated to learn

12.4.7.  Self-disciplined

12.4.8. Tasks Difficulty level Space Time Language  Interpersonal relations (SEL)


12.5.1. Good teachers have a system

12.5.2. From the moment a student enters a classroom, the teacher is communicating, both overtly and covertly

12.5.3. The importance of the classroom environment and structure

13. Week 3: Cognitive, Behavioural, Social and Constructivist

13.1. Development: Physical, cognitive, and social changes

13.2. Learning becomes more organized

13.3. Behaviors become more adaptive

13.4. Theory/Different Ways Students Learn

13.4.1. Cognitive Thoery Schemas:(building blocks of knowledge). Adaptation processes that enable the transition from one stage to another (equilibrium, assimilation, and accommodation). Stages of Cognitive Development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational.

13.4.2. Behaviourist Theory: Your brain is like a computer: Understanding learning Contiguity and classical conditioning Operant conditioning Applied behavior analysis Putting it all together Thinking about behavior Problems and issues Diversity

13.4.3. Social-Cultural / Constructivist approach Learners are active in constructing their own personal knowledge –they actively seek meaning Social negotiating is important to knowledge construction /learning Learning includes developing skills to solve problems, think critically, answer questions, accept multiple views Self-determination is needed to further knowledge development Applications in the classroom Dialogue & Instructional Conversations Inquiry Learning Problem-based Learning Teacher and Peer Learning Cognitive Apprenticeships Collaborative Learning

13.4.4. Most Likely to Succeed https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=2&v=AYwCkCecwNY

14. Approaches for all types of learners