TEACHING, LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT

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TEACHING, LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT by Mind Map: TEACHING, LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT

1. Behaviours become more adaptive

2. Week 2: Considering Developmental Differences

2.1. Assessment Cycle

2.1.1. Plan

2.1.2. Implement

2.1.3. Assessment

2.1.4. Report/revise

2.2. Instructional Approaches

2.2.1. -Universal Design for Learning

2.2.2. - Differentiated Instruction

2.2.3. - Response to Intervention

2.3. Development

2.3.1. Physical, cognitive, and social changes. Learning becomes more organized

2.3.2. Principles of Development

2.3.2.1. Orderly progression/gradual process

2.3.2.2. Periods of rapid and slow growth

2.3.2.3. Quantitative and qualitative changes

2.3.2.4. Individuals develop at different rates

2.3.2.5. Genetics set developmental potential

2.3.2.6. Environment determines potential realized

2.4. Growth Mindset Picture (can't upload picture)

2.4.1. -"you must lend an ear today, because we are the leaders of tomorrow" -kids need opportunities to lead and succeed

2.4.2. What adults can learn from kids

2.4.2.1. The power of YET

2.4.2.1.1. The power of believing that you can improve

2.4.2.1.2. -Growth mindset is great, engaged deeply with a challenge -Fixed mindset, would probably cheat next time after a failure or look for someone who did worse to make them feel better. -Rewarded for effort, strategy and process and because of this more effort over longer period of time instead of right and wrong. -Pushing out of comfort zone, helps brain build stronger connections and over time it builds smarter children

2.4.3. -kids full of inspiration, dream about it before it is reality -kids think of good ideas not how hard it will be -adults should start learning from kids -shouldn’t just be a teacher at the front, learning goes both ways, lack of trust so we place restrictions -adults underestimate kids abilities, low expectations, supportive parents and teachers -Kids need opportunities to lead and succeed

2.4.3.1. -"you must lend an ear today, because we are the leaders of tomorrow"

3. Week 1: Early August: Planning for the Upcoming School Year

3.1. Educational Psychology: Includes knowledge and methods: 9 Central topics

3.1.1. Learning and Cognition

3.1.2. Social and Cultural Influences

3.1.3. Motivation

3.1.4. Behaviour/Classroom management

3.1.5. Individual Differences

3.1.6. Assessment and Evaluation

3.1.7. Teaching and Instruction

3.1.8. Psychological Foundations of Curricula

3.2. Planning in the Classroom: To be Effective

3.2.1. 4 Commonplaces of Education

3.2.1.1. 1. Teacher

3.2.1.2. 2. Topic

3.2.1.3. 3. Setting

3.2.1.4. 4. Student

3.2.2. Multiple Approaches of Instruction

3.2.2.1. Teacher centred: Teacher provides direction, content, sets tone

3.2.2.2. Student centred Approach

3.3. Practice=Teaching

4. Developmental Appropriateness

5. Week 4: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

5.1. Our Belief System

5.1.1. School systems are not responsible for meeting every need of their students. But when the need directly affects learning, the school must meet the challenge.

5.2. Teacher Effects Student Achievement

5.2.1. 1. Designs classroom curriculum to facilitate student learning.

5.2.2. 2. Makes wise choices about the most effective instructional strategies to employ

5.2.3. 3. Makes effective use of classroom management techniques

5.3. Controlling Instructional Variables:/Classroom Management

5.3.1. Difficulty level

5.3.2. Space

5.3.3. Time

5.3.4. Language

5.3.5.  Interpersonal relations (SEL)

5.3.6. Keys to Bump System

5.3.6.1.  Proximity

5.3.6.2.  Touch

5.3.6.3.  Student’s Name

5.3.6.4.  Gesture

5.3.6.5.  The Look

5.3.6.6.  The Pause

5.3.6.7.  Ignore

5.3.6.8.  Signal to Begin / Signal for Attention

5.3.6.9.  Deal with the problem not the student

5.4. Resilient Children

5.4.1.  Good self-esteem

5.4.2.  Sense of competence

5.4.3.  Optimistic

5.4.4.  Personal control

5.4.5.  Feel connected

5.4.6.  Motivated to learn

5.4.7.  Self-disciplined

5.4.8. Tasks

5.4.8.1. Difficulty level

5.4.8.2. Space

5.4.8.3. Time

5.4.8.4. Language

5.4.8.5.  Interpersonal relations (SEL)

5.5. EFFECTIVE TEACHING MAY BE THE HARDEST JOB THERE IS. William Glasser

5.5.1. Good teachers have a system

5.5.2. From the moment a student enters a classroom, the teacher is communicating, both overtly and covertly

5.5.3. The importance of the classroom environment and structure

6. Week 3: Cognitive, Behavioural, Social and Constructivist

6.1. Development: Physical, cognitive, and social changes

6.2. Learning becomes more organized

6.3. Behaviors become more adaptive

6.4. Theory/Different Ways Students Learn

6.4.1. Cognitive Thoery

6.4.1.1. Schemas:(building blocks of knowledge).

6.4.1.2. Adaptation processes that enable the transition from one stage to another (equilibrium, assimilation, and accommodation).

6.4.1.3. Stages of Cognitive Development:

6.4.1.3.1. sensorimotor,

6.4.1.3.2. preoperational,

6.4.1.3.3. concrete operational,

6.4.1.3.4. formal operational.

6.4.2. Behaviourist Theory: Your brain is like a computer:

6.4.2.1. Understanding learning

6.4.2.2. Contiguity and classical conditioning

6.4.2.3. Operant conditioning

6.4.2.4. Applied behavior analysis

6.4.2.5. Putting it all together

6.4.2.6. Thinking about behavior

6.4.2.7. Problems and issues

6.4.2.8. Diversity

6.4.3. Social-Cultural / Constructivist approach

6.4.3.1. Learners are active in constructing their own personal knowledge –they actively seek meaning

6.4.3.2. Social negotiating is important to knowledge construction /learning

6.4.3.3. Learning includes developing skills to solve problems, think critically, answer questions, accept multiple views

6.4.3.4. Self-determination is needed to further knowledge development

6.4.3.5. Applications in the classroom

6.4.3.5.1. Dialogue & Instructional

6.4.3.5.2. Conversations

6.4.3.5.3. Inquiry Learning

6.4.3.5.4. Problem-based Learning

6.4.3.5.5. Teacher and Peer Learning

6.4.3.5.6. Cognitive Apprenticeships

6.4.3.5.7. Collaborative Learning

6.4.4. Most Likely to Succeed

6.4.4.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=2&v=AYwCkCecwNY

7. Approaches for all types of learners

8. Week 5: Making Instructional Decisions

8.1. Developing an overall approach to instruction

8.1.1. Motivating Students to Learn

8.1.1.1. Challenging and meaningful tasks

8.1.1.2. Being able to effectively use learning

8.1.1.3. strategies

8.1.1.4. Having teacher support

8.1.1.5. Being required to demonstrate knowledge

8.1.1.6. Feeling that the teacher cares for them

8.2. Meaningful instruction

8.3. Specialized instructional strategies

8.3.1. Universal Instructional Design

8.3.1.1. designed and delivered with the needs of the least independently able students in mind .

8.3.1.2. 3 Primary Principles

8.3.1.2.1. 1. Provide Multiple Means of Representation PerceptionLanguage, expressions, and symbolsComprehension

8.3.1.2.2. 2. Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression Physical actionExpression and communication Executive function

8.3.1.2.3. 3. Provide Multiple Means of Engagement Recruiting interestSustaining effort and persistence Self-regulation

8.3.1.3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=NLENqU4hPJU

8.3.2. How students Learn

8.3.2.1. Knowledge-Centredness

8.3.2.2. Learner-Centeredness

8.3.2.3. Community-Centredness

8.3.2.4. Assessment-Centredness

8.4. Examination of Practices to Effectively Engage all Students

8.4.1. Support and Challenge

8.5. Examination of Effective Classroom Environments

8.5.1. Developmentally Appropriate schools

8.5.1.1. Child as Explorer Have active learners More playful learning (guided play) Whole child approach -- brains and heart Integrated curricula

8.5.2. Direct instruction schools

8.5.2.1.  Child as empty vessel metaphor More passive learners Learning is more compartmentalized,

8.5.3. Teaching to make critical learners

8.6. Bloom’s Taxonomy • Six levels

8.6.1. • Hierarchical classification of cognitive learning objectives

8.6.1.1. 1. Knowledge

8.6.1.2. 2. Comprehension

8.6.1.3. 3. Application

8.6.1.4. 4. Analysis

8.6.1.5. 5. Synthesis

8.6.1.6. 6. Evaluation

9. teaching=practice

10. Cognitive Verbs for Learning Objectives

10.1. 1. Remembering

10.2. 2. Understanding

10.3. 3. Applying

10.4. 4. Analyzing

10.5. 5. Creating

10.6. 6. Evaluating

11. Week 6: Knowing that the Students Know and Making Education Meaningful by helping Students become lifelong learners and critical thinkers.

11.1. Design Framework

11.1.1. 1. Focus on teaching and assessing for understanding and learning transfer

11.1.2. 2. Design curriculum backward from those ends

11.2. Integrated Learning in the Classroom

11.2.1. an emphasis on backward planning from student needs/interests

11.2.2. a combination of subjects

11.2.3. a focus on relationships among concepts

11.2.4. an emphasis on projects/tasks

11.2.5. flexible scheduling/flexible student groupings

11.2.6. use of authentic sources that go beyond textbooks

11.2.7. Guidelines

11.2.7.1. Think Big

11.2.7.2. Think real-world

11.2.7.3. Think broad

11.2.8. 7 Principles

11.2.8.1. 1. Learning is enhanced when teacher thing purposefully about curriculum planning

11.2.8.2. 2. Focus curriculum and teaching on the development and deepening of student understanding

11.2.8.3. 3. Understanding is revealed when students autonomously make sense of and transfer their learning through authentic performance. (Capacity to explain, interpret, apply, shift perspective, empathize, and self assess)

11.2.8.4. 4. Curriculum is most effective when planned backward from long-term desired results through a three-stage design process (Desired Results, Evidence, and Learning Plan).

11.2.8.5. 5. Teachers are coaches of understanding not just transferring knowledge, skill or activity

11.2.8.6. 6. Regularly reviewing units and curriculum against design standards enhances curricular quality and effectiveness, provides engaging and professional discussions

11.2.8.7. 7. Reflects a continual improvement approach to student achievement and teacher craft

11.3. Learner Centred

11.3.1. Students construct new knowledge by building on prior knowledge

11.4. Knowledge Centred

11.4.1. Teachers helps to build that bridge from prior knowledge to new knowledge

11.4.1.1. Foster understanding and skill building.

11.4.1.2. Encourage experimentation and discovery.

11.4.1.3. Students ask questions, and share their ideas.

11.4.1.4. Students organize knowledge and apply concepts to new situations.

11.4.2. TEDxPhilly - Chris Lehmann - Education is broken

11.5. Making Education Meaningful by helping Students become lifelong learners and critical thinkers.

11.6. Assessment Centred

11.6.1. Emphasize concepts behind knowledge instead of relying heavily on memorization of facts. Guide students in becoming "lifelong learners."

11.6.1.1. Reinforce student organization of knowledge.

11.6.1.2. Build metacognition and self assessment skills.

11.6.1.3. Gauge what knowledge has been gained.

11.6.1.4. Give opportunity for demonstrating improvement.

11.6.2. Amazing Grace Middle School STEM Bridge Project Team Sister 2 Sister, November 2012

11.7. Community Centred

11.7.1. Respectful learning environments where individual ideas are welcomed.

11.7.2. It is okay to not know a correct answer.

11.7.3. Focus on mastering content.

11.7.4. Enable students to learn on their own.

11.7.5. Improve upon on students’ abilities to solve complex problems.

11.7.6. How to Teach Math as a Social Activity

12. Week 7: Individual Differences-Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

12.1. Models for working with Exceptional Pupils

12.1.1. Schools, systems, and communities, assistive technology, other professionals in education, special education plans and the Special Education Advisory Committee

12.1.1.1. One is not sufficient to understand the whole child - 360 degree approach

12.1.2. Big ideas- Focus on the trifecta of support (triangle) - school, systems, and communities - student in the middle.

12.1.3. tensions between the social model of disability

12.1.4. A laminated system whereby we draw information from multiple facets, including the medical model, social model, cultural model

12.2. Our belief systems

12.3. Individual Differences

12.3.1. Individual Differences

12.3.1.1. Labelling

12.3.1.1.1. What are the advantages of and problems with labels?

12.3.1.1.2. What is the difference between a disability and a handicap?

12.3.1.1.3. What is peoples-first language?

12.3.1.1.4. Do your friends, family members, professors… did you associate

12.3.1.2. Labeling Exceptional Students

12.3.1.2.1. Disability = inability to do something

12.3.1.2.2. Handicap = a disadvantage in certain situations

12.3.2. How can we include children with exceptionalities?

12.3.2.1. Including Students with Exceptionalities By Dr. Sheila Bennett

12.3.2.1.1. • Focus on Inclusion rather than integration and mainstreaming, normalization • Principals and admin play a huge role - extra training beneficial • pre-school - better to be integrated for students with exceptionalities • students in inclusive settings are shown to perform better on academic measures as well as on measures of social competences • Examine your own beliefs, work with the school team including the student, use a variety of instructional methods including differentiated instruction and universal design, extend inclusion to the whole school

12.3.3. Do schools kill creativity?

12.4. Intelligence

12.4.1. No agreed definition

12.4.1.1. 1. Ability to learn from experience

12.4.1.2. 2. Ability to adapt to ones environment

12.4.1.3. 3. Ability to know about and control ones' own thinking

12.4.2. Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI)

12.4.2.1. verbal/linguistic

12.4.2.2. logical/mathematical

12.4.2.3. visual/spatial

12.4.2.4. musical/rhythmic

12.4.2.5. bodily/kinaesthetic

12.4.2.6. interpersonal

12.4.2.7. intrapersonal

12.4.2.8. naturalist

12.4.3. How can we measure this?

12.4.3.1. Standardized Aptitude and Achievement Tests

12.4.3.1.1. What about exceptionalities?

12.4.3.1.2. We can dream....

12.4.3.1.3. School Processes for identification and support

12.4.4. Physical vs Cognitive Access

12.4.4.1. Physical - sensory and motor access - ability to see text and images, hear sound and speech and manipulate materials and expressive tools. Individuals with physical or sensory disabilities may encounter barriers when using traditional materials such as books

12.4.4.2. Cognitive - understand assignments, plan and execute approaches to tasks, use materials effectively, comprehend content presented in carious media, organize work, understand and use feedback, and express ideas effectively

13. Week 8: Socio-Cultural Considerations

13.1. Narrowing Gaps Between Best Pedagogical Practices Benefiting All Learners

13.1.1. Sharing Personal Stories

13.1.1.1. Very important in the classroom

13.1.1.1.1. PART of Aboriginal Pedagogy

13.1.1.2. The equity lens

13.1.1.3. The airplane game: Who would you sit beside?

13.1.1.4. Shows we should leave our bias

13.1.1.5. In London they have the child youth network

13.1.1.6. Eliminating poverty

13.1.1.7. Allow people the time to tell their stories

13.1.2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=_uOncGZWxDc

13.1.3. Learning how to involve children's culture but not single them out

13.1.3.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=D9Ihs241zeg

13.1.3.2. How can we integrate specific life experiences/ diff backgrounds of students into daily instruction

13.1.3.2.1. Cultural can be empresses: pot lucks with different cultural foods

13.1.3.2.2. Coat of arms on the walls

13.1.3.2.3. Flags on the walls

13.1.3.2.4. Class discussions

13.1.3.2.5. Projects on cultures we don't know

13.1.3.2.6. Venn diagrams

13.1.3.2.7. Charades

13.1.3.2.8. Involving parents

13.1.3.2.9. Bringing mentors in

13.1.3.3. Access the impact on student leaning achievement

13.1.3.3.1. audio evaluation

13.1.3.3.2. exit tickets

13.1.3.3.3. reflections

13.1.3.3.4. charades

13.1.3.4. When we do not acknowledge the complexity of culture and difference, what happens?

13.1.3.4.1. Isolation

13.1.3.4.2. Underrepresentation

13.1.3.4.3. Misinformation/misunderstanding

13.1.3.4.4. Lack of education

13.1.3.4.5. Bullying

13.1.3.4.6. Don’t feel safe

13.1.4. What can you do as an educator?

13.1.4.1. Tribes Training

13.1.4.1.1. Inclusion

13.1.4.1.2. Share your personal story

13.1.4.2. Building a Culturally Responsive Practice

13.2. Increasing diversity in schools

13.2.1. Diverse learners

13.2.1.1. teachers attitudes and expectations

13.2.1.2. universal design for learning

13.2.1.3. Recognition learning

13.2.1.4. Strategies learning

13.2.1.5. Affective learning

13.2.2. Knowledge

13.2.2.1. grows and changes

13.2.2.2. cultural responsive teaching

13.2.3. Educators should know

13.2.3.1. there own cultural assumptions

13.2.3.2. How to inquire about students backgrounds

13.2.3.3. how to develop teaching approaches and curriculum to meet needs of culturally diverse learners

13.2.3.4. how to establish links across cultures

13.2.4. Aboriginal Education

13.2.4.1. Multicultural Education

13.2.4.2. Aboriginal Pedagogy

13.3. Introduce Aboriginal Pedagogy in your classroom

13.3.1. Acknowledge the land you reside on

13.3.2. Have a mentor come in and talk about their experiences

13.3.3. Understand why the language is declining

13.3.4. Use a talking circle

14. Week 9: End of the School Year and Standardized Assessments

14.1. Standardized Tests

14.1.1. How EQAO Tests are Created, Administered and Scored

14.1.2. In Canada

14.1.2.1. • Federal

14.1.2.1.1. • Achievement levels of 13 year olds (math, reading, and science)

14.1.2.2. • Provincial/Territorial

14.1.2.2.1. • Different uses including math and literacy testing at certain grade levels and Grade 12 exit exams

14.1.3. What are they?

14.1.3.1. Contain the same questions for all test-takers • Are administered to all test-takers in same fashion • Are scored in systematic and uniform manner • Are different from teacher-made tests and aptitude tests

14.1.3.2. What Types

14.1.3.2.1. Test Types • Criterion-Referenced • Student’s score determined by comparing performance to established criteria • Norm-Referenced • Student’s score determined by comparing performance to that of other students

14.1.3.3. Why have them if all students learn in different ways?

14.1.3.3.1. Original purpose: •To assess effectiveness of instruction

14.1.4. Cristicisms

14.1.4.1. Biased tests

14.1.4.2. Stressful for students and teachers

14.1.4.2.1. Emotional Side

14.1.4.3. Results in teaching to the test

14.1.4.4. Takes up too much time

14.1.4.5. Does not enhance student learning

14.1.4.6. Content of tests does not reflect instruction

14.1.4.7. Environmental Side

14.1.4.7.1. Even though standardized testing attempts to minimize confounding variables by requiring students to write in similar situations, it may be that some students are writing in situations that are significantly different from other students, for example, it might be too bright or too dark or even too cold or too hot.

14.1.5. What can we do/change about these tests?

14.1.5.1. • Be based on the same curriculum framework • Address the same cognitive demands • Incorporate similar tasks • Use common standards for judging quality of work • Use same benchmarks to represent learning over time

14.1.5.2. All tests are imperfect instruments ~ • Even the highest quality tests are problematic if used for improper applications

14.1.6. How to prepare students?

14.1.6.1. Convey positive attitudes about testing

14.1.6.2. Teach test-taking skills

14.1.6.3. Simulate use of time limits during testing

14.1.6.4. Familiarize students with types of questions

14.1.6.4.1. Get motivation

14.1.6.5. used

14.1.6.6. Involve students in marking questions of

14.1.6.7. each type