Teaching, Learning and Developping

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Teaching, Learning and Developping by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning and Developping

1. lecture 3: Views of Learning

1.1. Behaviourist Approach

1.1.1. First Approach

1.1.2. Behavior can be learned and unlearned Deconstruction/redirection of "bad" beahavior vs. positive reinforcement of "good" behavior Pavlov's dog stimulus - response training/associations with time, effort, consistency Positive reinforcements vs. negative reinforcements Positive punishments vs. negative punishments John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner

1.1.3. focuses on observational research methods the human response to environmental/external stimuli ignores internal/mental processes that cannot be directly observed Actions > thoughts

1.1.4. Knowledge takes places when learning is broken down into smaller, more understandable portions of the whole learning is mechanical and systematic repition

1.2. Cognitive Approach

1.2.1. post behavioural

1.2.2. focuses on the human mind and the processes within the brain (physiological psych) thinking, problem solving, memory processes, abstraction, reflection The ability to use language emphasis on memorization and compartmentalization of information stored and accessible in the brain the students are active in the learning process, both physically and mentally

1.2.3. meta-cognition the ability to monitor and become aware of the internal processes involved and underlying learning and knowledge acquisition/recall Thoughts are the precursor to behaviours

1.2.4. Emphasis on HOW information is processed and accessed Focus on understanding the connections between concepts, breaking information down into smaller sub parts, subsequently reconstruction more logical connections amongst different disciplines to better retain new information Change in mental structures and processes

1.3. Social-Cultural/Constructivist Approach

1.3.1. most modern approach

1.3.2. Kids are not like blank slates With them comes prior knowledge, expereinces and memories that must be used and added upon Encourages the creation of meaningful relationships between topics, situations, and expereinces

1.3.3. Encourages an active participation in knowledge acquisition Engagement Creation of multiple real worlds to depict the complexity of the actual world we live in Role playing Challenging students to ask questions Answering their own questions eventually Reformulation of presuppositions Promotes higher order thinking problem solving and reasoning Thoughtful relexion on prior experiences making sense of the world

1.3.4. Piaget Learners CREATE knowledge for themselves Teachers are facilitators not creators Everyone goes through similar developemental stages aroung similar times

1.4. Tell me, and I forget. Teach me, and I remember. Involve me, and I learn!

1.5. Article: Who am I and who are my people?

1.5.1. Identity: Identity is defined as a set of caracteristics we become known as Identity is shaped by cultural context and events we undergo Identity is fliud over time

1.5.2. Levels: Micro Where we feel most ourselves physical/tangible changes Where is home? Discovery of new vs. recognition of the old Meso Where we are asked who we are and being consequently placed into categories School, workplace, streets etc. Comparisons with other people It is possible to have a foot in two different standings, which can be very confusing/challenging to have a sense of belonging in either category Macro Broad categories globally accepted to create social order Race, sex, gender, religion

2. Lecture 4: Establishing a positive learning environment

2.1. Cockpit analogy

2.1.1. Education is bound to fail if it is created and orchestrated for the "average" learner learning environments designed for the average = designed for no body Even the tallest and brightest will fail because they are not motivated or challenged thus making their innate advantage a behavioural liability Weaknesses will surpass talents in observations

2.1.2. the curriculum should and must be designed for the extremes on the spectrum, just as the cockpit needed to be designed for the shortest and tallest people

2.1.3. Differentiated learning = adjustable seats Education has gone digital because of its ability to adapt to learners who struggle in one aspect that overcomes their talents EG: if a student can't read but is amazing at math, he will fail a word problem because he can't read, not because he can't solve the problem Ipads: translation, vocal recordings, reading pronunciation, reading a passage etc. "School systems are not responsible for meeting every need of their students. But when the need directly affects learning, the school must meet the challenge. "

2.2. Intrinsic motivation> skills > academic content

2.2.1. learning will not happen if there is no relationship or if they do not feel safe in the classroom

2.3. Happy medium between the following three elements of classroom enirvonments

2.3.1. 1. Classroom management/expectation Expectations must be clearly set out from day 1, and maintained. Maintain engagement by always keeping kids busy and on a task that is representative and attainable based on their abilities

2.3.2. 2. Wise choices about the instructional strategies used behavior based: can the class handle a collaborative excercise today or are they too hyper Is this topic challenging enough that multiple opinions will help them grasp the concept ( student created prompts) student-centered learning students take responsibility for their goals and self-evaluation and self-assessment throughout learning process students make decisions and take responsibility for their own learning Gradual release of responsibility Horse story: You can't make a horse drink water, but you can salt his oats.

2.3.3. 3. Curriculum is tailor made to student needs revolves around extensive planning and adaptations year to year graphic organizers homework and higher order thinking questions job embedded tasks applicable to real life

2.4. Do you foster well being in the classroom?

2.4.1. Language used?

2.4.2. Time management?

2.4.3. How is the space in your classroom used?

2.4.4. Are all children challenged optimally?

2.4.5. Are you taking the time and putting in the effort to create interpersonal relations/connections with each and every student?

3. Lecture 5: Making Instructional Decisions

3.1. Provide multiple means of representations

3.2. Provide multiple means of engagement

3.3. provide multiple means of action and expression

3.4. Blooms taxonomy of cognitive skills

3.4.1. Knowledge

3.4.2. Comprehension

3.4.3. Application

3.4.4. Analysis

3.4.5. Synthesis

3.4.6. Evaluation

3.5. How to motivate students to learn?

3.5.1. Challenging and meaningful tasks

3.5.2. Teacher support and teacher relationships The teacher must make kids aware that she/he cares about them

3.5.3. The ability to effectively apply learning dstrategies and knowledge acquisition to real life situations If a child says they are learning a topic because they have a test on Friday, the teacher has failed in instruction demonstration of knowledge

3.5.4. Applications of Constructivist-based classrooms Dialogue and role play Inquiry-based learning Asking questions and answering them yourself to promote student learning Problem-solving and higher order thinking exploration, invention, application Teacher is the facilitator Student is the creator, identifier, data collector etc. of the problem/question Reciprocated learning Bet ween the teacher and the student Collaborative group work and learning

3.5.5. Well planned lessons

3.5.6. "If they don't learn the way you teach ....... teach the way they learn"

3.6. SOI Information-Processing Model

3.6.1. Select relevant information

3.6.2. Organize Information

3.6.3. Integrate the organized information with prior knowledge

3.7. A good thinker does the following:

3.7.1. Easily accessbile and well-trained long and short-term memories

3.7.2. Has developed significant meta-cognitive skills

3.7.3. Uses cognitive strategies effectively and accurately

4. Lecture 7: Individual Differences

4.1. education kills creativity

4.1.1. Creativity is as important as litterature

4.1.2. children are born with the capacity to imagine the unimaginable They are not afraid of being wrong, making mistakes or taking chances If someone is not prepared to make mistakes, they will never make something original

4.1.3. "Every child is an artist. The problem is how to remain an artist once we grow up." - Pablo Picasso

4.1.4. post industrialization: the public system is university directed What skills will get you a job? (math/science>> Drama/Dance) Education becomes waist up: a sense of disembodiment Creates similar thinking robots

4.2. What is Intelligence?

4.2.1. Multiple Intelligences: visual, naturalistic, kinaesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, mathematical/logical, musical, linguistic/verbal.

4.2.2. The ability to think critically and problem solve

4.2.3. The application of prior knowledge to current situations/knowledge acquistion

4.2.4. self-awareness

4.2.5. malleable and growing/changing

4.3. disability vs. Handicap

4.3.1. A disability insinuates an inability to accomplish something

4.3.2. A handicap only means a disadvantage in certain situations, but not all.

4.3.3. People first language A child must be the primary focus of the sentence rather than his or her handicap

4.4. IEP's

4.4.1. accomodations "Schools are responsible to address the need if it affects the learning, but they aren't responsible to meet every need"

4.4.2. trifecta of support: community, family, school secondary trifecta: medical, social, cultural.

4.4.3. IEP's do not mean that a student doesn't need to be challenged exceptionalities should be embraced and utilized, not medicated or hindered

5. Lecture 6: Knowing that the Students know

5.1. Differenciated Learning

5.2. Learner centered

5.2.1. Children learn new material by building upon what they already know and what they've already experienced

5.2.2. Important for a teacher to know where her students come from and what their prior knowledge and experiences may be cultural socio-economic class family life Student profiles

5.2.3. Concepts behind knowledge >>> memorization meta-cognition compartmentalization demonstration and examples of application of knowledge in real life situations interdisciplinary/cross-discipline projects are beneficial to retention of topics/concepts story telling as an instructional tool

5.3. Knowledge Centered

5.3.1. Teacher must build bridges to facilitate connections between past and new knowledge

5.4. Ted talk (Chris Lehmann)

5.4.1. Kids don't know why they're learning what they're learning

5.4.2. High school stinks Repetitive and redundant

5.4.3. Learning something because someone told me I hd to and it had to be this way

5.4.4. School should teach us how to learn, to open our minds to critical thinking School should teach us how to live and should be a cathedral

5.4.5. Every new idea is a new way to look at the world, a new lens

5.5. Integrated Learning

5.5.1. Think Big open-mindedness big picture mentality clustering expectations

5.5.2. Think Real world Engagement is increased when students are urged to answer their own questions about topics they are interested in co-contstruction of units/lessons/topic instruction/assessment multi-purpose tasks preparation for the "real world"

5.5.3. Think Broad context about literacy difficulty of communication in a text-centered world 4 roles of literate learner + student data Analyze a variety of texts from a variety of disciplines

6. lecture 2: Considering Developmental Differences

6.1. Teacher mindset

6.1.1. Growth mindset Intelligence can be developped the brain is malleable and trainable embrace challenges and see effort as a learning path learn from criticism and grow from mistakes Greater sense of free will

6.1.2. Fixed Mindset

6.2. Teacher preperation

6.2.1. Benefits of collecting information before the school year begins facilitates and influences the planning process, tailoring it to the specific kids you will be receiving that year 3 Instructional Approaches 1. Universal Design for learning 2. Differenciated learning 3. Response to Intervention

6.2.2. practice = teaching

6.2.3. Planning What subject teaching methods When How to asses to create postitive learning environment

6.3. Student Developpement

6.3.1. Gradual progress: Rapid and slow growth

6.3.2. Quantitative and qualitative changes

6.3.3. genetic predispositions

6.3.4. Environment/social and economic standing

6.3.5. higher order executive functioning The prefrontal cortex takes 20 years to become fully developped the prefrontal cortex is responsible for decision making, goal setting, cognition, processing, risk taking This development/lack there of must be taken into account when dealing with children under the age of 20 Adorak Svitak Video Children are able to dream big, with little to no fear of failure or embarassement, which enables and promotes creativity Because of their willingness to dream and imagine, they have the capacity to create the unexpected Reciprocated learning

7. Lecture 1: Planning for the Upcoming School Year

7.1. educational psychology

7.1.1. Goal: To improove teaching and learning processes

7.1.2. Schwab's four common places of education Teacher student Topic Setting

7.1.3. Method: Uses knowledge and psychology disciplines to study teaching and learning Research methods Qualitative Quantitative

7.2. Approaches

7.2.1. Student-centered Constructivist approach to education, allowing students to actively participe in the knowledge acquisition, constructing their knowledge while drawing from past experiences

7.2.2. Teacher-centered The teacher determines the content and direction of education all whilst setting the desired academic tone and goals for his/her class.

7.3. Caracteristics of an effective teacher

7.3.1. Openmindedness

7.3.2. self-enquiry

7.3.3. ethical responsibility

7.3.4. the ability to analyse and reflect on their practice

7.3.5. The ability to assess how effective their practice is and make the necessary changes

7.3.6. Designing innovative, authentic tasks

7.3.7. Extensive planning prior to the first day of school to be prepared for the students you are receiving as well as the lesson planning component promotes exemplary environments enables excellent instruction enhances learning

8. Lecture 8: Socio-Cultural Considerations

8.1. accepting, embracing, and understanding diversity is most efficient to benefitting from multi-culturalism.

8.1.1. 3 ways of addressing a new culture: 1. Confronting: your own beliefs and your own culture is the best 2. Complaining: promotes isolation, confusion, and segregation 3. Conforming: adapting, learning, observing, and benefitting from another culture

8.2. Boards are 35% more effective if they have representatives from a wide variety of cultures

8.2.1. a culturally diverse community where all are valued and understood promotes creativity and good communication

8.2.2. Understanding the cultural lens by which people perceive emotions and events is key to beneficial relationships.

8.3. stereotypes aren't necessarily wrong, but they're incomplete

8.3.1. Basing knowledge about a community of a single stereotype results in ignorance and innaccuracy

8.4. The danger of a single story: believing that one person is representative of an entire society/culture

8.4.1. it is extremely important to engage in all the versions of a story so as to not rob people/communities of their dignity. Be weary of media coverage, that tends to be bias.

8.4.2. try approaching an otherwise common story in a secondary rhetoric. EG: failure of African states rather than the colonization of African countries.

8.5. Culturally responsive pedagogical tools

8.5.1. learning centers arranged for optimal space use

8.5.2. multiple libraries from multiple authors instruments

8.5.3. clear rules, protocols, procedures

8.5.4. Print rich environment posters student artwork/projects artwork colourful spaces

9. Lecture 9: End of the School Year

9.1. Standardized tests

9.1.1. Original purpose: To assess effectiveness of Instruction OFIP: Ontario focus intervention partnership If your school does do well and believe this to be true, what should we do?

9.1.2. Pros Universal testing/assessment on academic achievements Where are we provincially and federally? Ability to compare generational achievements between different years Scored in a systematic and uniform manner Special ed and special needs students are given accomodations Equality when applying to universities Some schools may mark easier and give their students and unfair, unwarranted advantage when applying to universities Should be a diagnostic assessment that is used for applications, but not the end all test that makes you succeed or fail Diagnostic tool for teachers, boards and children The ability for a teacher to assess how they are teaching their students based on board/educational system requirements A child's ability to note how they ae doing academically compared to their fellow classmates, and others around the world their age For boards, when they are able to see how each teacher is preforming and how each school is preforming compared to others in their board and across other boards as well Prepares children for the strict, high pressure real world from a young age Allowing children to work at their own pace and to give them adaptations and accomodations does not mean they won't eventually need to be able to preform at a certain level Everyone will eventually and should eventually need to know the information on these tests if they are to "pass" them.

9.1.3. Cons Linguistic and culture based unmalleable and designed for a specific class, race, linguistic competencies Does not include enough adaptations for special needs children or exceptionalities High stress for children Time consumming For both the teacher, who must teach and dedicate an enormous amount of time to teaching tailor made lessons to the kinds of questions that will be found on the test For the children: EQAO is 3-5 days of testing Single testing, does not take into account external factors Classroom environement Emotional factor Health factor