Teaching, Learning and Development Mind Map

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Teaching, Learning and Development Mind Map by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning and Development Mind Map

1. Chapter 1: Planning for the Upcoming School Year

1.1. Reflective Practice

1.1.1. One of the most fundamental practices in education. Teachers are unable to improve with reflection. This is an key point in my personal teaching philosophy

1.2. Education Psychology

1.2.1. Quantitative

1.2.2. Qualitative

1.2.3. 9 Topics

1.2.3.1. Learning and Cognition

1.2.3.2. Development

1.2.3.3. Social and cultural influences

1.2.3.4. Motivation

1.2.3.5. Behaviour and classroom managment

1.2.3.6. individual differences

1.2.3.7. assessment and evaluation

1.2.3.8. Teacher and instruction

1.2.3.9. Psychological foundations of curricula

1.3. Process of conducting research

1.3.1. Step 2 - Formation of Questions

1.3.2. Step 1 - Observation of Phenomena

1.3.3. Step 3 - Application of research methods

1.3.4. Step 4 - Development of Guiding Principles

1.3.5. Step 5 - Development of Theories

1.4. Planning

1.4.1. Benifits

1.4.1.1. Excellent instruction

1.4.1.2. Student learning

1.4.1.3. Quality environment

1.4.2. Plan

1.4.3. Implement

1.4.4. Assessment

1.4.5. Report/revise

1.4.6. Planning for the new school year is important and has a lot on benefits. Student files is a good resource to use when developing classroom environment, however it is important to not allow the student files to cloud your student observations in the beginning of the school year.

2. Chapter 2: Considering Developmental Differences

2.1. Influential Developmental Theorist

2.1.1. Piaget

2.1.1.1. Stages of development

2.1.1.1.1. Sensorimotor (infant)

2.1.1.1.2. Preoperational (toddlerhood)

2.1.1.1.3. Concrete operational (7-12)

2.1.1.1.4. Formal operational (adult)

2.1.2. "Development involves quantitative and qualitative changes" (38).

2.1.3. Vygotsky

2.1.3.1. ZPD

2.1.3.2. Scaffolding

2.1.3.3. Many childcare's today use Vygotsky's theory in their curriculum/practice. Vygotsky theory resonates with me because I implemented his theories in my practice as an early childhood educator.

2.1.4. Chomsky

2.1.4.1. Language-acquisition device (LAD)

2.1.5. Erikson

2.1.5.1. Eight stages of psychosocial development

2.1.6. Kohlberg

2.1.6.1. Stages of Moral Reasoning

2.1.7. Bronfenbrenner

2.1.7.1. Ecological theory

2.1.8. Our image of the child plays a large role in teaching. The image of the child "is a phrase used by the Reggio Emilia philosophy of early childhood education. It refers to what a person or group of people, believe, understand, and assume about the role of children in education and society (Martalock, 2012). Viewing the child as "innocent" or not capable beings influences teaching to restrict them from growing, learning and developing.

2.1.8.1. What adults can learn from kids | Adora Svitak

2.2. Development

2.2.1. "Development is a gradually progressive process" (38).

2.2.2. Principles of Development

2.2.2.1. "Development follows an ordinary and logical progression" (38).

2.2.2.2. "Individuals develop at different rates" (39).

2.2.2.3. "Development results from the combinatorial influences of genetics (nature) and the environment (nurture)" (39).

2.2.3. For Annette this is important because her classroom has a wide rage of ages. It allows her to effectively plan to provide quality education for all students.

2.2.4. Important for educators to understand to provide effect teaching practice.

2.2.5. Physical

2.2.6. Cognitive

2.2.7. Social

3. Chapter 3: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

3.1. Classroom Managment

3.1.1. essential to quality learning environment

3.1.2. Dynamic Classroom Management (DCM)

3.1.2.1. Five Principles

3.1.2.1.1. "Develop caring, supportive relationships with students" (78)

3.1.2.1.2. "Organize and implement instruction in ways that optimize students' access to learning" (78)

3.1.2.1.3. "Use group management methods that encourage students' engagement in academic tasks" (78)

3.1.2.1.4. "Promote the development of students' social skills and self-regulation" (78)

3.1.2.1.5. "Use appropriate interventions to assist students with behaviour problems" (78)

3.1.2.2. Three Fundamental Understandings DCM

3.1.2.2.1. Positive behaviour support

3.1.2.2.2. Classroom discourse research

3.1.2.2.3. Student assistance

3.1.3. Being proactive, before behaviour issues occur.

3.1.4. effective teaching and learning cannot occur without properly managed classroom.

3.1.5. goal of classroom management - provide all students with optimum opportunities for learning

3.2. ADHD

3.2.1. Aware their behaviour and the problems their actions create.

3.2.2. No control over their actions

3.2.3. "How should a student be treated differently because of ADHD but also be treated fairly?" (103)

3.2.4. Important to support students and have strategies in place.

3.3. Expectations

3.3.1. It is important to establish expectations on the first day of school to be proactive

3.3.2. Annette divides the class into primary, junior and senior "because she wants to be sure that what she says to the students about the classroom behaviour suits their level of language and comprehension skills" (84)

3.3.2.1. Annette sets the expectations to be developmentally appropriate for each student. She includes the older students in the process to have a sense of ownership of their expectations.

3.3.3. Displaying classroom expectations for all to reference too is good classroom management and continue to reference to them.

3.4. Learning Theories

3.4.1. Cognitive approach

3.4.2. Behavourist approach

3.4.3. Social-Cultural / Constructivist approach

3.5. Behaviour

3.5.1. Every behaviour has a reason

3.5.1.1. home

3.5.1.2. school

3.5.1.3. friends

3.5.1.4. family

3.5.1.5. situations

3.5.1.6. avoidence

3.5.2. Behaviour is another form of communication

4. Chapter 4: Making Instructional Decisions

4.1. Lesson Plans

4.1.1. The expectation of the lesson is the foundation

4.1.2. Connection to assessment

4.1.3. Connection to personal philosophy

4.1.3.1. I believe in inquiry and project based learning. Where students are guided in their learning rather than instructed.

4.2. Assessment

4.2.1. Diagnostic Assessment

4.2.1.1. this should be the starting point for all instruction

4.2.1.2. gather proper knowledge for proper instruction

4.2.2. instruction and assessment are planned together

4.3. Bloom's Taxonomy

4.3.1. Knowledge

4.3.2. Comprehension

4.3.3. Application

4.3.4. Analysis

4.3.5. Synthesis

4.3.6. Evaluation

4.3.7. Separated different types and goals of thinking

4.4. Universal Instructional Design (UID)

4.4.1. "Instructional system designed and delivered with the needs of the least independently able students in mind"

4.4.2. "Results in instruction that is accessible and effective for all students"

4.4.3. Inclusive

4.4.4. Creates a welcoming classroom

4.4.5. "Determine the essential academic components to be taught" (126)

4.4.6. Provide clear expectations

4.4.7. Variety of instructional methods

4.4.8. Variety of assessment

4.4.9. Technology to enhance learning

4.5. Inquiry Based Learning

4.5.1. Student centered constructivist instruction approach

4.5.2. Facilitate learning

4.5.3. Challenging open-ended problems

4.5.4. Teachers model the process

4.5.5. Throughout my experience as an early childhood educator, inquiry based learning is my primary teaching method. It is great method for early years to provide open ended learning. My image of the child lines with inquiry based learning and seeing the child as explorers and capable,

4.5.6. Exploration

4.6. Problem Based Learning

4.6.1. Minimal direct instruction

4.6.2. Activate and extend prior knowledge

4.6.3. Facilitate learning

4.6.4. Students learn effective problem solving skills

4.7. How People Learn Framework (HPLF)

4.7.1. Knowledge

4.7.2. Learner

4.7.3. Community

4.7.4. Assessment

5. Chapter 5: Assessing Student Progress

5.1. Assessment

5.1.1. Variety of ways to assess students

5.1.1.1. Portfolios

5.1.1.1.1. This is my favourite form of assessment because it shows the students progress in their learning which to me is the key to education. With technology, online portfolios to be shared with parents are even easier which allows for parent involvement. Apps such as Google classroom and See Saw.

5.1.1.2. Homework

5.1.1.2.1. As I am in the primary/junior program with a specialty in early years, I do not believe in assessing homework. I can see the value in higher education students are expected to complete their homework.

5.1.1.3. Tests/Quizzes

5.1.1.3.1. Issues: appropriateness of the test

5.1.1.3.2. Issues: frequency

5.1.1.3.3. I struggle with tests and quizzes in my philosophy because as a student myself, I despise tests because I don't believe they accurately reflected my learning. However because of standardize testing, I feel as though it is important to prepare them for tests.

5.1.1.3.4. True False

5.1.1.3.5. Matching questions

5.1.1.3.6. Multiple-choice

5.1.1.3.7. Summary / essay

5.1.1.3.8. Short-answer

5.1.1.4. Observations

5.1.1.4.1. Main for of assessment in early years. Great way to assess PROCESS over PRODUCT

5.1.2. Ercikan

5.1.2.1. true value of assessment is feedback, not grade

5.1.2.1.1. Motivates students

5.1.3. Annette wants students to be successful - includes older students in assessment. Provides students with "How to be a Successful Learner". She gives her students their expectations and refers to the ones made at the beginning of the school year.

5.1.4. Purpose of Assessment

5.1.4.1. Diagnostic

5.1.4.1.1. Gather prior knowledge

5.1.4.2. Formative

5.1.4.2.1. During instruction

5.1.4.3. Summative

5.1.4.3.1. After instruction

6. Chapter 6: Individual Differences- Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

6.1. Intelligence

6.1.1. The ability to learn and adapt from experiences

6.1.2. Education perspective - "group of intellectual behaviours, both goal-directed and adaptive, that can have a significant impact on how, and how well, students learn" (193)

6.1.3. Often measured through tests

6.2. Carroll's Hierarchical Model of Intelligence

6.2.1. Fluid intelligence

6.2.2. Crystallized intellegence

6.2.3. General memory and learning

6.2.4. Broad visual perception

6.2.5. Broad auditory perception

6.2.6. Broad retrieval capacity

6.2.7. Broad cognitive speediness

6.2.8. Processing speed (decision speed)

6.3. Gardener's Multiple Intelligence Structures (8)

6.3.1. System approach

6.3.2. Independent intelligence structures

6.3.3. 1. Linguistic

6.3.4. 2. logical - mathematical

6.3.5. 3. Spatial

6.3.6. 4. bodily - kinesthetic

6.3.7. 5. Musical

6.3.8. 6. Interpersonal

6.3.9. 7. Intrapersonal

6.3.10. 8. Naturalistic

6.4. Sternberg's Triarchic

6.4.1. Processing approach

6.5. Special Education

6.5.1. "Accommodating the special learning needs of students with exceptionalities"

6.5.2. Labelling Placement

6.5.2.1. There is a problem with labeling, stunts academic growth.

6.5.3. Education Placements

6.5.4. ADHD, autism, etc

6.5.5. Six Phases of the Assessment and IEP Process

6.5.5.1. Phase 1: Identification

6.5.5.2. Phase 2: Diagnostic Instruction

6.5.5.3. Phase 3: Referral

6.5.5.4. Phase 4: Assessment/IEP

6.5.5.5. Phase 5: Educational Intervention

6.5.5.6. Phase 6: Evaluation of Student Progress

6.5.5.7. It is important to recognize that this is a long process for families and may be years before students can receive IEP

6.5.6. "Instruction that both responds to the various needs of a diverse group and precisely tailored to individual needs is needed for student achievement for all student"

6.5.7. Instructional Approaches

6.5.7.1. Universal Design for Learning

6.5.7.2. Differentiated Instruction

6.5.7.2.1. This is for all students

6.5.7.3. Response to Intervention

7. Chapter 7: Socio-Cultural Consideration

7.1. Inclusive

7.1.1. "Children are different All children can learn Different abilities, ethnic groups, size, age, background, gender Change the system to fit the child"

7.1.2. Allows for school diversity

7.1.2.1. Creates a positive environment and opportunities for more learning

7.2. Diverse Learners

7.2.1. Encouraging student diversity

7.3. Aboriginal Education

7.3.1. Protective Factors

7.3.1.1. Early Intervention

7.3.1.2. Resiliency

7.3.1.3. Positive self-image

7.3.1.4. Engagement by families

7.3.1.5. Community involvement

7.3.1.6. Relevant programing

7.3.1.7. Connections to Aboriginal role models and support

7.3.2. Teachers may not know they have aboriginal students in their classroom and must be aware of their culture and history in order to create an inclusive environment for them.

7.3.2.1. Aboriginal literature is a great way to create an inclusive environment

7.4. Universal Design for Learning

7.4.1. Recognition Leaning

7.4.2. Strategic Learning

7.4.3. Affective Learning

7.5. Socio-Cultural Perspectives

7.5.1. Socio-Economic Status

7.5.1.1. Compared to all other social or cultural attributes, an individual’s socio-economic status has the greatest impact on scholastic achievement

7.5.1.2. Teachers cannot make significant changes to students socio-economic status, but can still make a difference in students lives.

7.5.1.2.1. Understand each individual student's personal identity

7.5.1.3. Children from low socio-economic homes

7.5.1.3.1. Development is at risk

7.5.1.3.2. Economic hardships

7.5.1.3.3. Scarcity of resources

7.5.1.3.4. Authoritative parents

7.6. Multicultural Education

7.6.1. Banks Dimensions of Multicultural Education

7.6.1.1. Content integration

7.6.1.2. An equity pedagogy

7.6.1.3. An empowering school cultural and social structures

7.6.1.4. Prejudice reduction

7.6.1.5. The knowledge construction process

7.6.2. "Developing cultural understandings and mutual respect"

7.6.3. With proper incorporation of cultural inclusion, multicultural education can occur.

7.7. Culturally Responsive Practice

7.7.1. "Incorporates the cultures, experiences and needs of culturally and ethnically diverse students on an individual basis" (264)

8. Chapter 8: Standardized Achievement Tests

8.1. Standardized Testing in Canada

8.1.1. Federal

8.1.2. Provincial/Territorial

8.1.3. Contain the same questions for all test-takers

8.1.4. Are administered to all test-takers in same fashion

8.1.5. Different from teacher-made tests

8.1.6. Purpose is to see if the effectiveness of the instruction

8.1.7. Negative

8.1.7.1. Biased tests

8.1.7.2. Cause stress for students and teachers

8.1.7.2.1. I struggle with standardize testing because I do not believe in tests reflecting students ability, however I feel like I must use tests in some assessments to prepare them for standardize testing even though there is a difference between standardize testing and teacher testing

8.1.7.3. Results in teaching to the test rather than students learning

8.1.7.4. Content of tests does not reflect instruction

8.1.7.4.1. I am against standardize tests because they do not effectively reflect the students ability and focuses too much on the product rather than the process of learning

8.1.7.5. Tests a certain type of intellegence

8.1.8. Standardize tests should:

8.1.8.1. Enhance teaching and learning

8.1.8.2. Improve curricular design

8.1.9. EQAO

8.1.10. Grade 9 Literacy Test

8.2. Achievement Test vs Aptitude Tests

8.2.1. Designed differently and used for different purposes

8.3. Education

8.3.1. What to teach?

8.3.2. How to teach it?

8.3.3. Ho to determine the students have learned?