Educational Psychology

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Educational Psychology by Mind Map: Educational Psychology

1. Motivation

1.1. what motivates?

1.1.1. challenging and meaningful tasks

1.1.2. being able to effectively use learning strategies

1.1.3. having teacher support

1.1.4. being required to demonstrate knowledge

1.1.5. feeling that the teacher cares for them

2. Social and Cultural Influences

2.1. Instrumental Value of Education

2.1.1. degree to which students believe that doing well in school produces benefits

2.2. Socio-Economic Status

2.2.1. has the greatest impact on scholastic achievement

2.3. increasing Diversity in Schools

2.3.1. language spoken

2.3.2. aboriginal students

2.3.3. one-parent families

2.3.4. same-sex couples

2.3.5. newcomers to Canada

2.3.6. religions practiced

2.4. Children from Low SES Homes

2.4.1. development is as risk

2.4.2. economic hardships

2.4.3. scarcity of resources

2.4.4. more likely to experience authoritarian parenting style

2.5. Multicultural Education

2.5.1. Views diversity valued no culture considered dominant dominant culture stressed surviving in real world diversity and dominant culture valued striking a balance

2.5.2. Dimensions content integration equity pedagogy empowering school culture and social culture prejudice reducation knowledge construction process

2.6. Student Dilemmas

2.6.1. Individualism

2.6.2. Collectivism

2.7. Critical Consciousness

2.7.1. political values and beliefs

2.7.2. an ideological clarity

2.7.3. a socio-cultural consciousness

2.8. Building a Culturally Responsive Practice

2.8.1. Teachers must know: their own cultural assumptions how to inquire about students backgrounds how to develop teaching approaches and curriculum to meet needs of culturally divers learners how to establish links across cultures

2.8.2. Stereotype Threat fear that ones behaviour will confirm a negative stereotype about ones identity group

3. Learning and Cognition

3.1. Views of Learning

3.1.1. Cognitive

3.1.2. Behavioural

3.1.3. Social Cultural/Constructivist learners actively seek meaning social negotiating is important to learning learning includes developing skills to solve problems, think critically, answer questions, accept multiple views self-determination is needed to further learning Constructivist-Based Classroom Applications dialogue and instructional conversations inquiry learning problem-based learning teacher and peer learning cognitive apprenticeships collaborative learning

4. Individual Differences

4.1. Special Education

4.1.1. Controversies labelling placement

4.1.2. Inclusive Education UNESCO

4.1.3. Special Education Service Delivery general classroom delivery pull-out services and support separate classroom services alternative setting homebound

4.1.4. accommodating the special learning needs of students with exceptionalities

4.1.5. specialized instruction based on the assessment of students' abilities

4.2. Trifecta Support

4.2.1. School The Curriculum View any child may experience difficulties in school such difficulties can point to ways in which teaching can be improved these improvements lead to better learning conditions for all students School Process for Identification and Support guiding principles

4.2.2. System medical model requires documentation in order to support social model might push for full inclusion

4.2.3. Community

4.3. Labeling Exceptional Students

4.3.1. people first language

4.3.2. disability = inability to do something

4.3.3. handicap = a disadvantage in certain situations

4.4. Intelligence

4.4.1. ability to learn from experience

4.4.2. ability to adapt to one's environment

4.4.3. how is it measured? aptitude tests WISC-IV achievement tests WJ-III WIAT

4.5. Exceptionalities

4.5.1. High-Incidence mild disabilities typically include learning disabilities, behavioural disabilities, giftedness, and intellectual disabilities

4.5.2. Low-Incidence moderate to severe disabilities typically include autism, hearing and visual impairments, serious health impairments, and multiple disabilities

4.6. Access to Curriculum

4.6.1. Physical sensory and motor access

4.6.2. Cognitive understand assignments, plan and execute approaches to tasks

4.7. The Individual Student View

4.7.1. a group of children can be identified who are special

4.7.2. these children need special teaching in response to their problems

4.7.3. it is best to teach children with similar problems together

4.7.4. other children are normal and benefit from existing teaching

5. Teaching and Instruction

5.1. Reflective Practice

5.1.1. Open Minded

5.1.2. Self-Enquiry

5.1.3. Facilitate Student Learning

5.2. Effective Teachers

5.2.1. Practice = Teaching

5.2.2. Effective Teaching = excellent instruction enhanced student learning exemplary environments

5.2.3. Have a system

5.2.4. are skilled in using research strategies

5.2.5. make effective use of classroom management strategies teachers affect students learning

5.3. Instructional Approaches

5.3.1. Teacher Centred teacher determines content provides direction

5.3.2. Student Centred teacher adopts constructivist perspective students construct their own understandings

5.3.3. Universal Design for Instruction

5.3.4. Differentiated Instruction

5.3.5. Response to Intervention

5.4. 4 Commonplaces of Education

5.4.1. Teacher

5.4.2. Topic

5.4.3. Setting

5.4.4. Student

6. Learning and Cognition

6.1. Bloom's Taxonomy

6.1.1. hierarchical classification of cognitive learning objectives. 6 levels. knowledge comprehension application analysis synthesis evaluation

6.2. Universal Instructional Design

6.2.1. instructional system designed and developed with the needs of the least independently able students in mind

6.2.2. results in instruction that is accessible and effective for all students

6.3. Inquiry Based Learning

6.3.1. general to specific question = student learning

6.3.2. students explain, hypothesize, direct their own tasks, reflect and refine questions

6.4. Problem Based Learning

6.4.1. students determine whether a problem exists, creating an exact statement of the problem, identifying information, data, and learning goals

6.5. Critical Thinking

6.6. Direct Instruction

6.6.1. clear learning objectives

6.6.2. well-planned lessons

6.6.3. explicit teaching

6.6.4. lots of practice

7. Development

7.1. Principles of Development

7.1.1. Orderly progression

7.1.2. periods of rapid growth

7.1.3. quantitative and qualitative changes

7.1.4. individuals develop at different rates

7.2. Higher Order Executive Functioning

7.2.1. Prefrontal Cortex takes 20 years to fully develop controls decision making, goal setting, controlling attention, cognitive flexibility, information processing and managing risk-taking

7.3. Impact of Development on Learniing

7.3.1. genetics set developmental potential

7.3.2. environment determines potential realized

7.4. Contribution of Developmental Theories

7.4.1. Growth Mindset idea that intelligence can be developed leading to a desire to: embrace challenges persist in the face of setbacks see efforts as the path to mastery learn from criticism find lessons and inspiration in the success of others

8. Behaviour/Classroom Management

8.1. Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

8.1.1. self-regulation self-regulated learning tasks should be complex students have choices, make decisions, plan, set goals, and judge process collaborate with teacher in shared problem solving monitor their own process and outcomes

8.1.2. self-efficacy build resilience good self-esteem optimistic personal control motivated to learn self-disciplined

8.1.3. communities of learners job-embedded collaborative collegial ongoing requires active learning student-centered emphasize reflective dialogue improve students achievement

8.1.4. exemplary learning environments wide variety in teacher effectiveness effective teachers are effective with students of all achievement levels strategies academic success is dependant on learning environment requires planning and good classroom management

8.1.5. well-being in the classroom opportunities for student interaction positive classroom culture non-overwhelming challenges flexibility and control experiential learning share information and support students to get connected supports student well-being supportive physical space

8.1.6. social emotional learning

8.2. Teacher affect student learning

8.2.1. design classroom curriculum to facilitate student learning

8.2.2. make wise choices about instructional strategies

8.2.3. make effective use of classroom management strategies strategies: bump system proximity touch student's name gesture The Look The Pause ignore signal for attention deal with the problem not the student

9. Assessment and Evaluation

9.1. Assessment done well

9.1.1. multiple opportunities to improve

9.1.2. useful and timely feedback

9.1.3. no marks until final attempt

9.1.4. clear targets in student friendly language

9.1.5. students able to self and peer assess

9.1.6. affirmation of capability

9.1.7. students know where they stand and what to do to improve

9.2. must be planned and purposeful

9.2.1. backward design what do I expect to be able to do and the end of the course? (curriculum) how will I know they have learned these things? (assessment) what lessons will be most effective in helping students demonstrate that they have learned these things? (instruction)

9.3. serves different purposes at different times

9.3.1. to find out what students already know

9.3.2. to help studnets improve their learning

9.3.3. to let students know how much they have learned

10. Psychological Foundations of Curricula

10.1. Standardized Achievement Tests

10.1.1. programs original purpose to assess effectiveness of instruction

10.1.2. standardized testing in Canada Federal achievement levels of 13 year olds Provincial/Territorial different uses at certain grade levels

10.1.3. Test types Criterion Referenced Norm Referenced

10.1.4. criticisms biased tests stressful for teachers and students results in teaching to the test takes up too much time does not enhance student learning content of tests does not reflect instruction

10.1.5. standardized tests should: enhance teaching and learning improve curricular design be minimally intrusive

10.1.6. Standardized Tests contain same questions for all test takers are administered to all test-takers in same fashion are scared in systematic and uniform manner are different from teacher-made tests and aptitude tests