Teaching, Learning & Development

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Teaching, Learning & Development by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning & Development

1. Week 1 - Early August: Planning for the Upcoming School Year

1.1. Primary Topics

1.1.1. Reflective practice are open-minded and amenable to change embrace self-enquiry feel they have an ethical responsibility to best facilitate their students’ learning choose to analyze and reflect on their practice assess the effects of their teaching in order to improve their practice

1.1.2. Four commonplaces of education Teacher Topic Setting Student

1.1.3. Central topics of educational psychology Learning and Cognition Development Social and Cultural Influences Motivation Behaviour/Classroom Managemen Individual Differences Assessment and Evaluation Teaching and Instruction Psychological Foundations of Curricula

1.1.4. Curricular planning . . . the learning experiences and goals that teachers develop for their classes in light of students’ characteristics and the teaching context. (Darling-Hammond et al., 2005)

1.1.5. Instructional planning Teacher-centred approach Teacher determines content, provides direction, and sets academic and social tone Student-centred approach Teacher adopts constructivist perspective and acknowledges that students actively construct their own understandings

1.1.6. Linking research findings to instruction and learning Our course textbook Other resources acquired through the Faculty of Education Journals and books available free through the library, while you are a student What Works Clearinghouse (US Dept. of Ed.) http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/ Google Scholar Google Scholar Professional Development Sessions

1.2. Effective Teaching and planning

1.2.1. Teacher need to give excellent instruction teachers need to give critical feedback Teacher modeling equity in the classroom Engaging the students

1.2.2. create a safe, inclusive, engaging, enivorment

1.2.3. Student learning is develop through lesson plans and activities Curricular Planning . . . the learning experiences and goals that teachers develop for their classes in light of students’ characteristics and the teaching context. (Darling-Hammond et al., 2005)

1.2.4. Instructional Approaches Instruction that both responds to the various needs of a diverse group and precisely tailored to individual needs is needed for student achievement for all students Three instructional approaches form the basis of this document Universal Design for Learning Differentiated Instruction Response to Intervention

1.3. Video

1.3.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=74&v=sXpbONjV1Jc Notes What is school for? The question about standardize testing Should teaching be based on students becoming a product? Test

2. Week 2 - Late August: Considering Developmental Differences

2.1. Primary Topics

2.1.1. Environment determines potential realized Orderly progression/gradual process Periods of rapid and slow growth Quantitative and qualitative changes Individuals develop at different rates Genetics set developmental potential Environment determines potential realized

2.1.2. Impact of development on learning Mindset (Growth vs Fixed) https://www.google.ca/search?q=growth+mindset&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjd9p2d4bfXAhVI74MKHQPLAPQQ_AUICigB&biw=1600&bih=1110&dpr=0.5#imgrc=GCCKLIAnP90s9M:

2.1.3. Contributions of developmental theorists

2.1.4. Developmental appropriateness What adults can learn from kids Notes

2.1.5. Supporting students’ psychological well-being

2.2. Teacher Beliefs Survey

2.2.1. Knowledge of the subject matter is the most important part of being an effective teacher.

2.2.2. Good teachers always know more than their students.

2.2.3. For effective learning, I need to be in control of the direction of learning.

2.2.4. I am responsible for what students learn and how they learn

2.2.5. If I don’t prompt and provide direction for student questions, they won’t get the right answer

3. Week 3 - Views of Learning – Cognitive, Behavioural, Social and Constructivist

3.1. Primary Topic

3.1.1. Behavourist Approach Definition Learning theory that focuses on observ- able behaviours that are believed to be acquired through conditioning Use a Learning Theory: Behaviorism - YouTube Controlled or Modified based on the antecedence and consequences Rewards vs Punishments Detentions Classroom Money Expectation and Rules "Lost at School" by Ross W. Greene Plan A, B, and C Walking Tour for Educators | Lives in the Balance

3.1.2. Cognitive Approach Theory based on how information is received, organized, retrieved and store in a students mind Cognitive learning theorists Use a Learning Theory: Cognitivism Teacher should teach in an organized and sequecial way so that the lesson is meaningful and understandable. Chunking Information Review prior knowledge Reinforcing skills learned

3.1.3. Constructivist Approach Definition Actively and meaningfully constructing one’s own knowledge and understanding Use a Learning Theory: Constructivism Constructivist Learning Education Theory/Constructivism and Social Constructivism - UCD - CTAG

3.2. Graphic Organizers

3.2.1. Graphic Organizers

3.2.2. Graphic Organizers for Teachers Grades (K-12) - TeacherVision

3.2.3. Graphic Organizers

4. Week 4 - First Week of School: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

4.1. Good Teachers have a System

4.1.1. Instructional Strategy Choices Effective teachers are skilled in using researched strategies –Cooperative learning –Graphic organizers –Homework and questions Effective teachers make effective use of classroom management techniques

4.1.2. Classroom Management Keys to Bump System Proximity Student’s Name Gesture The Look Deal with the problem not the student

4.1.3. How does the teacher affect student achievement? 1. Designs classroom curriculum to facilitate student learning 2. Makes wise choices about the most effective instructional strategies to employ 3. Makes effective use of classroom management techniques

4.1.4. Supporting Students Self Regulated Learning Tasks should be complex Students make decisions, have choices, and take responsibility for planning, setting goals, judging progress Students monitor their own process and outcomes and learn to adjust their efforts in order to attain goals Students and teachers engage in shared problem solving.

4.1.5. creating exemplary learning environments requires good planning and good classroom management

4.1.6. Videos Tony Wagner - Most Likely to Succeed Transmitting academic knowledge and not memorizing facts. Skills and motivation matter more The Myth of Average: Todd Rose at TEDxSonomaCounty Banned the Average accommodating students needs Equity Not Equality Cockpit= School Classroom Bad design in the curriculum

5. Week 5 - Mid-September: Making Instructional Decisions

5.1. Primary Topic

5.1.1. Motivation in Classroom Setting Teacher support by caring for the students Challenging and meaningful tasks Strategies to make learning for all students effective

5.1.2. Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive skills Hierarchical classification of cognitive learning objectives Six levels 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation Framework Knowledge-Centredness Learner-Centeredness Community-Centredness Assessment-Centredness

5.1.3. Meaningful instruction Universal Instructional Design Instructional system designed and delivered with the needs of the least independently able students in mind Results in instruction that is accessible and effective for all students

5.1.4. Constructivist-based Classrooms Learners are active in constructing their own personal knowledge –they actively seek meaning Social negotiating is important to knowledge construction /learning Learning includes developing skills to solve problems, think critically, answer questions, accept multiple views Self-determination is needed to further knowledge development Complex, challenging learning environments Making students aware of the knowledge construction process –becoming self regulated learners

5.1.5. Student Problem-Solving Student self-development of thinking skills is not a substitute for teacher-taught strategies Cognitive Credit Cards

5.2. Sources

5.2.1. Zoe Branigan-Pipe - Letting Students Hack Their Lesson Plan Using technology in the class to be effective teacher International relationships Using technology in real life situations Students use communication skills

6. Week 6 - Late September: Knowing that the Students Know

6.1. How People Learn

6.1.1. Primary Topic Learner Centered Based on prior knowledge and experiences students can build new knowledge and understanding Students come from different backgrounds, cultures, abilities, and interests Knowledge Centered Building a bridge from prior knowledge to new knowledge. Make knowledge and skills transferable. Encourage experimentation and discovery Encourage students to ask questions and discuss ideas in group discussions Assessment Centered Memorization facts has no effect on students learning. Practicing and apply skills and concepts so that they can be transferable in other subjects. Students be organized Build metacognition and self assessment skills Project assessment rather than test assessment Community Centered Students can be inclusive to others if there is a respectful learning environment for all Not having the correct is ok. Teachers should work around with students answer and lead them to correct answer. Enable students to learn on their own and use critical thinking

6.1.2. Video Resources What is Understanding by Design? Author Jay McTighe explains.

7. Week 7 - Early December: Individual Differences-Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

7.1. Primary Topic

7.1.1. Special Education Accommodating the special learning needs of students with exceptionalities Specialized instruction based on the assessment of students’ abilities Disabilities Inability to do something Handicap A disadvantage in certain situations

7.1.2. Intelligence The ability to learn from experience and to adapt to one's environment To problem solve and adapt to world situations based on knowledge acquired from previous experiences Measured by: Aptitude Test Standardized Testing Achievement Tests Tests are difficult for students with learning and behavioural disabilities. Students need accommodations.

7.1.3. Physical and Cognitive Access Physical Assess includes sensory and motor access (such as the ability to see text and images, hear sound and speech, and manipulate materials and expressive tools). Individuals with physical or sensory disabilities may encounter barriers when using traditional materials such as books, paper and pencil, keyboards, audiotapes without text equivalents, or videos lacking captions or video descriptions.” Cognitive Access include the ability to understand assignments, plan and execute approaches to tasks, use materials effectively, comprehend content presented in various media, organize work, understand and use feedback, and express ideas effectively

7.1.4. Inclusion Acceptance of differences Instruction focuses on appropriate teacher interventions It involves changes and modifications in content, approaches, structures and strategies, with a common vision which covers all children of appropriate age range and a conviction that it is the responsibility of the regular system to educate all children. Material being taught is made accessible to all students addressing and responding to diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning, cultures and communities, and reducing exclusion within and from education.

7.1.5. Ted Talk Video Resource Do schools kill creativity?

8. Week 8 - Early February: Socio-Cultural Considerations

8.1. Diversity in Schools

8.1.1. Language spoken

8.1.2. Aboriginal Students

8.1.3. One parent families

8.1.4. Same Sex couple

8.1.5. Newcomers to Canada

8.1.6. Culture

8.1.7. Religion

8.2. Dilemmas

8.2.1. Individualism Act within a unique identity and exclusive purpose

8.2.2. Collectivism Act within a shared identity and common purpose

8.3. Building a Culturally Responsive Practice

8.3.1. Teachers must know the following Their own cultural assumptions How to inquire about students’ backgrounds How to develop teaching approaches and curriculum to meet needs of culturally diverse learners How to establish links across cultures

8.3.2. Stereotype Threat Fear that one’s behaviour will confirm a negative stereotype about one’s identity group Those with strong ties to their identity group are most vulnerable Can be brought on by seemingly innocuous comments

8.4. Effect of Teaching Style

8.4.1. PTop Ten Tips for Service Providers Working with Families Living in Poverty 1. Develop a genuine relationship with me – it is key to supporting me. 2. In your relationship with me, be empathetic, respectful, and recognize our shared humanity. Push and challenge yourself to ‘walk in my shoes’ to gain a deeper and richer understanding of my situation and life. 3. Be open-minded and do not judge me. 4. Recognize and acknowledge how hard it is to live in poverty 5. Have realistic expectations of me and my family 6. Remember just because I am poor does not mean I am a bad parent 7. Remember just because I am poor does not mean I am incompetent. 8. Do not discriminate against me. 9. Be an advocate and demand more accessible resources and supports 10. Work to reduce the ‘red tape’ and barriers to services and supports

8.4.2. Different Views of Multicultural Education Diversity valued  No culture considered dominant Dominant culture stressed Surviving in real world Diversity and dominant culture Valued striking a balance

8.5. Video Resource:

8.5.1. How Culture Drives Behaviours | Julien S. Bourrelle | TEDxTrondheim

8.5.2. Culturally Responsive Teaching and Learning.flv

8.5.3. The danger of a single story | Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

9. Week 9 - End of School Year

9.1. Primary Topics

9.1.1. Standardized Testing in Canada Contain the same questions for all test-takers Are administered to all test-takers in same fashion Are scored in systematic and uniform manner Are different from teacher-made tests and aptitude tests Test Types Criterion-Referenced Norm-Referenced Criticisms of Standardized Testing Biased tests Stressful for students and teachers Results in teaching to the test Does not enhance student learning Content of tests does not reflect instruction Preparing Students for Standardized Tests Convey positive attitudes about testing Teach test-taking skills Simulate use of time limits during testing Familiarize students with types of questions used Involve students in marking questions of each type Classroom and large-scale assessments should . . . Be based on the same curriculum framework Address the same cognitive demands Incorporate similar tasks Use common standards for judging quality of work Use same benchmarks to represent learning over time

9.1.2. Resource on Standardizing Testing Login Required - OWL Login Required - OWL How EQAO Tests are Created, Administered and Scored Login Required - OWL