CHAPTER 2 : ATOMIC STRUCTURE & INTERATOMIC BONDING

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CHAPTER 2 : ATOMIC STRUCTURE & INTERATOMIC BONDING par Mind Map: CHAPTER 2 : ATOMIC STRUCTURE & INTERATOMIC BONDING

1. The importance of bonding ( The way in which they affect the properties of materials )

1.1. BONDING

1.1.1. Primary bonds

1.1.1.1. 1. Chemical (strong) bonding

1.1.1.2. 2. Transferred or shared to satisfy the octet rule

1.1.2. Secondry bonds

2. PRIMARY BONDS

2.1. Ionic bonds

2.1.1. Metal + Nonmetal atoms

2.1.2. Strongest Bonds

2.1.3. Example : Sodium Cloride (salt)

2.2. Covalent bonds

2.2.1. Nonmetal + Nonmetal atoms

2.2.2. considered strong, but are generally weaker than ionic bonds

2.2.3. Example : Water & Diamond

2.3. Metallic bonds

2.3.1. Metal + Metal atoms

2.3.2. Metallic bonds are considered to be the weakest of the primary bonds, although some metals can form bonds that are stronger than covalent bonds

2.3.3. Example : Copper

3. SECONDRY BONDS

3.1. Van der Waal's Forces

3.1.1. caused by the attraction between electron-rich regions of one molecule and electron-poor regions of another

3.2. Hydrogen Bonding

3.2.1. is found to exist between some molecules that have hydrogen as one of the constituents.

4. Predict materials properties from knowledge of bonding

4.1. Metals

4.1.1. Almost all have the crystalline structure : FCC , BCC and HCP

4.2. Ceramics

4.2.1. Strong attractive forces within the molecules

4.2.2. High hardness, electrically insulator, refractory, chemically inert

4.2.3. Crystalline or noncrystalline structure

4.3. Polymer

4.3.1. Molecules together in aggregate are weakly connected by secondary bonding

4.3.2. Three type : Thermoplastic , Thermosetting plastic , Elastomer

5. Importance of valence electrons & state the electron configuration

5.1. Electron - outer shell - called "Valence electrons"

5.2. The valence electrons have great significance in determining the properties of an atom

5.3. Properties: chemical, thermal, electrical, optical, etc

5.4. Element - same number VE - same properties

6. Atomic Number & Atomic Mass

6.1. Atomic Number

6.1.1. Number of proton & Electron

6.2. 11 NA 22.99

6.3. Atomic Mass

6.3.1. In AMU ( Atomic mass unit )

7. Electron Configuration

7.1. Shell (short electron configuration)

7.1.1. Electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom at different ranges, called shells

7.1.2. Each shell - different energy level

7.1.3. Energy level - given a number called the principal quantum number, n

7.1.4. The closest shell has a value of n=1. The next shell has a value of n=2, etc

7.1.5. Electron Capacity = 2(n^2)

7.1.6. Energy Level (principle quantam number ) = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Shell letter = J, K, L, M, N, O, P Electron Capacity = 2, 8, 18, 32,50, 72

7.2. Subshell (full electron configuration)

7.2.1. There are 4 subshells, s, p, d, and f. Each subshell can hold a different number of electrons

7.2.2. Subshell = S, P, D, T Electrons = 2, 6, 10, 14

7.2.3. ……. ……..