Business and Sustainabilty Models for OER by Mind Map: Business and Sustainabilty
Models for OER
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Business and Sustainabilty Models for OER

ORGANISATION DEVELOPPING THE OER

Freemium/Conversion model

"In the Conversion model, you give something away for free and then convert the consumer of the freebie to a paying customer." ("Models for Sustainable Open Educational Resources", 2006, Stephen Downes)

Support contracts business model

You give something for free and sell support/assistance to customer/users:  "The levels of support can be generically divided into three levels: basic support (subscription), middleclass support and premium support (on-site and 24/7)" (Chang, Victor, Mills, Hugo and Newhouse, Steven (2007) From Open Source to long-term sustainability: Review of Business Models and Case studies. In, All Hands Meeting 2007, OMII-UK Workshop, Nottigham, UK, 10 - 13 Sep 2007)

FWK

Replacement model

"In which open content replaces another model and can benefit from the cost savings resulting from the replacement. This model has a natural limit since it can only generate the amount of resources it replaces" (OECD -  Giving Knowledge for Free - The emergence of open educational resource - Centre for educational research and innovation (2007))  

Split-licensing model

"Make a margin for reselling other companies’ intellectual property. Some organisations sell customers a commercial licence that allows them to use the product without being covered by GPL. This is known as “Resale” (Chang, Victor, Mills, Hugo and Newhouse, Steven (2007) From Open Source to long-term sustainability: Review of Business Models and Case studies. In, All Hands Meeting 2007, OMII-UK Workshop, Nottigham, UK, 10 - 13 Sep 2007)

Partnerships and exchanges

"Though perhaps not thought of as a funding or financing model, partnerships and exchanges nonetheless play an important role, or potential role, in the development of OER networks. Partnerships depend not so much on exchanges of funding as on exchanges of resources, where the output of the exchange is an OER" ("Models for Sustainable Open Educational Resources", 2006, Stephen Downes) "For example, at a recent UNESCO conference an Open Source Congress was proposed, which "would be a voluntary, collaborative effort by interested higher education institutions to lend their expertise - both technical and functional - to begin the high-level design and planning for what will become the next-generation, open source, administrative systems." (UNESCO, 2002)  

Enlarging mission of organisations to include OER production and development

For instance, if a University decides that all research publications publicly funded should be released using a Creative Commons license, this would lower levels in order to produce OER within the organisation. Enlarging the mission of an organisation in order to include OER production can translate into long Term sustainability for OER. "The most intriguing support possibility for open educational resource projects [...]  is to reduce the cost of the open educational resource projects so drastically that there is little or nothing left to fund. This is the approach taken in joint work by the Sakai Project, an open source course management system, and eduCommons, an open source opencourseware management system. The two projects are working together to leverage all the effort that already goes into building and publishing online courses. Many universities, including the Michigan and Utah State Universities, already have funding, processes, and personnel in place to build online courses within their chosen course management tool. If a “one button” feature could be added to these systems that exports an open version of the official course into a university’s opencourseware collection, this would remove many of the major costs associated with running open educational resource projects" (Wiley, D. (2007). On the sustainability of Open Educational Resource Initiatives in Higher Education COSL/EDU)

Endowment model

"The project obtains base funding. A fund administrator manages this base funding and the project is sustained from interest earned on that fund" ("Models for Sustainable Open Educational Resources", 2006, Downes)

Selling information

"Selling data about users--aggregate/statistical or individual--to third parties" "How to Make Money Around Free Content: What does the "Media Business Model" mean?", HowTo wiki, Wired Magasine, This page was last modified 19:34, 28 February 2011 by neil80. Based on work by jeremytanks, mirgrl33b, michaelrush, mammique, webword, howto_admin, pamstatz, pstatz and amyatwired)

other??

PUBLIC SECTOR

Governmental funding

"Similar to the institutional model, the governmental model represents direct funding for OER projects by government agencies, including the United Nations" ("Models for Sustainable Open Educational Resources", 2006, Stephen Downes)

Macro R&D infrastructure

"Model where the funding initially comes from a government’s research grant, and sources of funding will come from research grants of local or international partner institutes" (Chang, Victor, Mills, Hugo and Newhouse, Steven (2007) From Open Source to long-term sustainability: Review of Business Models and Case studies. In, All Hands Meeting 2007, OMII-UK Workshop, Nottigham, UK, 10 - 13 Sep 2007)

other??

INDIVIDUALS

Author pays model

"Some publishers are shifting to the author pays model, namely that the authors pay of the publication from their budgets (institutional, project budgets, etc) and anybody can access them immediately and free of charge. This model has gained much attention through the non profit venture Public Library of Science (PloS)" (OLCOS roadmap 2012)

PLoS

Membership model

"To meet the cost of publishing, authors who publish in our open access journals are asked to pay an article-processing charge (APC) per published paper. To remove this burden from the individual authors, institutions can join a Membership Program. The Membership Program enables academic and research institutions, societies, groups, funders and corporations to actively support open access in scholarly publishing, and help ensure the most widespread dissemination of the research published by their investigators or members" (OLCOS; 2012)

Donations model

"On this model, a project deemed worthy of support by the wider community requests, and receives, donations. Donations are in turn managed by a non-profit foundation, which may apply them to operating expenses or, if amounts are sufficient, seek to establish an endowment" ("Models for Sustainable Open Educational Resources", 2006, Stephen Downes)

other??

COMMUNITY /CIVIL SOCIETY

Crowdfunding

"By enabling individual citizens and public or private business to contribute to a cultural enterprise with whatever amount of money they choose, these platforms have allowed society to become an important player and to have a voice in the production of specific cultural projects. There are currently several models of crowdfunding that should be explored and taken into account in order to understand the potential of these models" (How-To for Sustainable Creativity in the Digital Era - Free Culture Forum)

Crowdfunding previous to launching of initiative using third-actor platform

Crowdfunding meanwhile initiative exists using third-actor platform

Crowdfunding with pre-production agreements, Bookcamping

Direct crowdfunding

Community model

"Managed by a variety of governance procedures, a community of users and developers normally work together to either report bugs, investigate problems, fix errors, share knowledge or improve functionality of the software. Such a community-based organisation which does not have a specific funding body but instead relies on donations and enthusiasm, is known as Community model" (Chang, Victor, Mills, Hugo and Newhouse, Steven (2007) From Open Source to long-term sustainability: Review of Business Models and Case studies. In, All Hands Meeting 2007, OMII-UK Workshop, Nottigham, UK, 10 - 13 Sep 2007)

Crowdsourcing / Getting users to create something of value for free and applying a business model to monetize it

"Crowdsourcing is a process that involves outsourcing tasks to a distributed group of people. This process can occur both online and offline, and the difference between crowdsourcing and ordinary outsourcing is that a task or problem is outsourced to an undefined public rather than a specific body, such as paid employees." ("How to Make Money Around Free Content: What does the "Media Business Model" mean?", HowTo wiki, Wired Magasine, This page was last modified 19:34, 28 February 2011 by neil80. Based on work by jeremytanks, mirgrl33b, michaelrush, mammique, webword, howto_admin, pamstatz, pstatz and amyatwire)

Wikipedia

other??

Unclassified

Mutualised societal funding mechanism for creative activities

"Implementing a mutualised (societal) funding mechanism for creative activities, in response to a new technological situation, would not in fact represent such a break with the past. Since culture has been considered as a specific economic area, creative activities and their authors have been financed via a combination of mechanisms. Indirect mechanisms (sponsorship, public funding of certain statuses and activities, fiscal incentives, or mutualised funding via fees and levies) have always dominated over the direct sale of cultural goods. The advantage of new forms of mutualised funding is that, thanks to information technology, they enable a direct link between the creators, the works and their users, without necessitating intrusive surveillance of individual usage" (Aigrain, P. (2010). Sharing and the Creative Economy: Culture in the Internet Age)

Subscriptions with a flat rate

"users should be able to pay a certain, and low, amount of money and legally be able to download any song they want, and the industry has to find a way to distribute these amounts in a fair way" (proposal of Americo Amorim . Chief executive officer of MusiGames Studio)

other??

COMERCIAL SECTOR

Advertisement

Streaming audio or video advertising

Online adverstising (Ads)

API fees

Licensing of brand

other??

Sponsorship model

"To sponsor something is to support an event, activity, person, or organization financially or through the provision of products or services. A sponsor is the individual or group that provides the support, similar to a benefactor" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sponsor_%28commercial%29)

Institutional funding

"A variation, perhaps, on the sponsorship model is the case in which an institution will assume the responsibility itself for an OER initiative" ("Models for Sustainable Open Educational Resources", 2006, Stephen Downes)

other??

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