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1. Secession of Munich

2. the antinaturalism of Nabis

3. Secession of Wien

4. First breaks with the Academy ? Anti-academism NOT avant-garde (Tommaso Minardi self-portrait 1807)

4.1. Impressionists

4.1.1. radical anti-academics: Gauguin Van Gogh Touluose Lautrec Cezanne (post impressionism Pointillisme)

4.2. Scapigliatura

4.3. Secessionismo in visual Art

4.4. Secession Berlin

5. Avant-garde

5.1. Changes into the historical time-line

6. Academy

7. Organic intellectual

8. Tradition

9. Mannerism as an anti-academic tendency and an unaware fracture with the tradition

10. After the First World War the first avant-garde movements appear: the Expressionism, the Suprematism, the Cubism, the Dadaism, the Futurism, the Surrealism and the Abstract expressionism. They are also called historical avant-garde movements.