Team 7 Article Review: School principals' influence on trust: Perspectives of mothers of children...

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Team 7 Article Review: School principals' influence on trust: Perspectives of mothers of children with disabilities. par Mind Map: Team 7 Article Review: School principals' influence on trust: Perspectives of mothers of children with disabilities.

1. Limitations

1.1. The researchers "did not explicitly plan to gather data on mothers' trust in school principals. Rather, these data emerged from the data gathered for broader research questions about mother's trust in education professionals" (p. 163).

1.2. The researchers "did not establish extended relationships with the participant" (p. 163).

1.2.1. Participants (mothers) in the study were only interviewed once.

1.3. Data comes from a relatively small sample size from one geographical region.

1.3.1. 16 mothers were interviewed

1.4. The mothers in the study were recruited by school personnel. "The personnel might have identified mothers with whom they felt they had a positive, established relationships" (p. 164).

2. Author's Thesis

2.1. "a study of the perspectives of mothers of children with disabilities on the role of school principals in facilitating or inhibiting the establishment and maintenance of trust between parents of children with disabilities and education professionals" p. 160

2.1.1. trust is a key concept in this thesis p. 159

2.1.1.1. benevolence

2.1.1.2. reliability

2.1.1.3. competence

2.1.1.4. honesty

2.1.1.5. openness

2.1.2. Hoy and Tschannen-Moran's definition: "an individual's willingness to be vulnerable to another party" p. 159

2.1.2.1. Vulnerability s the precursor to the need for trust p. 159

2.1.2.1.1. The need for trust rests on the recognition of potential for betrayal or harm. p. 160

3. Methodology (pp. 161-162)

3.1. qualitative: semi-structrued interviews

3.1.1. 16 mothers of children with disabilities - testing trust levels in their principals

3.1.1.1. variety of disabilities

3.1.1.2. variety of grade levels

3.1.1.3. variety of districts

3.1.1.4. variety of geographical locations

3.1.1.5. variety of ethnic, race, and financial backgrounds

3.1.2. collective case study

3.1.3. feelings, thought processes, and emotions

4. Questions

4.1. Besides clear communication, what skill or skills should a principal develop or possess already in order to ensure the success of the three key functions: modeling, coaching, and mediating?

4.2. Do certification programs adequately prepare principals to facilitate and maintain trust in a community?

4.3. Are there differences in how parents and principals view trust in the school community?

5. Summary

5.1. The relationships with administrators, such as principals, emerged as one the key educational professionals that have a strong impact on the mothers of children with disabilities. Two main factors that affect participant trust on principals include personal and professional qualities and the actions within the education system. Personal attributes include approachablility and authentic caring. Professional attributes include accessibility and knowledge of disabilities. Actions are referred to the actions with students, parents and within the school district.

5.2. Findings of the current study implies the important role that principals can play in building and maintaining trust between schools and families, especially for students with disabilities. The results of the study suggest that principals need to actively communicate and engage with students and parents in order to establish trust among mothers (parents) of children with disabilities.

6. Usefullness/Application

6.1. principals may be unaware of the importance of trust or unprepared to facilitate trust in a school community (p. 168).

6.1.1. need for further research

6.1.1.1. comparing principal and parental perceptions of trust in school communities

6.1.1.2. principal views on trust as an important factor in student achievement

6.1.2. principal training and certification

6.1.2.1. evaluation of programs to assess whether they include enough emphasis on community-building

6.1.2.2. possible reform of certification programs

6.2. actions to practice for principals

6.2.1. modeling

6.2.1.1. setting the standard for all personnel (p. 168).

6.2.1.2. taking actions that build trust

6.2.1.2.1. conversations (p.168).

6.2.1.2.2. meetings (p. 168).

6.2.2. coaching

6.2.2.1. encouraging teachers (p.168).

6.2.3. mediation

6.2.3.1. solving conflicts in communities (p. 168).

6.2.3.1.1. addressing concerns

6.2.3.1.2. not downplaying issues

6.2.3.1.3. being present and not deferring all responsibility to others

6.3. additional areas for principal development

6.3.1. knowledge of disabilities (p. 168).

6.3.2. communication skills

6.3.3. community-building (p. 160).

7. in relation to

7.1. other readings

7.1.1. Goldring and Berends (2009).

7.1.1.1. key indicators for school improvement are dependent on trust in the leadership

7.1.1.1.1. shared mission and goals

7.1.1.1.2. expert teachers supported by coherent, consistent professional development

7.1.1.1.3. professional community

7.1.1.1.4. partnerships with parents, families, and community

7.1.1.1.5. culture and climate for student learning

7.1.2. Epstein et al. (2009).

7.1.2.1. overlapping spheres of influence

7.1.2.1.1. home, school, community

7.1.2.1.2. trust is critical in positive relationships between the spheres of influence

7.1.3. Auerbach, S. (2012)

7.1.3.1. Relational Trust

7.1.3.1.1. Based on "perceived respect, competence, integrity, and personal regard for others, and depends on reciprocity" (p. 33).

7.1.3.2. Authentic Participation

7.1.3.2.1. based on shared trust, respect, and understandings between students, staff, parents, & community. (p.33)

7.2. personal experiences

7.2.1. poorly behaving student

7.2.1.1. attempted several strategies on my own

7.2.1.1.1. very limited success

7.2.1.2. discussed issue with mother and the student

7.2.1.2.1. developed trust

7.2.1.2.2. great result

7.2.2. divergence between educational philosophy of parents and the school

7.2.2.1. very limited trust and communication between admin, teachers, and parents

7.2.2.1.1. highly critical parents

7.2.2.1.2. frustrated teachers

7.2.2.1.3. high turnover

7.2.2.1.4. defiant students

7.2.3. Inclusive Support Programme teacher

7.2.3.1. classroom includes seven students, seven educational assistants, and myself

7.2.3.1.1. can be louder than the drama room

7.2.3.1.2. four letter words are yelled out almost daily by students

7.2.3.1.3. we have safety plans in place for two students

7.2.3.1.4. have called 911 nine times this year

7.2.3.1.5. ten incident reports filled out last week

7.2.3.2. students are refered to as 'low incidence students' but have extremely high needs

7.2.3.2.1. full inclusion can feel impossible

7.2.3.2.2. my parents continually have to fight for their children

7.2.3.2.3. students are not habitually registered in elective classes or physical education classes

7.2.3.2.4. doors to other classrooms close when there are screams or incidents in my classroom

7.2.4. parent of a child with special needs

7.2.4.1. will require a full-time educational assisstant when he starts kindergarten next year

7.2.4.1.1. wants to have access to resources

7.2.4.1.2. have friends

7.2.4.1.3. be prepared for the real world

7.2.4.1.4. have caring teachers

7.2.4.1.5. to grow emotionally and mentally

7.2.4.1.6. to have fun

7.3. current educational issues

7.3.1. attitudes towards integration of students with disabilities (Avramidis, Bayliss, & Burden, 2000, p. 193)

7.3.1.1. influenced by

7.3.1.1.1. type of disability (p.193)

7.3.1.1.2. type of person addressing disability (p.193)

7.3.1.1.3. the professional background of the respondent (p.193)

7.3.1.1.4. educational problems being presented (p.193)

7.3.1.1.5. integration laws (p.193)

7.3.1.1.6. knowledge of disability (p.193)

7.3.1.1.7. amount of exposure and professional development (pp. 195 & 205)

7.3.1.2. more inclusive (p.193)

7.3.1.2.1. medical conditions

7.3.1.2.2. physical conditions

7.3.1.3. less inclusive

7.3.1.3.1. mental disabilities (p.193)

7.3.1.3.2. multiple disabilities (p.193)

7.3.1.3.3. emotional and behavioural difficulties (p. 206)

7.3.2. changes in special education (Farrell, 2001, p. 3)

7.3.2.1. role of categories

7.3.2.1.1. change from "labels" of severe and mild learning disabilities to "areas" of difficulties like communication, behaviour, physical, etc (p. 3)

7.3.2.2. impact of legislation on assessment procedures

7.3.2.2.1. process is too top heavy (p. 6)

7.3.2.3. developments in inclusive education

7.3.2.3.1. appropriate resources provide for better inclusion (p. 8)

8. References

8.1. Auerbach, S. (2012). Conceptualizing leadership for authentic partnerships: A continuum to inspire practice. In Auerbach, S. (Ed.), School leadership for authentic family and community partnerships (Ch. 3, pp. 29-51). New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group

8.2. Avramidis, E., Bayliss, P., & Burden, R. (2000). A Survey into Mainstream Teachers’ Attitudes Towards the Inclusion of Children with Special Educational Needs in the Ordinary School in one Local Education Authority. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology 20(2). pp.191-211. doi: 10.1080/713663717

8.3. Epstein, J. L., et al. (2009). School, family, and community partnerships: Your handbook for action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

8.4. Farrell, P. (2001). Current issues in special needs: Special education in the last twenty years: have things really got better? British Journal of Special Education 28(1). pp.3-9. doi: 10.1111/1467-8527.t01-1-00197

8.5. Goldring, E., & Berends, M. (2009). Leading with data: Pathways to improve your school. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

8.6. Shelden, D., Angell, M., Stoner, J. & Roseland, B. (2010). School principals' influence on trust: Perspectives of mothers of children with disabilities. The Journal of Educational Research, 103(3), 159-170. DOI:10.1080/00220670903382921