OCEB Fundamental

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OCEB Fundamental por Mind Map: OCEB Fundamental

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2. Business Goals, Objectives

2.1. Typical Business Functions

2.1.1. Core (Principal) Finance Ensure that money is available to operate the enterprise Accounting Tracks cash flow, counts revenues, expenses, etc Operations Produces the actual product or provides services Marketing Marketing monitoring, advertisement, product development Information Systems Selects, operates, and develops IT services Sales Sells the product to individual customers

2.1.2. Support Human Resources Recruits, hires, retains, and trains staff Legal Department Esures that laws are adhered to, provides legal and patent advice as well as legal representation Facility Management Manages and maintains buildings and facilities

2.2. Managers & competencies

2.2.1. Definition Person who organizes, plans, supports, defines, and assesses the work of others

2.2.2. 7 key competencies Goal setting Planning Decision making Delegation Support Communication Controlling

2.3. Business Strategies

2.3.1. Means to the business end and must match the entreprise´s mission

2.3.2. Defines the direction into which and organization develops

2.4. Strategy Development Steps

2.4.1. Analyses the market enviroment

2.4.2. Divides the market into segments

2.4.3. Analyzes its strenghts and weakness

2.4.4. Sets objectives and plans the measures to be taken

2.5. Porter's Five Forces

2.5.1. Rivalry among competitors

2.5.2. Threats of new competitors/barriers to entry

2.5.3. Bargaining power of consumers/buyers

2.5.4. Threats of substitute products or services

2.5.5. Bargaining power of suppliers

2.6. STEP Analysis (or PEST analysis)

2.6.1. Sociological/Demographic factors

2.6.2. Technological factors

2.6.3. Economic factors

2.6.4. Political factors

2.7. Market Segmentation

2.7.1. Subdivided a market into small, manageable segments

2.8. SWOT Analysis

2.8.1. Strengths

2.8.2. Weakness

2.8.3. Opportunities

2.8.4. Threats

2.9. Marketing concepts

2.9.1. Definitions Is the market-oriented realization of enterprise goals and alignment of the entire enterprise in the market Is the process in the economic and social structure that individual and groups uses to meet their requirements

2.9.2. Process elements Market segmentation Market research Placement Strategy developement Pricing Value chain

2.9.3. Value chain Represents a collection of activities that are performed to design, produce, market, deliver, and support its products. Consist of inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, service, infrastructure, human resources, technology Example

2.10. Projects

2.10.1. Is an undertaking with limited timeframes and budget to delivery clearly results

2.10.2. Is undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives

2.11. Project Management

2.11.1. Is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to a set of activities to meet a specified objective

2.11.2. Group of processes Initiation Planning Executing Controlling Closing

2.12. Financial concepts

2.12.1. Cost types Fixed costs Are constant within a specific period of time and are independent of the production volume Examples Variable costs Are costs that vary if the production volume changes Examples Overhead costs Can be allocated only INDIRECTLY to a cost unit (product, service) Examples

2.12.2. Working capital the amount that enable a company meet its obligations Includes the money in bank accounts and in cash register, stocks, sellable stocks, and receivables

2.12.3. Return on Investiment (ROI) How cost-effective is something for the capital invested

2.12.4. Analysis methods Break-even analysis point at which sales revenue equals production costs Decision trees allows us to evaluate different choices

3. Business Processes (BP) Concepts

3.1. Business Process (BP)

3.1.1. Definitions Series of steps designed to produce a product or service Coherent set of activities carried out by a collaborating group to achieve a goal

3.1.2. Main characteristics of a BP Business process are complex, according to Howard Smith e Peter Fingar (Book The Third Wave) Number of branches makes a process complex Ability to change Because enterprises have to adapts to changes in market

3.1.3. Main BP elements Roles Processes are oriented toward roles and not toward individuals Persons are actors in the processes Employees and customers have roles in a process Process steps Activities executed by the roles Business rules something that must be adhered when a process is executed

3.2. Discovering BPs

3.2.1. Goal To detect implicit knowledge about as-is processes and make it explicit

3.2.2. Business Process Analysis (PBA) Serves to discover weakness and enables as-is/to-be comparisons

3.2.3. Roles envolved Sponsor Setup a PBA project, assumes responsability for it and specifies goals Subject Matter Experts (SME) Who provide the process content Process Analysts Who control and implement the methodologies of PBA

3.3. Degrees of abstraction

3.3.1. Descriptive modeling Maps BP in a high level of detail (compact information) Provides an overview of the process Consist of simple diagrams Ideal to communicate BP across organization units simple diagrams are easier to understand

3.3.2. Analytical modeling Variants and exceptions of the BP are described here Can be use to analyze the effectiveness of processes Level that IT department requires to create an implementation

3.3.3. Executable modeling Means that the model itself is executable and can be directly used for automating the BP Requires a lot of details Could be represented in BPMN or other languages

4. BP Management Concepts

4.1. Total Quality Management (TQM)

4.1.1. The initial ideas were developed by William Edwards Deming, Joseph Juran, and Kaoru Ishikawa em 1940

4.1.2. Principles Management by process because quality issues often arise there Analysis of process deviations because uncontrolled deviations are the main cause of quality issues Quality improvement projects, which should work on a solid data basis about the process Quality improvement, which is a continuous process

4.2. Business Process Reengineering (BPR)

4.2.1. Was initiated by an article by Thomas Davenport and James R and other article by Michael Hammer

4.2.2. IT is key enabler of BPM

4.2.3. Approach more radical

4.3. Process-focused organization

4.3.1. Business processes are orthogonal to this structure

4.3.2. Alignment along business processes is referred as horizontal structure

4.3.3. Concentring on the horizontal structure may have the disadvantage that functional expertise is duplicated

4.3.4. Process owner Assist in desing of process Primarily responsible for process performance

4.4. SOA

4.4.1. Service-oriented architecture (SOA)

4.4.2. The aim is to create a platform that removes the business processes from any dependencies on the technology and applications.

4.5. BPMS

4.5.1. Business Process Management System

4.5.2. Is a collection of IT applications that supports and measures the business process

4.5.3. Facilitates the integration of data in back-end systems

4.6. Systems Thinking

4.6.1. Means to consider the system as a whole

4.6.2. All parts, their connections, and interactions are taken into account

5. Business Modeling

5.1. BMM

5.1.1. Business Motivation Model (BMM)

5.1.2. Created by Business Rules Group (BRG) and now is mantained by OMG

5.1.3. Provides a structure for defining and developing a business plan

5.1.4. BMM elements End Vision Desired Result Means What are necessary to achieve the Ends Mission Course of Action Directive Influencer Which influencers the enterprise is exposed Influencers can shape the others elements of a business plan Can be external ou internal Could be an events that ocurred on the market Could be facts or habits Its something neutral without an assessment Assessment The presence of qualitative words indicates a statement about an Influencer Judges the impact of the influencer on the end or means of the enterprise SWOT analysis is used for this Example

6. BP Modeling Concepts

6.1. BPMN

6.1.1. Provide a standardized graphical notation for modeling BPs

6.1.2. Can be mapped to executable XML-based process language as BPEL4WS

6.2. Flow objects

6.2.1. Activities generic term for work that company performs Types Task Subprocess

6.2.2. Events Something that “happens” during the course of a business process. Types Start Intermediate End

6.2.3. Gateways Used to control the divergence and convergence of Sequence Flow Types

6.3. Connecting Objects

6.3.1. Sequence Flow Show the order that activities will be performed in a process Connect flow objects Never used to connect elements in separated pools (for this use Message Flow)

6.3.2. Message Flow Show the flow of messages between two participants (pools) Never used to connect elements into the same pool

6.3.3. Association Associate (connect) information with Flow Objects Text and Data Objects can be associated with Flow Objects Example of use

6.4. Swimlanes

6.4.1. Pool Represents a Participant in a Process Pool without objects = Black box Pool with objects inside = White box

6.4.2. Lane Sub-partition visual within a Pool

6.5. Artifacts

6.5.1. Data Object Represent information used or produced Connected to flow object using the Association Example of use

6.5.2. Group Visual mechanism to group elements of a diagram Has no effect on process execution

6.5.3. Annotation Mechanism for a modeler to provide additional information for the reader

7. BP Modeling Skills

7.1. Types of models created using BPMN

7.1.1. Private (internal) business processes Internal to a specific organization If Swimlanes are used, then a private business process will be contained within a single Pool Example Sem título

7.1.2. Abstract (public) processes Represents the interactions between a private business process and another process or participant Only those activities that are used to communicate outside the private business process, plus the appropriate flow control mechanisms, are included in the abstract process The external participant pool doens´t show the activities (is a black box) Example Sem título

7.1.3. Collaboration (global) Processes Depicts the interactions between two or more business entities Can be shown as two or more abstract processes communicating with each other Every pool shows activities considered the “touch-points” (are white boxes) Example

7.2. Subprocesses

7.2.1. Types of standard markers

7.2.2. Could be used as a Parallel box Expanded Sub-Process may be used as a mechanism for showing a group of parallel activities Does not include a Start Event or an End Event and the Sequence Flow to/from these Events No marker is shown All activities inside are executed in parallel Example

7.2.3. Ad-hoc The activities within an Ad Hoc Process are not controlled or sequenced in a particular order, their performance is determined by the performers of the activities. Shall be marked with a "tilde" Example

7.3. Events

7.3.1. Start Indicates where a particular process will start is OPTIONAL when doesn´t exist any End Event If there is an End Event, then there MUST be at least one Start Event If no Start Event is not used, then all the starting Flow Objects will start at the same time There MAY be multiple Start Events for a given Process level Each Start Event is an independent event.

7.3.2. End Indicates where a process will end Will not have any outgoing Sequence Flow There MAY be multiple End Events within a single level of a process is OPTIONAL when doens´s exist any Start Event If there is a Start Event, then there MUST be at least one End Event. If the End Event is not used, then all Flow Objects that do not have any outgoing Sequence Flow mark the end of a path in the Process. However, the process MUST NOT end until all parallel paths have completed.

7.3.3. Intermediate Indicates where something happens (an Event) somewhere between the Start and End of a Process Basic events Message Timer

7.4. Gateways

7.4.1. Data-Based Exclusive Alternatives based on the boolean expression “X” inside is OPTIONAL Only one of the paths can be taken Example Sem título

7.4.2. Event-Based Exclusive Alternatives are based on events that occurs Only one of the paths can be taken TaskType Receive, Message, Timers and others Intermediate Events could be used as alternatives Example Sem título

7.4.3. Inclusive Alternatives are based on conditional expressions Each path is independent, all combinations of the paths may be taken Two forms Using collection of conditional Sequence Flow Using an Inclusive Gateway When the Inclusive Gateway is used as a Merge, it will synchronize all Tokens that have been produced upstream

7.4.4. Parallel Is optional to create a parallel flow Is used for synchronizing parallel flow Wait for all tokens

8. Frameworks

8.1. Process Frameworks

8.1.1. PFC Process Classification Framework (PFC) Created by American Productivity & Quality Center (APQC) Categorizes a wide range of processes Serve as basis to assess processes in a enterprise, obtain best practices, otimize a process Organized hierarchically 5 operating processes 7 Management and support services Figure Structure Process categories > Process groups > Processes > Activities Example of structure

8.1.2. SCOR Supply Chain Operations Reference Model (SCOR) Created by Supply Chain Council (SCC) Hierarchical reference model for supply chain processes Defines business processes, dependencies between processes, metrics, and best practices Comprises 5 management processes Plan Source Make Deliver Return The process chain goes from the suppliers´suppliers, to the enterpise considered, to the customers´customers Image Structure

8.1.3. VRM Value Reference Model (VRM) Created by Value Chain Group Addresses the planning, governing, and execution of value chains Describes reference processes on three process level Strategic Processes Tactical Processes Operational Processes

8.2. Quality Frameworks

8.2.1. Basic Concepts Quality Means to meet the customer´s requirements

8.2.2. BPMM Business Process Maturity Model Maintained by OMG Similar to CMMI Follow the principles of Watts Humphrey Who developed the first maturity model at SEI(Software Engineering Institute) There are 5 maturity levels 1 - Initial 2 - Managed 3 - Standardized 4 - Predictable 5 - Inovative Appraisal teams Who determine whether businesses processes of an enterprise comply with maturity level of BPMM Consist of an external team leader and team members

8.2.3. Six Sigma Is a methodology for quality improvvement Developed by Motorola in the mid-1980s Comprise five steps named DMAIC Define the improvement goals Measure the current process Analyze the process Improve the process Control the changed process A process with Six Sigma has 3.4 DPMO (Defects per Million Opportunities) Means that only 3.4 defective results exist in one million opportunities Uses Controls Charts to monitor the process output Example of Graph

8.2.4. ISO 9000 Specify a set of guidelines for quality improvements ISO 9001 certification does not certify products or service, certify only the quality management system

8.3. Regulations and Governance Frameworks

8.3.1. Basel II Regulations for the banking and financials area Created by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision Consist of 3 pillars Minimum capital requirements Supervisory review and evaluation process Advanced information disclosure; for example, owner´s equity structure

8.3.2. SOX Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) Was created by USA after accounting scandals of the U.S. companies Eron and Worldcom The goal is ensure the correctness and reliability of published financial data of enterpreses whose stocks are dealt on the U.S. stock exchanges

8.3.3. COBIT Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology Developed by ISACA and ITGI Comprises a range of best practices for IT Governance and Management Defines 34 IT processes and 210 control objectives Can be used in the enviroment of SOX and Basell II implementations

8.4. Management Frameworks

8.4.1. BSC Balanced Scorecard (BSC) Developed by Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton Used as basis for strategic planning The scorecards are subdivides in 4 perspectives Financial Customer Internal Learning and growth Help to identify Key Performance Indicator (KPIs) Business metric that measures the degree of fulfillment of a goal or Critical Success Factor (CSF)