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Unit 7 por Mind Map: Unit 7

1. Memory

1.1. 3 Stage Processing Model

1.1.1. Encoding

1.1.1.1. Turning experiences into memory

1.1.2. Storage

1.1.2.1. Retaining memories

1.1.3. Retrieval

1.1.3.1. Recovering memory for use

1.2. Encoding

1.2.1. Automatic Processing

1.2.1.1. Encoding done without effort; includes space, time, frequency, and well-understood information

1.2.2. Effortful Processing

1.2.2.1. Have to focus on it and practice

1.2.2.2. Rehersal

1.2.2.2.1. Maintenance Rehearsal

1.2.2.2.2. Elaborative Rehearsal

1.2.2.3. Spacing Effect

1.2.2.3.1. It is better to space out practicing over time than to do it all at once

1.2.2.4. Serial Position Effect

1.2.2.4.1. Remember first and last things best; had more time to remember the first things, and saw the last ones more recently

1.2.3. Parallel Processing

1.2.3.1. All steps occur simultaneously; requires a great deal of brainpower

1.2.4. Visual Encoding

1.2.4.1. Remembering sight

1.2.4.2. Mnemonic Devices

1.2.4.2.1. Use visual encoding and creative methods to help memory

1.2.5. Acoustic Encoding

1.2.5.1. Remembering sound, especially sounds of words

1.2.6. Semantic Encoding

1.2.6.1. Remembering meanings, especially word meanings

1.3. Storage

1.3.1. Sensory Memory

1.3.1.1. Fleeting sensory impressions

1.3.1.2. Iconic Memory

1.3.1.2.1. Visual sensory register, lasts for tenths of a second

1.3.1.3. Echoic Memory

1.3.1.3.1. Auditory sensory register, up to 3/4 second

1.3.2. Long-Term Potentiation

1.3.2.1. Physical changes in synapses, neurotransmitters, and neural pathways to store memories more effectively

1.3.2.2. Mostly happens during sleep; consolidation

1.3.3. Explicit and Implicit Memories

1.3.3.1. Explicit Memories

1.3.3.1.1. Things you can declare (facts, experiences, etc.)

1.3.3.2. Implicit Memories

1.3.3.2.1. Procedures/actions you know how to do

1.3.4. Hippocampus

1.3.4.1. Part of the brain that reconstructs explicit memories

1.3.5. Cerebellum

1.3.5.1. Part of the brain that manages implicit memories and classical conditioning

1.4. Retrieval

1.4.1. Recall

1.4.1.1. Retrieving memories without seeing them

1.4.2. Recognition

1.4.2.1. Identifying something previously learned when you see it

1.4.3. Retrieval Cues

1.4.3.1. Senses and surroundings can assist in retrieving memories

1.4.4. State-Dependent Memory

1.4.4.1. More likely to recall something when you are a similar state as when the memory was formed

1.4.5. Mood Contruent Memory

1.4.5.1. Can remember memories formed in a similar mood to your current one

1.4.6. Relearning

1.4.6.1. Relearning information is faster, because some information is kept

1.5. Problems with memory

1.5.1. Source Amnesia

1.5.1.1. Forget where your information came from

1.5.2. Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve

1.5.2.1. Forget most information quickly, then rate of loss levels out

1.5.3. Retroactive Interference

1.5.3.1. New learning interferes with old knowledge

1.5.4. Proactive Interference

1.5.4.1. Old knowledge interferes with new learning

1.5.5. Misinformation Effect

1.5.5.1. Ways that memories can have misinformation

1.5.5.2. Wording Effects

1.5.5.2.1. Words used can alter our memories

1.5.5.3. Retelling

1.5.5.3.1. Every time reconstructing a memory, little inaccuracies get in

1.5.5.4. Imagination Inflation

1.5.5.4.1. If imagine something enough, eventually might believe it actually happened

1.5.6. Deja Vu

1.5.6.1. Eerie sense of having experienced something before, often prompted by similar setting

1.5.7. Repression

1.5.7.1. Freudian idea that extremely stressful memories are hidden from conscious memory; believed to be nonexistent by many modern psychologists

1.5.8. Amnesia

1.5.8.1. Retrograde Amnesia

1.5.8.1.1. Can't remember anything from before a certain date

1.5.8.2. Anterograde Amnesia

1.5.8.2.1. Inability to transfer information from the short term to long term memory

1.6. Self-Reference Effect

1.6.1. Remember things better when you are more involved in it

1.7. Transfer of Learning

1.7.1. Positive Transfer

1.7.1.1. When information is helpful in learning other information

2. Thinking, Problem Solving, and Language

2.1. Language Learning and thinking

2.1.1. Receptive language

2.1.1.1. children's language development

2.1.1.1.1. Children can discriminate individual sounds

2.1.2. Statistical learning

2.1.2.1. Infants can learn statistical aspects of speech quite quickly

2.1.2.2. Linguistic determinism

2.1.2.2.1. Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think

2.1.3. Bilingual Advantages

2.1.3.1. Learn a language when you are a baby to pick up the morphemes

2.1.3.1.1. Otherwise you will never actually be fluent

2.1.4. Critical Period

2.1.4.1. If you miss it, your language development is delayed

2.1.5. Operant Learning

2.1.5.1. What you learn is determined by the consequences of it

2.2. Thinking

2.2.1. Concepts

2.2.1.1. mental groupings of similar objects, events, ideas and people

2.2.2. Visualization

2.2.2.1. Visualising images helps you learn

2.2.2.1.1. Parietal Lobe

2.2.3. Prototypes

2.2.3.1. mental image or best example that incorporates all features we associate with category

2.3. Solving Probelms

2.3.1. Strategies

2.3.1.1. heuristics

2.3.1.1.1. simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems

2.3.1.2. algorithms

2.3.1.2.1. Procedures that guarantee a solution

2.3.1.3. Insight

2.3.1.3.1. sudden and often novel realisation of the solution of problem

2.3.2. Creativity

2.3.2.1. Definition

2.3.2.1.1. ability to produce idea that are both novel and valuable

2.3.2.2. Five Components

2.3.2.2.1. Expertise

2.3.2.2.2. Imaginative thinking skills

2.3.2.2.3. Venturesome personality

2.3.2.2.4. Intrinsic Motivation

2.3.2.2.5. Creative Environment

2.3.3. Obstacles

2.3.3.1. Confirmation Bias

2.3.3.1.1. Seek evidence to verify our ideas

2.3.3.2. fixation

2.3.3.2.1. inability to see problem from fresh perspective

2.3.3.3. mental set

2.3.3.3.1. tendency to approach a problem in one particular way

2.3.3.4. Functional fixedness

2.3.3.4.1. tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions, bad for problem solving

2.3.4. Heuristics

2.3.4.1. Availability heuristic

2.3.4.1.1. estimating likelihood of events based on availability in memory

2.3.4.2. Representative heuristic

2.3.4.2.1. Shortcut made to judge likelihood of uncertain event

2.3.5. More Obstacles

2.3.5.1. Overconfidence

2.3.5.1.1. tendency to be more confident than correct

2.3.5.2. Belief Perseverance

2.3.5.2.1. clinging to initial ideas even when proven wrong

2.3.6. Intuition and Framing

2.3.6.1. Intuition

2.3.6.1.1. Immediate automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning

2.3.6.2. Framing

2.3.6.2.1. way we present an issue can alter how it is perceived

2.3.7. Types of thinking

2.3.7.1. Convergent Thinking

2.3.7.1.1. There is only one right answer, and you're trying to find it

2.3.7.2. Divergent thinking

2.3.7.2.1. One question, and many ways to answer it

2.4. Language

2.4.1. Defintion

2.4.1.1. Spoken, written or signed words and they ways we combine them as we think

2.4.1.2. Structure

2.4.1.2.1. phonemes

2.4.1.2.2. morpheme

2.4.1.2.3. Grammar