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Neurodevelopment by Mind Map: Neurodevelopment
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Spatiotemporal adaptation

Nervous system maturation



Dependent on active involvement of the infant with the environment




Higher level responses result from integration of lower level function


Purposeful sequences of activity

Sensorimotor-sensory (SMS), Assimilation, Accommodation, Association, Differentiation

Spiralling Continuum

Four important principles: Adaptation process with new experiences is dependent on past experiences. When new and past experiences are integrated, past behaviours are modified and result in higher level behaviour. Integration of higher level behaviours influence and increase maturity of lower level behaviours. Spatiotemporal stress allows lower level behaviours to emerge during adaptation.    



Motor Development (Movement & Posture)


Gross to fine

Cephalo-caudal & proximal-distal

Involuntary to voluntary

Mobility & stability, Mobility, Stability, Combined mobility & stability, Blended mobility & stability

Birth-6 months

Reflexes & Reactions, Primitive reflexes, Phasic, Tonic, Transitional reactions, Mature reactions

Weight bearing & Weight Shift, Weight bear, Bilateral weight shift, Unilateral weight shift, Contralateral weight shift

Postural Extension in prone, Physiological flexion, Head lift, Primary support reactions on elbows, Head control on elbows, Weight bearing on hands, Weight shift to one side, Prone extension, Pivoting

Antigravity Flexion in Supine, Physiological flexion, Head lag, Head alignment, Hands to midline, Pull to sit, Hands to feet and mouth

6-9 months

Rolling, Primitive (Birth-3 mths), Primary turning (1-2 months), Transitional (3-8 mths), Spontaneous rolling (3-5 months), Deliberate roll to prone (6-7 months), Deliberate roll to supine (6-7 months), Mature (9 mths), Rolling (8-9 months)

Sitting, Primitive (Birth-3 mths), Primary sitting (1-2 months), Head lag (1-2 months), Head align (2-3 months), Transitional (3-8 mths), Pull to sit (4-5 months), Hands to feet/feet to mouth (4-5 months), Supported sitting (5-6 months), Mature (9 mths), Sitting (7-11 months)

9-12 months (Infancy)

Creeping, Primitive (Birth-3 mths), Protective head turning, Primary crawling, Head lift-primitive support (0-2 months), Transitional (3-8 mths), Head control on elbows (3-4 months), Head control on hands (4-5 months), Prone extension (5-6 months), Pivoting (6 month), Crawling, Mature (9-12 mths), Creeping

Standing & Walking, Primitive (Birth-3 mths), Primitive standing, Primitive walking, Transitional (3-8 mths), Pull to stand, Supported standing, Supported walking, Mature (9-12 mths), Squatting, Standing, Walking

1-3 years (Toddlerhood)

Prehension (hand skills), Primitive (Birth-3 mths), Primary Release, Primary Grasp, Swiping, Transitional (3-8 mths), Scratching, Crude Palmar Grasp, Reach & Pat, Palmar Grasp, Index Probing, Instinctive Grasp, Mature (9-15 mths), Visual Orientation, Inferior Pinch, Superior Pinch, Prehension, Manipulative Prehension

Perceptual Development

Somatosensory Perception

  Myelinate before the visual system. Input from these systems assist in the formation of spatial maps/schema for providing: - Information about space and form perception, spatial relationships of body in space. - Basis for developing body awareness (e.g. Vestibular system also has large input in this area).    




Visual Perception

Components, Visual receptive, Primary visual system, Secondary visual system, Pathways for eye movement control, Visual cognitive, Visual attention, Visual memory, Visual discrimination, Visual integration (VMI)

Types, Object (Form) Perception, Figure-ground, Form constancy, Visual closure, Spatial Perception, Depth perception, Position in space, Spatial relationships (topographical orientation)

Perceptual Motor Integration

What's involved (model)

Sensory stimulus

Sensory reception & processing

Sensory integration

Motor planning

Motor execution



Sensory perceptual function

Motor, Gross motor, Fine motor

Spatial Dimensions, Spatial awareness, Self in space, Use of space, Directional awareness, Laterality, Directionality, Body awareness, Body scheme, Body image

Spatial relationships

Temporal awareness, Timing, Rhythm

Perceptual Motor & Symbolic Development

Concrete reality

Symbolic development

Cognitive & Language Development

Communication Disorders


Broca's aphasia

Wernicke's aphasia

Conduction aphasia

Global aphasia



Trust vs Mistrust (0-18 months)

Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt (2-4 years)


Learning to communicate wants & refusals

Learing to walk

Learning to take solid food

Learning to talk

Learning to control body functions


Sensorimotor period, Substages, Reflexive (birth-1 month), Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months), Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months), Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions (8-12 months), Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months), Mental representation (18-24 months), Key developments, Object permanence, Causality, Symbolic representation

Preoperational, Symbolic Function, Egocentricity, Centring behaviour, Classification, Seriation

Concrete operations, Closure, Reversibility, Associativity, Identity, Classification, Seriation, Conservation

Formal operations