Respiratory System

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Respiratory System by Mind Map: Respiratory System

1. Cells constantly use oxygen to realise energy from nutrients and to capture it as ATP. These reactions produce C02 as a waste product.

2. Anatomy

2.1. Upper Tract - lined with ciliated mucosa - warms, humidifies, filters, moves dust and secrets lysozyme.

2.1.1. Nose - chamber for speech, nasal cavity and houses the scent.

2.1.2. Pharynx - passageway for for and air, houses the tonsils.

2.2. Lower Tract

2.2.1. Larynx Cartilaginors tube lined with mucus membrane. Voice box formed with 3 pieces of large cartilage Internal and External laryngeal muscles.

2.2.2. Production of sounds The mucus membrane of the larynx forms as upper pair of vestibular folds and the Lower vocal folds. The vocal cords are elastic ligaments stretched between rigid cartilage.

2.2.3. Trachea Divids into 2 main bronchi and very flexible. Supported by 20 C shaped cartilage bands

2.2.4. Bronchi and Bronchioles Left and right bronchi are supported by in complete rings of cartilage.

2.2.5. Lungs covered by the pleura right lung has 3 lobes and left lung has 2 lubes ands Is 10% smaller. Each lung contains bronchi, then bronchioles, smaller which end in alveoli.

2.2.6. Alveoli 25 million at birth and 300 million in adult hood. Have tiny passage which allows them to pass air to each other 2 major types of epithelial cells fro, there waves - secretes and gas exchange surfactant.

3. Respiratory physiology

3.1. Pulmonary

3.2. exchange of oxygen and C02

3.3. Transport of gases in the blood

3.4. regulation of ventilation

3.5. factors influencing respirated

4. Pulmonary Ventrilation

4.1. movement of air in and out of the lungs so that gases in the alveoli and constantly changed and refreshed.

4.2. Insipiraion and development of negative pressure within the chest to allow air to low in down a pressure gradient into the lungs.

5. Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide .

5.1. External - oxygen diffuses from air in alveoli to the blood in pulmonary capillaries because P02 is higher in the air than in de-oxygenated blood. Independently C02 diffuses in the opposite direction because PC02 is higher in the blood than in the alveoli.

5.2. Internal - Occurs between the blood in the capillaries and tissue cells throughout the body. this happens because of differences in the particle pressures of the gases. Cells constantly make C02 (which raises in PC02) whilst consuming oxygen to make ATP (lowers the Pc02)

5.3. Transport of Oxygen -

5.3.1. Oxygen doesn't dissolve well in water.

5.3.2. 98.5% is carried by erythrocytes as oxyhemoglobin.

5.3.3. When P02 is high oxyhemoglobin bind tightly together and becomes saturated.

5.3.4. When PC02 of temp rises haemoglobin releases oxygen more readily.

5.4. Transport of Carbon Dioxide

5.4.1. About 7% dissolves in the plasma.

5.4.2. Proteins in the blood pick up and carry another 23% as carbonminohaemoglobin.

5.4.3. The majority (70%) combines with water to form carbonic acid which separates into hydrogen and bicarbonate ions : H2C03 H+ HC03

5.4.4. Bicarbonate Ions are transported in the plasma.

6. Regulation of respiration

6.1. Control primarily life with neurons in reticular system of the medulla and pots.

6.2. The medulla oblongata includes the rental respiratiory group and the dorsal respirtaotry group.

7. Factors influencing respiration

7.1. the rate and depth of breathing is mainly influence by changes in PC02, P02 and pH of arterial blood.

7.2. The branch stem has central chemoreceptors

7.3. the aortic arch and carotid arteries have peripheral chemoreceptors.

7.4. voluntary control by the cereal cortex.

7.5. anxiety, anticipation and commencing exercise raises respiratory rate and depth.

7.6. pain may raise or lower the respiratory rate.

7.7. irritation of the pharynx or larynx stops breathing then causes coughing or sneezing,