Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. 4 purposes of Education

1.1.1. Intellectual purpose: to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics.

1.1.2. political purpose: to inculcate allegiance to the existing political order (patriotism)

1.1.3. social purpose: to help solve social problems.

1.1.4. economic purpose: to prepare students for their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor.

1.2. Perspectives

1.2.1. conservative perspective on the role of school: that each student should have the opportunity to compete individually in the educational marketplace and that schools should reward individual effort, that individuals succeed on their own and school should provide a place where individual merit is encouraged and rewarded.

1.2.2. Liberal perspective of unequal performance: that all students begin school with different life chances, society must attempt through policies and programs to equalize the playing field so that students from disadvantaged backgrounds have a better chance.

1.2.3. The radical perspective on the definition of educational problems: 1) educational system has failed the poor, minorities, and women through classist, racist,sexiest and homophobic policies. 2)schools have stifled critical understanding of the problems of American society through a curriculum and teaching practices that promote conformity. 3)The traditional curriculum is classist, racist, sexist, and homophobic and leaves out the cultures, histories, and voices of the oppressed. 4) The educational system promotes inequality of both opportunity and results.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Reform movement/Rise of the common school

2.1.1. Movement to open common/ free public schools.

2.1.2. Horace Mann/ first board of education

2.1.2.1. Normal school/ teacher training school

2.1.2.2. School:balance wheel/equalizer of the conditions of men.

2.2. The Radical-Revisionist School

2.2.1. Schools expanded to help the higher elite class keep control over the lower working class.

3. Sociology of Education

3.1. Theoretical Perspective

3.1.1. Functional Perspective:Education creates the moral unity of society

3.1.2. Conflict perspective:Schools are oppressive and students are rebellious.

3.1.3. Interactional perspective:Society developes as a result of interaction between students and teachers.

3.2. Effects of school on individuals

3.2.1. Employment:Typically the higher the education the better job one has.

3.2.2. Teacher Behavior: Teacher expectations directly influence students achievement.

3.2.3. Inadequate schools:Affluent schools provide more than poorer schools

3.2.4. Education and Inequality:Social classes are perpetuated by society and schools

3.2.5. Student peer groups and alienation:Students are labeled Nerds, cool and athletes.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism

4.1.1. Encourages people to find the process that works to achieve their desired outcome....Experience Matters.

4.1.2. Researchers

4.1.2.1. John Dewey, George Sanders Pierce, William jJames, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau

4.1.3. Goal of Education

4.1.3.1. Provide students with knowledge to improve society.

4.1.4. Role of Teacher

4.1.4.1. Facilitator of learning activities

4.1.5. Methods of Instructions

4.1.5.1. Learn individually and in group settings

4.1.6. Curriculum

4.1.6.1. Intergrated core subjuects, teaching across the curriculum

5. Schools as Orginizations

5.1. Stakeholders

5.1.1. Senators

5.1.1.1. Richard Shelby

5.1.1.2. Doug Jones

5.1.2. HoR

5.1.2.1. Robert Aderholt

5.1.3. State Super

5.1.3.1. Tommy Bice

5.1.4. State Board

5.1.4.1. Cynthia McCarty

5.1.5. Boaz BOE

5.1.5.1. SUper

5.1.5.1.1. Dr. Shannon Stanley

5.1.5.2. Members

5.1.5.2.1. Rhonda Smith, Tim Whitt, Rick Thompson, Jeff Roberts,Chad Cofield

5.2. Elements of change

5.2.1. School process

5.2.1.1. School districts larger, reducing number of districts, superintendents more powerfull, teachers less say

5.2.2. School cultures

5.2.2.1. de jure segregation replaced by de facto segregation

6. Transmission of Knowledge

6.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

6.1.1. Concerned with the students need more then society needs, emphasized teaching and the content.

6.2. Dominant Traditions of teaching

6.2.1. Mimetic Tradition: The teacher passes on knowledge through lectures and presentations.

6.2.2. Trnsformative Tradition: More student involved conversations. Student is a big part of the education process.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Impacts on Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Class

7.1.1.1. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class.

7.1.2. Race

7.1.2.1. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans.

7.1.3. Gender

7.1.3.1. In the last 20 years gains have been made to equalize gender educational attainment.

7.2. Coleman Study 1982

7.2.1. Private school students outperform public school students, difference in schools matters.

7.2.2. Private schools are more demanding of their students than public schools.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Differences

8.1.1. Fordam & Ogbu

8.1.1.1. Requires blacks to deny their identities and exceot the dominant culture of schools. "burden of acting white"

8.1.2. Willis 1981

8.1.2.1. Working class rejects middle class values, reject school and academic success, drop out of school and go into the world of work.

8.2. School centered Educational Inequality

8.2.1. School financing

8.2.1.1. Schools with higher property taxes have more money coming in for educational purposes

8.2.2. School climate

8.2.2.1. Difference between authoritarian run and less authoritarian more student centered.

8.2.3. Curriculum and Ability Grouping

8.2.3.1. Students in lower groups don't get challenging curriculum

8.2.4. Teacher Expectations

8.2.4.1. If the teacher expects more they will put more into challenging that student.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School-Based Reform

9.1.1. Teacher Education

9.1.1.1. 5 goals, Improve education for teachers and continued educaction workshops for teachers.

9.1.2. Privatization

9.1.2.1. Private education companies taking over failing schools, hold most supplemental tutoring contracts.

9.2. Other Reforms

9.2.1. Economic

9.2.1.1. Poorer school districts get extra funding for additional programs to eliminate disadvantages.

9.2.2. Community schools

9.2.2.1. Meet not only the students needs but also the families needs through a collaborative fashion between school and community.