The Endocrine System

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The Endocrine System by Mind Map: The Endocrine System

1. Hypothalamus

1.1. Middle of the brain

1.1.1. Controls the Endocrine system

1.1.1.1. Releasing hormones

2. Pituitary Gland-- Master Gland

2.1. Lies in the Sella Turcica of the sphenoid bone​

2.1.1. Anterior Lobe--Adenohypophysis: Made of glands

2.1.1.1. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH--Thyrotropin)

2.1.1.1.1. Stimulates secretion of thyroid hormones (T3 & T4) from thyroid gland

2.1.1.2. Growth Hormone (GH)

2.1.1.2.1. Stimulates cells to enlarge and divide rapidily

2.1.1.2.2. Increase amino acid uptake and protein synthesis

2.1.1.2.3. Decrease rate of carbohydrate usage

2.1.1.2.4. Increases rate of fat usage

2.1.1.3. Prolactin (PRL)

2.1.1.3.1. Promotes milk production in females

2.1.1.3.2. Uncertain function in males

2.1.1.4. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

2.1.1.4.1. Stimulates secretion of cortisol and other glucocorticoids from adrenal cortex

2.1.1.5. Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)

2.1.1.5.1. Causes growth and development of ovarian follicles in females

2.1.1.5.2. Causes growth and development of sperm production in males

2.1.1.6. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

2.1.1.6.1. Causes ovulation in females

2.1.1.6.2. Causes sex hormone production in both male and females

2.1.2. Posterior Lobe--Neurohypophysis: Made of Neurons

2.1.2.1. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)-- Vasopressin

2.1.2.1.1. Prevents urine formation

2.1.2.1.2. Regulates water balance

2.1.2.1.3. Triggered by pain, low blood pressure and drugs

2.1.2.1.4. High amounts cause Vasoconstrition

2.1.2.2. Oxytocin

2.1.2.2.1. Stimulant of urine contraction

2.1.2.2.2. Neurotransmitter-- "Cuddle Hormone"

2.1.2.2.3. Trigger for milk ejection

3. Pineal Gland

3.1. Hangs from the third ventricle of the brain​

3.1.1. Pinealocytes

3.1.1.1. Melatonin

3.1.1.1.1. Timing of sexual maturation and puberty

3.1.1.1.2. Day/Night cycles

3.1.1.1.3. Body temperature, sleep, appetite

3.1.1.1.4. Production of antioxidant and detoxification molecules in cells

4. Thyroid Gland

4.1. Inferior to the Larynx​

4.1.1. Follicle Cells

4.1.1.1. Thyroxine-- T4 & Triiodothyronine-- T3

4.1.1.1.1. Hyposecretion: Adults- Myxedema; Infants- Cretinism

4.1.1.1.2. Hypersecretion: Graves' Disease

4.1.2. Parafollicullar Cells

4.1.2.1. Calcitonin

4.1.2.1.1. Antagonist to Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

5. Parathyroid Gland

5.1. Sits on the posterior side of the thyroid gland

5.1.1. Typically 4 glands

5.1.1.1. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

5.1.1.1.1. Increases Ca+2 in the blood

5.1.1.1.2. Decreases PO4^-2 in the blood

5.1.1.1.3. Acts on bones kidneys & intestines

5.1.1.1.4. Hyperparathyroidism: due to tumor-- bones soften; kidney stones

5.1.1.1.5. Hypoparathyroidism: following trauma, magnesium deficiency-- tetany, respiratory paralysis & death

6. Thymus

6.1. Inferior to the heart​

6.1.1. Thymosis

6.1.1.1. Stimulate the development of antibodies

6.1.2. Thymulin

6.1.2.1. Generates T-lymohocytes

6.1.2.1.1. White blood cells that fight infections and destroy abnormal cells

6.1.3. Thymopoientins

6.1.3.1. Affects the rate at which your skin ages

7. Pancreas

7.1. Inferior to the stomach​

7.1.1. Endocrine Functions

7.1.1.1. Hormones into body fluids

7.1.1.2. Alpha Cells

7.1.1.2.1. Glucagon

7.1.1.3. Beta Cells

7.1.1.3.1. Insulin

7.1.1.4. Delta Cells

7.1.1.4.1. Somatostatin

7.1.2. Exocrine Functions

7.1.2.1. Acinar Cells

7.1.2.1.1. Digestive juices through ducts

8. Adrenal Gland-- Supra-renal glands

8.1. Connected to the pancreas​

8.1.1. Adrenal Cortex

8.1.1.1. Steroid Hormones

8.1.1.1.1. Zona Glomerulosa

8.1.1.1.2. Zona Fasciculata

8.1.1.1.3. Zona Reticularis

8.1.2. Adrenal Medulla

8.1.2.1. Amine Hormones

8.1.2.1.1. Epinephrine-- Adrenaline 80%

8.1.2.1.2. Norepinephrine-- Noradrenalin 20%

9. Ovaries

9.1. Placenta

9.1.1. Estrogen

9.1.1.1. Maturation of reproductive organs

9.1.1.2. Appearance of secondary sexual characteristics

9.1.2. Progesterone

9.1.2.1. Breast development

9.1.3. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)

9.2. Lower pelvic region

10. Testis

10.1. Pelvic Region

10.1.1. Testosterone

10.1.1.1. Necessary for sperm production

10.1.1.2. Change in appearance of males secondary sexual characteristics

10.1.1.3. Gives males a sex drive

11. Heart

11.1. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)

11.1.1. Decreases blood Na+ concentration-- Blood pressure and blood volume

12. Kidneys

12.1. Erythropoietin

12.1.1. Signals production of red blood cells

12.2. Renin

12.2.1. Initiates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism

13. Digestive System Cells

13.1. Gatrin

13.1.1. Stimulates the release of HCl

13.2. Secretin

13.2.1. Stimulates liver and pancreas

13.3. Serotonin

13.3.1. Acts as a paracrine

13.4. Cholecystokinin

13.4.1. Stimulates pancreas, gallbladder and sphincter