The Endocrine System

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The Endocrine System by Mind Map: The Endocrine System

1. Pineal Gland

1.1. Hangs from the third ventricle of the brain​

1.1.1. Pinealocytes Melatonin Timing of sexual maturation and puberty Day/Night cycles Body temperature, sleep, appetite Production of antioxidant and detoxification molecules in cells

2. Thyroid Gland

2.1. Inferior to the Larynx​

2.1.1. Follicle Cells Thyroxine-- T4 & Triiodothyronine-- T3 Hyposecretion: Adults- Myxedema; Infants- Cretinism Hypersecretion: Graves' Disease

2.1.2. Parafollicullar Cells Calcitonin Antagonist to Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

3. Parathyroid Gland

3.1. Sits on the posterior side of the thyroid gland

3.1.1. Typically 4 glands Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Increases Ca+2 in the blood Decreases PO4^-2 in the blood Acts on bones kidneys & intestines Hyperparathyroidism: due to tumor-- bones soften; kidney stones Hypoparathyroidism: following trauma, magnesium deficiency-- tetany, respiratory paralysis & death

4. Pancreas

4.1. Inferior to the stomach​

4.1.1. Endocrine Functions Hormones into body fluids Alpha Cells Glucagon Beta Cells Insulin Delta Cells Somatostatin

4.1.2. Exocrine Functions Acinar Cells Digestive juices through ducts

5. Ovaries

5.1. Placenta

5.1.1. Estrogen Maturation of reproductive organs Appearance of secondary sexual characteristics

5.1.2. Progesterone Breast development

5.1.3. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)

5.2. Lower pelvic region

6. Heart

6.1. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)

6.1.1. Decreases blood Na+ concentration-- Blood pressure and blood volume

7. Kidneys

7.1. Erythropoietin

7.1.1. Signals production of red blood cells

7.2. Renin

7.2.1. Initiates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism

8. Hypothalamus

8.1. Middle of the brain

8.1.1. Controls the Endocrine system Releasing hormones

9. Pituitary Gland-- Master Gland

9.1. Lies in the Sella Turcica of the sphenoid bone​

9.1.1. Anterior Lobe--Adenohypophysis: Made of glands Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH--Thyrotropin) Stimulates secretion of thyroid hormones (T3 & T4) from thyroid gland Growth Hormone (GH) Stimulates cells to enlarge and divide rapidily Increase amino acid uptake and protein synthesis Decrease rate of carbohydrate usage Increases rate of fat usage Prolactin (PRL) Promotes milk production in females Uncertain function in males Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Stimulates secretion of cortisol and other glucocorticoids from adrenal cortex Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) Causes growth and development of ovarian follicles in females Causes growth and development of sperm production in males Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Causes ovulation in females Causes sex hormone production in both male and females

9.1.2. Posterior Lobe--Neurohypophysis: Made of Neurons Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)-- Vasopressin Prevents urine formation Regulates water balance Triggered by pain, low blood pressure and drugs High amounts cause Vasoconstrition Oxytocin Stimulant of urine contraction Neurotransmitter-- "Cuddle Hormone" Trigger for milk ejection

10. Thymus

10.1. Inferior to the heart​

10.1.1. Thymosis Stimulate the development of antibodies

10.1.2. Thymulin Generates T-lymohocytes White blood cells that fight infections and destroy abnormal cells

10.1.3. Thymopoientins Affects the rate at which your skin ages

11. Adrenal Gland-- Supra-renal glands

11.1. Connected to the pancreas​

11.1.1. Adrenal Cortex Steroid Hormones Zona Glomerulosa Zona Fasciculata Zona Reticularis

11.1.2. Adrenal Medulla Amine Hormones Epinephrine-- Adrenaline 80% Norepinephrine-- Noradrenalin 20%

12. Testis

12.1. Pelvic Region

12.1.1. Testosterone Necessary for sperm production Change in appearance of males secondary sexual characteristics Gives males a sex drive

13. Digestive System Cells

13.1. Gatrin

13.1.1. Stimulates the release of HCl

13.2. Secretin

13.2.1. Stimulates liver and pancreas

13.3. Serotonin

13.3.1. Acts as a paracrine

13.4. Cholecystokinin

13.4.1. Stimulates pancreas, gallbladder and sphincter