German language

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German language by Mind Map: German language

1. History

1.1. Origins

1.2. Modern German

1.3. Reform of 1996 and beyond

2. Dialects

2.1. Low German

2.1.1. Sleswkkian

2.1.2. Holsatian

2.1.3. North Low Saxon

2.1.4. Dutch Low Saxon

2.1.5. Pomeranian

2.1.6. Margravian

2.1.6.1. North

2.1.6.2. Central

2.2. Central German

2.2.1. Ripuarian

2.2.2. Moselle Franconian

2.2.3. Luxemburgish

2.2.4. Hessian

2.3. High German

2.3.1. East Franconian

2.3.2. South Franconian

2.3.3. Swabian

2.3.4. Alsatian

2.3.5. High/highest Alemannic

2.3.6. Bavarian

2.3.6.1. North

2.3.6.2. Central

2.3.6.3. Southern

2.4. German dialects versus varieties of standard German

3. Standard German

3.1. Official status

3.1.1. Germany

3.1.2. Switzerland

3.1.3. Austria

3.1.4. Belgium

3.1.5. Luxembourg

3.1.6. Sopron (Hungary)

3.1.7. Krahule (Slovakia)

3.1.8. Romania

3.1.9. Vatican Swiss Guard (Italy)

3.2. German as a foreign language

4. Geographic distribution

4.1. Europe

4.1.1. Germany

4.1.2. Austria

4.1.3. Switzerland

4.1.4. Liechtenstein

4.1.5. Luxembourg

4.1.6. Italy

4.1.7. Denmark

4.1.8. France

4.1.9. Belgium

4.2. Overseas

4.2.1. Namibia

4.2.2. Canada

4.2.3. Mexico

4.2.4. South Africa

4.2.5. South America

4.2.6. Australia

4.2.7. USA

4.3. Internet

5. Grammar

5.1. Noun inflection

5.2. Verb inflection

5.2.1. Verb prefixes

5.2.1.1. Separable prefixes

5.3. Word order

5.3.1. Auxiliary verbs

5.3.2. Modal verbs

5.3.3. Multiple infinitives

6. Vocabulary

7. Ortography

7.1. Present

7.2. Past

8. Phonology

8.1. Vowels

8.2. Consonants

8.2.1. Spellings

8.2.1.1. C

8.2.1.2. CH

8.2.1.3. DSCH

8.2.1.4. F

8.2.1.5. H

8.2.1.6. J

8.2.1.7. L

8.2.1.8. Q

8.2.1.9. R

8.2.1.10. S

8.2.1.11. ß

8.2.1.12. SCH

8.2.1.13. TION

8.2.1.14. V

8.2.1.15. W

8.2.1.16. Y

8.2.1.17. Z

8.2.2. Shifts

9. Cognates with English

10. Words borrowed by English

11. Promotion of German language

11.1. Goethe Institut

11.1.1. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

11.2. Deutsche Welle

11.2.1. British BBC World Service