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1.1. A 16 year old girl, weighing 45 kg, attends a party at an unknown venuw to which she was invited to by her friends. When she arrives by car she fails to find her friends, however, proceeds to enter the unknown, isolated venue. She does not eat nor drink and is offered alcohol and drugs by strangers. By the end of the night, she has smoked 0.5 grams of Heroin and 90mL of Vodka. When it is time to leave, she is still under the influence of the drugs and alcohol she has consumed. She offers five of her new friends, all male (under 18), a lift home so that they can avoid paying for a taxi. She is only on her Learning License and is inexperienced at driving at night.

1.1.1. CONSEQUENCES SOCIAL There will be damage to her relationships with her family members, friends and school as she partakes in inappropriate behaviors. LEGAL In this situation she is underage drinking, drink driving on her L license ( which has a zero alcohol regulation), taking an illegal drug and has far too many passengers for an L-plate without an adult supervisor. Drug habit maintaining may also lead to crime. ECONOMIC If she survives the night, she may struggle to support her habit, without her parents knowledge, turning to crime. There may also be resultant costly rehabilitation attempts. EMOTIONAL She will experience extreme cravings and draw backs. If sexually assaulted, she will be traumatised. Multiple consequences, including social, legal, economic and physical, factors, will have a severe impact on her mental state. PHYSICAL As she is underweight, the drugs and alcohol will have a greater impact on her physically. She is at greater risk of overdose, where her breathing reflexes are suppressed. The excitatory function of the drug may mask the inhibiting function of the alcohol. She will be inclined to continue drinking, becoming more impaired than she is aware. Vodka also has a high risk of intoxication. By driving, inexperienced, intoxicated, high and at night, she is putting her self, and her five passengers at risk of a crash. She is also vulnerable to attack or sexual assault. If she continues to use heroin, she will lose more weight, her teeth and hair will fall out and she will experience severe problems with organ function.

1.1.2. INFLUENCES INDIVIDUAL She may be inclined to take drugs as she has a curious attitude, wherein she is interested in seeing what it is like and whether or not she’d actually like it. In a situation where her friend has failed to show, she may also feel that it may make her more interesting easier to talk to by people at the party. She may have mental health issues from childhood trauma (father used to beat mother). She does not respect herself and sees no consequence in consuming such extreme drugs and alcohol. SOCIOCULTURAL She may have been brought up in an unsafe environment, with dysfunctional family circumstances, where respect for self and others was not enforced. She may have therefore been shaped by her childhood to not care for her own health and the safety of other people. She is also most likely coerced into giving the strangers a lift home as she is desperate for new friends to replace the friend who failed to show. LEGAL Moreover, as she has no sense of self-worth/consequence she may also not see the serious legal implications of drugs (such as heroin) and risky behaviours (such as underage drinking/driving). ENVIRONMENTAL Due to her mental health problems and the unexpected absence of her friend she may be desperate to please her new friends by offering them a lift home, where it would have otherwise been inconvenient for them.


2.1. A 17 year old female, weighing 54 kg, was invited to the party of a friend's friend. When she gets there she meets up with her friend. They are not hungry and instead drink soft drink from cups. When her friend is not looking she spikes her friend's drink with 2 ecstasy tablets. She was given the drug by an unknown attendee of the party who said it would help them have more fun. She takes the same amount. Her friend starts to feel the effects and decides to head home. They had originally taken public transport as the venue was a significant distance from her house. However it was past 2 am and the trains were no longer running. They had no money and could not contact a taxi. A stranger offers her and her friend a lift home.

2.1.1. CONSEQUENCES SOCIAL There will be significant social consequences if their actions are discovered. Damage to family, friend and work relations. Moreover, if her friend discovers what she did, their relationship will most likely end. LEGAL Spiking is illegal and there will be severe repercussions along with the illegal nature of the possession/use of ecstasy. ECONOMIC Ecstasy is an amphetamine and is highly addictive and in the long-term it will be quite costly for them to maintain their habit. For the community, there may be certain repercussions as they attempt to support their costly rehabilitation. EMOTIONAL There will be significant emotional consequences if they are sexually assaulted. Moreover, she may experience distress due to regret of her act of betrayal. Ecstasy is also known for causing "mid-week" blues, where the victim experiences a period of depression. PHYSICAL Ecstasy is a powerful psycho stimulant and can cause hallucinations and a dream-like state. Putting the friends at greater risk of sexual assault and crime. Ecstasy also has a high risk of overdose, especially with her small body weight.

2.1.2. INFLUENCES INDIVIDUAL She feels that if she takes the drug she will seem more interesting and likeable by other people at the party, making more friends, even a boyfriend. SOCIOCULTURAL She has social anxiety and feels that she needs to spike her friends drink in order for both of them to have more fun and have more success in socialising. LEGAL In this situation she has not taken legal circumstances into consideration. In a confined environment where she is suffering from anxiety, a stranger's offer may not seem so bad and illegal. ENVIRONMENTAL In a party environment, where she is naturally uncomfortable in such a large group of people socialising she may be desperate to escape her anxiety, whether it be physically or mentally.

3. LOW

3.1. A 20 year old female, weighing 65kg, has invited 4 of her closest friends to her apartment on the ground floor on the weekend. Her friends have brought packets of Cannabis to "add to the fun of the night". After having Pizza for dinner, she is encouraged to smoke 2 grams of Cannabis. However, it is not her first time. Two of her friends also smoke some Cannabis, whereas the other two choose not to. She does not take any more for the rest of the night.

3.1.1. CONSEQUENCES SOCIAL If any degrading photos are taken whilst they are under the influence or word spreads of their use of drugs there will be social repercussions if such evidence falls into the hands of family, other friends and employers. This may impact relationships and hinder employment status. LEGAL There may also be legal consequences as under the influence of the drug they may be inclined to take greater risks. However, this is to a lesser extent as the person in this example is taking only small amounts and are accompanied by people not under any influence. If reported, they are engaged in a criminal activity. ECONOMIC There will be a long-term impact on the person’s economic status if they continue to buy the drug. Cannabis is usually smoked with tobacco, which contains nicotine, a highly addictive chemical, resulting in an ongoing drain on their finances. EMOTIONAL As they were pressured into taking the drug there will be certain repercussions for their emotional health as they contradict their personal values and experience the consequential anguish. PHYSICAL The nicotine in the mixture is highly addictive, and if continued to be smoked, can expose the individual to increased risk of lung cancer. Furthermore, if she continues on to heavy use, she will experience a form of psychosis. Cannabis may also act as a gateway drug leading to more dangerous drug use.

3.1.2. INFLUENCES INDIVIDUAL She may feel that it may make her more interesting and likeable to her friend's as well as help with any form of boredom. If they have no strong feelings about the subject nor the legality, they may consider taking it. Most significantly, if she is uneducated about the consequence of drug taking, she could easily make risky drug-related decisions. SOCIOCULTURAL She was coerced into taking the drug due to peer pressure, as it was expected of her by her friends. She may use drugs as a means to fit in better with everyone else. ECONOMIC As she has been offered the drug for free, she may have leaped at the opportunity to partake in such free supply, as she has used it before, and quite possibly bought it herself. ENVIRONMENTAL Her decision to take drugs was also influenced by her environment, and how safe she felt in it. She is at home and is easily accessible by help services with two unaffected friends who can also contact health services, should they be required. She may have felt that there were no severe consequences of smoking the cannabis, even if it is an illusion.


4.1. A 19 year old man, weighing 73 kg, is walking home with his close friend from their friend's house at night, which is two blocks away from his own house. They had recently smoked 7 grams of Cannabis each over the night and are still under its influence. He has had previous drug taking experience.

4.1.1. CONSEQUENCES SOCIAL By walking home they are exposed to public spaces increasing the likelihood that word of their behaviour will spread through witnesses. This may impact their relationships with their friends and family, tainting their social image. Moreover, if photo evidence is taken and posted online, their employment prospects will be reduced. LEGAL Out, walking on the streets under the influence of Cannabis, they are exposed to a variety of situations where risky decision making can have legal repercussions. e.g. vandalism. They will also be more likely to be apprehended for using an illegal drug. ECONOMIC Similarly to the example with a low level of risk, there is a long-term consequence if they continue to support this drug taking habit as a result of the highly addictive nicotine. EMOTIONAL As a result of damage to relationships and economic status, they may become quite distressed. Heavy use will cause them to become lethargic and disinterested in every day life. PHYSICAL Cannabis can cause schizophrenia in susceptible individuals, putting them at risk of developing such a debilitating disease. Moreover, cannabis is incompatible with complex mental tasks. As such, risky decisions may be made at the detriment to their personal health and safety as they are walking near a road. The nicotine contained in the mixture may also cause future problems with lung cancer. Cannabis may also act as a gateway drug leading to more dangerous drug use.

4.1.2. INFLUENCES INDIVIDUAL He may also feel that it will make him more interesting and likeable to his friend as well as help them have more fun. He does value abiding by the law as he has no developed sense of consequence yet. SOCIOCULTURAL As a child he may have been brought up in an environment where their parents took drugs, as a result he sees nothing wrong with taking it himself. LEGAL As he has no sense of consequence and has been brought up with inappropriate role models, he may be less inclined to care for the illegality of the substance. ENVIRONMENTAL As he was out partying with his friends, he could have gone with the flow of events and tried to add to the fun by smoking cannabis. He may also have felt that he was quite close to home and would be fine over the short trip home. ECONOMIC If they are under the influence of financial pressures, such as a loan, rent, pay repayments etc. they may be desperate to relieve this stress through the use of such drugs.


5.1. An 18 year old student, weighing 60 kg, attending the end of year schoolies is invited to his friend's hotel room to celebrate. His room is on the 2nd floor, which is accessible by stair and elevator. There are first aid measures in place due to the nature of schoolies. When he arrives the 3 of his friends have brought Cocaine. He has no experience in taking drugs, but decides to try some. After they have finished four packets of chips, he sniffs 3 grams of Cocaine. His friends take slightly more. They then decide to take a walk outside, still under the influence of the drug.

5.1.1. CONSEQUENCES SOCIAL As he is just out of school, he will most likely be looking to join the workforce as a part-timer in the near future. Going out publicly under the influence of Cocaine, whilst there are Police officers stationed for the students' safety during Schoolies, increases the risk of being caught in illegal activity. This may have detrimental implications for their likelihood of being employed. LEGAL If an officer finds the Cocaine in their possession without medical reason (schedule 8 prescribed drug), they will be convicted of illegal possession of an illicit drug. More over, Cocaine can make people violent or aggressive, putting them at risk of undertaking unlawful activity or harming surrounding people. ECONOMIC Cocaine is highly addictive and in the long-term it will be extremely costly for them to maintain their habit. Very likely to interfere with standard life financial commitments. EMOTIONAL Emotional distress may result from drug cravings as well as the economic implications of maintaining their habit. If they turn to crime in order to maintain their habit, this may be against their personal values, causing further inner conflict. As it is their first time taking the drug, they may also have severe emotional draw-backs afterwards if they regret the desicion. PHYSICAL He is at a higher risk of becoming intoxicated due to his small weight and inexperience. If they become violent or aggressive, they can cause self-harm. Cocaine also has a high risk of overdose and can cause severe permanent damage to their nose.

5.1.2. INFLUENCES INDIVIDUAL He is inclined to take drugs as he has a curious attitude, wherein he is interested in seeing what it is like and whether or not he’d actually like it. He also does not have any more immediate commitments, in which his performance would be hindered, as he has just finished school and may not see the long-term consequence of taking the drug. Similarly to many people at schoolies he is most likely there to relieve built up stress and pressure from the HSC. SOCIOCULTURAL He may use drugs as a means to fit in better with everyone else. Moreover, if his parents are greatly averse to drug taking, he may take the drug as a form of rebellion, making himself seem, in his eyes, as more of an independent adult. LEGAL He feels that he will gain some form of thrill as well as empowered and in control by breaking the law. This once again, makes him feel like more of an adult. ENVIRONMENTAL Due to the nature of schoolies, he is immersed in a party environment, where it seems that everyone is taking drugs and having fun. He may just become caught up in the flow and not properly consider his decision when offered the drug.