The basis for Roman law was the idea that the exact form, not the intention, of words or of actions produced legal consequences. Romans established legal concepts of civil rights, the legal personality of corporations, contractual obligations, real and personal property, private ownership, modes of proof for use in the courtroom, the legal force of a will.
Women were citizens if not a slaves but were not alowed to participate in politics or to vote.
The basis of Roman Law were the Twelve Tables. They were a code created by the government to ensure cirtain rights. They were the basis of humanism and the first legal texts.
The Creation of the Tables
Points of Intrest
To describe a person's position in the legal system Romans used the expression status. An individual could be a citizen, unlike foreginers, or he could be free, unlike slaves, or he could be a cirtain position in a Roman family, either as head of the family or a lower ranking.
Ancient Rome had no public prosecution service. Individual citizens had to bring cases themselves, usually for little or no financial reward. Politicians often brought these cases because it was seen as a public service. Early on, this was done by verbal summons. Later, cases could be initiated through a written method. After the case was initiated, a judge was appointed and the outcome of the case was decided.
During the republic the judge wass usually a private person.He had to be a roman male citizen. The parties could agree on a judge or they went down a list untill they found a judge that was agreeable to both parties. For cases of great public interest ther was a tribunal with five judges.
Judging a Case
The Roman Republic's constitution was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent. Concepts that originated in the Roman constitution live on in constitutions to this day.When the Roman Republuic ultimitly fell the Constitution died along with it.
What Exists Today
The Romans were highly infulenced by the Greeks when it came to architecture. However, the Romans were quick to adapt and develop Greek ideas. Their interest in architecture was practical and their skills were developed due to construction of huge buildings. Romans were highly skilled builders because many of their constructions have survived into modern times. Romans chose the finest materials and devised many sophisticated construction methods.
Romans were most famous for their advancement in architecture and enginering. Romans changed architecture by coming up with new building methods; the columns and the arches. Romans were able to construct bigger buildings than ever before.
The first Roman architects were priests. They created buildings so that they could have a worship place. Most of the Roman architctual techniques came crom the Etruscans and the Greeks. Once Rome became a dominating world power a revolution in architecture began. As the city developed Romans built more buildings for government, housing, utilities and worship.
Ancient Romans were enormously skilled at working in all sorts of materials. Most craft workers were men.Skills developed through trial and error and the successes were passed down by masters or fathers.
Statues and portraits were used to decorate homes, temples and monuments. Statues were life like and of gods, goddesses, emperors and other imprortant people. Many statues are just the head and shoulders of an emperor; these were called portraits. High quality work usually came from other countries. They also mixed the style of of art from the countries in their empire. Style also had a lot to do with the emperor at the time and what he wanted. Themes came from Greek art but over time Romans developed their own methods and techniques.
Transition From Greek To Roman, Transition in Portraits, Transition in Sculpture
There is hard evidence of four different kinds of paintings that took place in roman civilization: history painting, panel pictures, canvas, and portrait. Information about paintings is found in pictures from wealthy ancient roman homes, the palaces,and tombs. Most of these are found in cities like Pompeii and Herculaneum. At first paint was used to cover walls but it soon turned to pictures of architecture, landscape and mythology. Then paintings developed illusions to make space look bigger or theatrical effects to make enhanced scenes. Colors in paintings were often just as fasinating as the rythm and accuracy of their art.
Mosaic was another category of Greek art which the Romans adopted. Small stones cut into dice shapes were arranged to make pictures or patterns. The Romans soon developed more artistic compistions than just floor covering. What always remained characteristic of Roman mosaic,as well as sculpture, was its functional incorperation into the architecture of the building it resided in. Mosaics spread over floors and walls to celings Bold balck outlines on white ground was the sterotypical mosaic. Mosaics in many colors are an exception. The subject matter was usually seascapes, mythological scenes and everyday vignetts. A wide distribution and unusally artistic quality of mosaic in the villas and houses of the governing class was present.
Rome is located in Italy; a narrow peninsula in the southern part of Europe in the Mediterainian Sea.
Italy has many hills, plains and mountains. Its geographical features contribute to the climate of the region. The center zone with that has the mountain ranges has a warm climate with annual rainfall.
Rome was on the Tiber River in the west and built on many hills. Rome had fertile soils made of potash and phosphates. It also was located near stable rivers and excelent harbors. The city's geography, climate and culture made it a prospurous part of the Empire.
Was the Roman alphabet and had 23 letters.
There were two writing styles; serifs and cursive. Serifs was more attractive and read easier but cursive was more efficent.
There were perishable writing surfaces made out of leafs that were bound together leaves formed tablets. There were also nonperishable writing surfaces that were made out of wax tablets that were stored in bronze boxes. A stylus was a pointed stickused for writing.
Libraries were found in temples, palaces, affluent homes, and cities. They were given as gifts to cities to keep citizens loyal.
Created by Copying Naration
The newspaper included government decrees, new laws, occurrences of the day and births and deaths. It was written by hand so the few copies were hung in public places for citizens to read. The world's first daily newspaper was probably Acta Diurna (Daily Events) published in 59 B.C.E. by Julius Ceaser.
Rulers used them to keep in touch with all parts of their empire; in 200 C.E. they could be used to deliver personal messages. Relay system was utilized to carry messages.couriers would run or ride to a station where they would either pass on the message to a new courier or get a fresh horse and continue. The messages moved at top speed.
The legion was the basic unit of Rome's standing army of career soldiers. Legionaries were all citizens of Rome and fought mainly on foot. Each legion had a number and a title. Though the number or men varied the basic pattern of orgenization remained the same.
Structure of Organization
Roman camps were always constructed according to a set pattern, laid out like a city bisected by two streets leading to four gates. Even temporary camps were set up the same way and had ditches and walls surrounding them for protection.
Standards were special staffs carried by a person during battle. They had symbols on the top that represented each legion. They were used to keep groups together during battle and were a symbol of achievements and unity.
The Roman military wore standard and uniform armor that was well adapted to fighting. Over a woolen tunic they wore a corselet. They wore a helmet made of iron and was shaped like a cap with no visor. He wore a military belt with a sheath and a short dager.. In his left hand he carried a shield made out of leather. He used his other hand for deflecting blows and for throwing javilins which he stored on his back.
The ancient Roman military's purpose was to build new thing like roads and bridges or ships and chariots; and to conqure and maintain new land in the empire.
Uses and Importance
Tools and Methods
Romans were the first civilization to make paved roads. Romans developed their system of roads out of military necessity.In addition to paving the roads they also crowned them. This made them higher in the middle and allowed watter to run off to the sides. They also created gutters on the sides to collect the watter.These technological advancements allowed the shipment of goods to be transportaterd much easier throughout the empire.
Magistrate Positions That Helped the Republic
The Senate was a group of upper class men whose job was to run the city and debate about or recomend new policies. The Senate was the most dominate branch of government and usually was made up of people from rich, old families.
this assembly was made of day to day business men whose job was to choose the magistrates that run the different parts of the empire. They were elected by those who had a lot of money so the poor normally didnt have a choice.
The Consuls were the chiefs of themagistrates. They were appointed by the centuriate assembly and were in charge of the order of executions, drafting of citizens into the military and to command armies on military campaign
The Emperor was at the top of the administrative system. He served as military commander in chief, high priest, court of appeal, and source of law. All this power was intensely personal.The emperors took over the Senate's political and legislative power, but they needed the help of senators who had experience in diplomacy, government, and military command.
The gods and goddesses embodied thing that were important to the ancient romans. Apollo the sun, poetry, music, healing, prophecy Bacchus wine Ceres agriculture Diana the moon, fertility, hunting Juno marriage and women Jupiter king of the gods Mars war Mercury messages and commerce Minerva wisdom, arts, trade Neptune the sea Pluto the underworld Venus love and beauty Vulcan fire Vesta hearth and home
Pontifex Maximus, Four Colleges, Pontifical College, Pontifices, Flamines, Flamen Dialis, Vestal Virgins, Job
Were used to celebrate gods and religion. Could be solom or eventful.
Foreign Cults arose due to the conquering of many differnt countries. They became part of the Roman empire but secretly kept up with their old traditions.
Every home had a hearth in the center where worshiping could take place. They worshiped gods and family ancestors.
Omens were studied by augurs or prophets who used them to tell the future. Omens could be anything such lightening, thunder, entrails, and bird behavior. Auspices were omens from birds. Armies would crumble food in front of chickens and if they ate it or not could foretell good or bad events. When priests went to sacrifice animals they used is as omen. The more willingly the animal went to slaughter the better the omen.
prayer and sacrifice were part of the "contract" between gods and mortals. worship included firmly defined rituals where one mistake meant that the whole process had to be redone. Prayer often required sacrifice.
Tempels were dwelling places of the god or gods they were dedicated to. They contained a huge statue of the deity which faced the altar.
Romes economy was agrarian and slave based. Its main purpose was to feed and supply the huge population. Agriculture and trade dominated the Roman economic fortunes.
Farmers donated their surplus crops to the government in hopes of monetary taxes. This allowed the Republican and Imperial ruler to gain popularity. Once the food was grown it was processed and shiped to Rome. Once it arrived it was weighed and checked, then distributed. Production and transportation of food dominated the trading industry.
The prosperity of the empire was generated by a need for luxurious and exotic imports. The romans created a vast road and sea system so that they could get what they needed from all over.
Sea vs. Road
Rome thrived off its imports. Importers and merchants were some of the wealthiest people in the Empire. The abilty to import goods ment that rome was a city with different reasources from differnt countries. They had the best of the best. This is a list of some of their imports: England: tin Germany wood Spain: silver Egypt: cotton Italy+N.America: olive oil and wine N. Europe: carrots and cabbage.
The largest industry in Rome was mining. This provided stones for enormous building projects, tools and weapons. Small scale manufacturing plants turned out pottery, glasswear, weapons, tools and jewlry.