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Policy Transfer and Learning by Mind Map: Policy Transfer and Learning
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Policy Transfer and Learning

This mindmap is not ideal because the nodes only link to the centre rather than each other.  We would need hyperlinks on each node to connect to another map in which they formed the centre.

Multi-level governance

Policy can be transferred from and to different levels of government

MLG may foster innovation and emulation

Punctuated Equilibrium

Lessons are created not learned

Ideas only transferred during periods of positive feedback

Advocacy Coalition Framework

Policy learning only through lens of core beliefs

The Role of Ideas

Kingdon: ideas only adopted/ transferred when 3 streams come together

Hall: the transfer of ideas to cause 3rd order change very unlikely


Transfer can be voluntary or coercive

Comprehensive rationality

Used as a point of departure

Instead, governments use rules of thumb, such as emulation

Policy Change

Transfer is an important source of policy change

Or the transfer process can be used to legitimise exisitng policy


Lessons are learned from past experience before other countries

Are lessons learned from other countries only when existing policies fail?

Key Points

• Refers to the evidence for - and causes of - similarities in policy across regions

• The actors involved are a combination of usual suspects (elected officials, parties, civil service, etc.) as well as “policy entrepreneurs” and supra-national organisations.

• The nature of transfer can be seen on a continuum, from voluntary to coercive. This includes indirect coercion which may suggest a perceived need to transfer, often without exerted influence

• A variety of policy-related factors may be transferred – from ideologies and wholesale programmes to administrative arrangements or just broad ideas. Negative lessons may also be learned

• The level of transfer ranges from complete duplication to broad inspiration.

• Policy conditions, geography and ideology affect the willingness to study other regions.

• Transfer is most likely if the policy is simple, the values of borrower and lender coincide and the political structures/ administrative arrangements are similar.

We can link the study of transfer to a range of related concepts (on the right).

Common Terms

Lesson Drawing

Policy Convergence

Policy Transfer

Policy Diffusion