Policy Transfer and Learning

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Policy Transfer and Learning by Mind Map: Policy Transfer and Learning

1. Multi-level governance

1.1. Policy can be transferred from and to different levels of government

1.2. MLG may foster innovation and emulation

2. Punctuated Equilibrium

2.1. Lessons are created not learned

2.2. Ideas only transferred during periods of positive feedback

3. Advocacy Coalition Framework

3.1. Policy learning only through lens of core beliefs

4. The Role of Ideas

4.1. Kingdon: ideas only adopted/ transferred when 3 streams come together

4.2. Hall: the transfer of ideas to cause 3rd order change very unlikely

5. Power

5.1. Transfer can be voluntary or coercive

6. Comprehensive rationality

6.1. Used as a point of departure

6.2. Instead, governments use rules of thumb, such as emulation

7. Policy Change

7.1. Transfer is an important source of policy change

7.2. Or the transfer process can be used to legitimise exisitng policy

8. Incrementalism

8.1. Lessons are learned from past experience before other countries

8.2. Are lessons learned from other countries only when existing policies fail?

9. Key Points

9.1. • Refers to the evidence for - and causes of - similarities in policy across regions

9.2. • The actors involved are a combination of usual suspects (elected officials, parties, civil service, etc.) as well as “policy entrepreneurs” and supra-national organisations.

9.3. • The nature of transfer can be seen on a continuum, from voluntary to coercive. This includes indirect coercion which may suggest a perceived need to transfer, often without exerted influence

9.4. • A variety of policy-related factors may be transferred – from ideologies and wholesale programmes to administrative arrangements or just broad ideas. Negative lessons may also be learned

9.5. • The level of transfer ranges from complete duplication to broad inspiration.

9.6. • Policy conditions, geography and ideology affect the willingness to study other regions.

9.7. • Transfer is most likely if the policy is simple, the values of borrower and lender coincide and the political structures/ administrative arrangements are similar.

9.8. We can link the study of transfer to a range of related concepts (on the right).

9.8.1. Click on the link for punctuated equilibrium to see its own mindmap.

10. Common Terms

10.1. Lesson Drawing

10.1.1. Richard Rose

10.1.2. Lessons sought from other countries after policy failure

10.1.3. Technical focus

10.1.3.1. How do we do it?

10.1.3.2. Which countries are most likely sources?

10.1.3.3. Degrees of Transfer

10.1.3.3.1. Complete duplilcation

10.1.3.3.2. Adaptation

10.1.3.3.3. Hybrid

10.1.3.3.4. Synthesis

10.1.3.3.5. Broad Inspiration

10.2. Policy Convergence

10.3. Policy Transfer

10.4. Policy Diffusion

10.4.1. Jack Walker

10.4.2. Focus on US

10.4.3. Key question: why do some states innovate and others emulate?