PROSTATE CANCER

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PROSTATE CANCER by Mind Map: PROSTATE CANCER

1. risk factors

1.1. age: over 50

1.2. family history: 1st degree relative doubles risk

1.3. race: black

1.4. vasectomy

1.5. arsenic exposure

2. causative factors

2.1. diet: obesity

2.2. hormones: maybe high estrogen, low testosterone? but more research needed

2.3. BRCA1 & BRCA2 present in aggressive prostate cancer

3. diagnostic tests

3.1. PSA - prostate specific antigen

3.2. DRE - digital rectal exam

3.3. TRUS - transrectal ultrasound

3.4. biopsy

3.5. MRI - magnetic resonance imaging

3.6. mpMRI - multi parametric magnetic resonance imaging

3.7. DWI - diffusion weighted imaging

3.8. CTC's - circulating tumor cells

3.9. DTC's - disseminated tumor cells

4. treatment

4.1. depends upon cancer stage

4.2. active surveillance for low risk

4.3. androgen deprivation (castration) through surgical or pharmacological means

4.4. RT - radiation therapy

4.5. chemotherapy

4.6. TURP - transurethral resection of prostate

4.7. prostatectomy

5. etiology

5.1. PIA - prostatic intraepithelial atrophy - occurs after oxidative stress from infection, autoimmune disease, toxins, carcinogens, & diet

5.2. body compensates for PIA - huge increase in epithelial cells = cancer

6. common findings

6.1. slow urine stream

6.2. hesitancy

6.3. incomplete emptying

6.4. frequency

6.5. nocturia, dysuria

6.6. hematospermia

7. some facts

7.1. 2nd most common cancer in men worldwide

7.2. lifetime risk 15.9%

7.3. 6th leading cause of death worldwide

7.4. African Caribbean males have highest mortality rate

8. references:

8.1. Assinder, S. J., & Bhoopalan, V. (2017). A promising future for prostate cancer diagnostics. Diagnostics, 7(1), 6. A Promising Future for Prostate Cancer Diagnostics Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1888999385?accountid=14375

8.2. McCance, K.L., & Huether, S.E. (2015). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children, seventh edition. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier. ISBN: 978-0-323-08854-1

8.3. Vlaeminck-Guillem, V. (2015). When prostate cancer circulates in the bloodstream.Diagnostics, 5(4), 428-474. When Prostate Cancer Circulates in the Bloodstream Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1802234237?accountid=14375