Positive reinforcement learning
Use of tests to spread out the performance of learners
Preparation of objectives of programmed instruction
9 events of instructional designs
Part 1 The part focuses on the history of instructional media. A rational for using instructional design and technology as the label for the field. Events in the history of instructional media, from the early 1900s to the present day, are described. The birth of school museums, the visual and audiovisual instructional movements, the use of media during World War II, and the interest in instructional TV, computers, and the internet. It also gives the summary of the effects media have had on instructional practices, and a prediction regarding the effect computers the internet, and other digital media will have on such practices. Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part I: A history of instructional media.ETR&D, 49(1), 53-64. Part II This part is focusing on the history of instructional design that starting with the efforts to develop training programs during WWII, and continuing on through the publication of some of the first instructional design models in the 1960s and 1970s, major events in the development of the instructional design over the last two decades, including increasing interest in cognitive psychology, microcomputers, performance technology, and constructivism. Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part II: A history of instructional design. ETR&D, 49(2), 57-67.
Theories and practices, analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation, managment
Changing views and practices, Constructivist views, Electronic performance support, Rapid prototyping, Internet for distance learning, Knowledge management
Computer, growth, and redirection(1950-on)
The result of the study indicate that social context must become the object of the design as well as the source of it. The designers must create those aspects of social contexts that have important consequences of learning. They must also consider what designers and other participants in the design activity bring to the social situation and how their knowledge, motives, beliefs and actions constrain the interactional processes that guide their activities. Moallem, M. (1998). An expert teacher's thinking and teaching and instructional design models and principles: an ethnographic study. ETR&D, 46(2), 37-64.
Microinstructional Design Models, Components, Elements, Goals
Teacher's early experiences as a student and later as a teacher affect the way she thinks of herself and her students in the classroom. In addition, the limitations of her knowledge also influences her actions and relationship with students.
Teacher engaged in two forms of reflection-in-action: reflection-in-action and reflection
Reflection-in-action and reflection-in-action, Happen in the during the teacher's instruction, Happen before and after the instruction
Teacher views tests as a way of communicating to students how they are progressing in terms of classroom goals and expectations.
The teacher's decision before, during and after classroom instruction are based on her interpretations of the social context of the classroom and the school
The study show that teachers tend to become more constructivist as a product of technology integration experience. In addition, the study also show the understanding that when private theories about learning dominate the participants' (teachers) design, their products tend to incorporate student-centered technology-based learning. When the other three areas (technology, students, and teacher) of theory dominated design, it appeared to lead a direct instruction model. This indicated the necessary for institutes' reforms that need to be focused on a shift towards student-centered practice, the decisions of participating teachers should be dominated by their private theories about learning instead of students, technology, or teacher. Churchill, D. (2006). Teachers' private theories and their design of technology-based learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37(4), 559-576.
Student's learning ability and confidence
Teacher-directed instruction, Student
Student-centred learning, Technology
Selection criteria for topics to suit for technology-based learning, planning, and design
Change in society and impactions in education that impacts teachers and students
This paper suggests that active theory provides an appropriate framework for analyzing needs, tasks, and outcomes for designing constructivist learning environments. It focuses on the interaction of human activity and consciousness within its relevant environmental context. As a result, it views that applying activity theory to analyzing real-world situations for the purpose of designing CLEs involves examining and elaborating serval factors: the activity structures engaged by work; the tools, rules, and symbol systems. Jonassen, H.D. & Rohrer-Murphy, L. (1999). Activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning environment. ERT&D, 47(1), pp. 61-99.
Clarify purpose of activity system, Motives and goals, Outcomes
Analyze the activity system, Defining the components, Outcomes
Analyze the activity sturcture, Purpose of the activity system, Outcomes
Analyze tools and mediators, Components, Outcomes
Analyzing the context, Contextuality, Outcomes
Analyzing activity system dynamics, Reality check, Outcomes
For pedagogical progress to be made in electronic learning environments, educators must begin to realize that the lockstep factory model of education is out of sync with prevailing views of learning. In addition, a sociocultural view on collaborative tools explicitly points to the social origin of higher mental functions, the distributed nature of learning and problem solving, and the importance of technology tools in mediating individual and cultural development. Bonk, C. J., & Cunningham, D.J. (1998). Searching for learner-centered, constructivist, and sociocultural components of collaborative educational learning tools. In C.J. Bonk, & K.S. Kind (Eds.), Electronic collaborators: Learner-centered technologies for literacy, apprenticeship, and discourse, (pp. 25-50). Mahwah, NL: Erlbaum.
Learner-centered, Cognitive and metacognitive factors, Motivational and affective factors, Developmental and social factors, individual differences
Cognitive constructivistic teaching, Mind, Raw Materials, Meaningfulness and personal motivation, Conceptual organization/cognitive framing, Prior knowledge and misconceptions, Questioning, individual exploration and generating connections, Self-regulated learning, Assessment
Social constructivistic teaching, Mind, Authentic problems, Team choice and common interests, Social dialogue and elaboration, Group processing and reflection, Teacher explanations, support, and demonstrations, Multiple viewpoints, Collaboration and negotiation, Learning communites, Assessment
This article ponits out the concepts can ouly be fully understood as processes of conceptual change, the reorganization of conceptual frameworks. Although very little research has focused on assessing conceptual change, the theories conceptual change recommend assessing patterns of concepts and concepts-in-use. Additionally, it suggests that treating concept learning only as the ability to classify new instances and reorganized by conceptual change. In the processes of conceptual change, the meanings of concepts and their elationships with other concepts change in substantive, functional ways. In order to capture the complexity of conceptual frameworks, concept learning must be assessed in patterns and in use. In order to engage and support learners in meaningful concept learning, students should learn how to use a variety of tools to build models of learnings and to engage in solving complex and ill-structured problems. Jonassen, H. D. (2006). On the role of concepts in learning and instructional design. ETR&D, 54(2), 177-196.
Implication for assessment: Proposition
Elicting conceptual patterns
Free word associations
Representing conceptual patterns, Congitive maps, Pathfinder networks
Cocept maps, Implications for instructions: Propositions
Think-aloud problem solving
1. Understand is in our interactions with the environemnt. 2. Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organization and nature of what is learned. 3. Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of individual understandings. Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T.M. (1995). Problem based learning: an instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35(5), 31-38.
problem based learning, Learning goals, Problem generation, Problem presentation, Facilitator role
Rich environments for active learning, Student responsibility and initiative, Generative learning activities, Authentic learning contexts, Authentic assessment strategies, Co-operative support
The key to learning to solve problems is the problem space construction because rich problem representations most clearly distinguish experts for novices and scaffold working memory. So, developing elaborate, multiple representations of problems along with learning to regulate different kinds of problem performance needs to be explicitly taught. Jonassen, D. (2000). Towards design theory of problem solving. ETR&D. 48(4), 63-85
The goal of this theory is to foster problem solving and conceptual development for ill-structured domains Jonassen, D. (1999). Designing constructivist learning environments. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instuctional Theory, volume 2 (pp. 215-239). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Methods, Select learning problem, Provide related case examples, Provide learner with just-in-time information, Provide cognitive tools, Provide conversation and collaboration tools, Provide social/contextual support for the learning environment
Instructional activities, Model, Coach, Scaffold
Active lessons, Present multimedia scenario, Engage student to explore resources, web sites, Templates and organizer to scaffold, Requires the use of technology-based tools, Artifacts evaluation and disccusion
Design process, Identify topic, Learning outcomes, Plan interesting scenario, Locate resources and tools, Plan support componoents, Evaluation of the learning
In order to successfully implement resource-based learning environments, there are issues related to people, place, things, and ideas need to be addressed. Resource-based learning offer great promise for teachers when there are ways to enhance and extend existing approaches to meet the demands of the digital era are provided. The physical infrastructure needed to implement these environments is already well developed and continues to expand and be refined. The tasks for educator is to find ways to consolidate and integrate cross-disciplinary practices into more comprehensive and grounded methods and models for the design and implementation of resource-based learning environments. Hill, J. R., & Hannafin, M.J. (2001). Teaching and learning in digital environments: the resurgence of resource-based learning. ETR&D, 49(3), 37-52.
Tools, Searching, Processing, Manipulating, Communicating
Scaffolding mechanisms, Conceptual, Metacognitive, Procedural, Strategic
This paper attempts to address the ill-defined concept problem by providing classification that potentially brings together various perspectives of what a learning object may be. Six unique types of learning objects are proposed and discussed: presentation, practice, simulation, conceptual models, information and contextual representation objects. Based on common characteristics of these six types, a learning object is defined as a representation designed to afford uses in different educational context. Churchill, D. (2006). Towards a useful classification of learning objects. Educational Communications and Technology. Education Tech Research dev (2007) 55: 479-497
Presentation objects, PowerPoint
Practice objects, Jumpstart
Simulation objects, Youda game
Conceptional model, Cyberchase
Information objects, Google maps
Contextual representation, Bus station
This book is mainly concerned with the latter, the use of online learning as the principal form of course delivery. Naturally much of the researchers discuss has implications for any form of online and Web- supported setting. Furthermore, designing learning environments that support knowledge construction requires deliberate forms of planning. From this book, it suggests that the learning environment needs to provide the learners with a raft of motivating and engaging tasks that cause the learner to make choices and decisions in the learning process, to reflect on what is being learned, to articulate and to share the new ideas and knowledge that is being acquired with others. Oliver, R., & Herrington, J. (2001). Teaching and learning on-line: a beginner's guide to e-learning and e-teaching in higher education. Perth, Australia: Edith Cowan University.
Situated learning, Authentic context, Authentic activities, Access to expert performances and the modelling of processes, Multiple roles and perspectives, Collaborative construction of knowledge, Reflection, Articulation, Coaching and scaffolding, Authentic assessment
Problem-based learning, Well chosen problem, Adequate environmental needs support, Process
Case-based learning, Choosing case-based learning, Planning case-based learning in online settings, Learning tasks, Learning resources, Learning supports
Project-based learning, Planning project-based learning in online settings, Learning tasks, Learning resources, Learning supports
Inquiry-based learning, Choosing inquiry-based learning, Planning inquiry-based learning settings, Learning tasks, Learning resources, Learning supports
Role-based learning, Role-playing in online settings, Planning and designing role-playing activities, Role-playing activities online
This paper is a study of how the behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism learning theories support and impact the instructional designs. The conclusions of this study are: 1.) there is place for each theory within the practice of instructional design, depending upon the situation and environment. 2.) Whichever situation the instructional designer finds themselves in, they will require a thorough understanding of learning theories to enable them to provide the appropriate learning environment. 3.) Though instructional design may have a behaviorist tradition, new insights to the learning process continue to replace, change and alter the process. Advancements in technology make branched constructivist approaches to learning possible. Mergel, B (1998). Instructional design & learning theories. http://www.usask.ca/education/coursework/802papers/mergel/brenda.html
Behaviorism, Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning (Bloom 1956), Gagne's Taxonomy of Learning (Gagne 1972)
Cognitivism, Computer-based insturction
Constructivism, Constructivist learning environments by Jonassen
Instruction consists of a set of events external to the learner designed to support the internal process of learning. The events of instruction are designed to make it possible for learners to proceed from "where they are " to the achievement of the capability identified as the target objective. Chapter 10 "The events of instruction" from Gagne, R., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of instructional design. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
Informing learner of the objective
Stimulating recall of prerequisite learing
Presenting the stimulus material
Providing learning guidance
Eliciting the performance
Providing feedback about performance correctness
Assessing the performance
Enhancing retention and transfer
First generation instructional designs base on Gange's (1985) early work
Second generation instructional by Merrill (1994), Instructional transaction theory, Descriptive theory strategy, Transaction shells, Conditional parameters, Descriptive theory of knowledge, Knowledge objects, Entities, Activities, Part, Property, Process, Kind, Interrelationships, Components, Properities, astractions, Associations between knowledge objects, Prescriptive theory of instructional design (Rules), Selecting knowledge objects, Dividing knowledge into chunks, Sequencing knowledge objects, Rules and parameters for sequencing decisions, Selecting instructional transactions, Instructional goals, Sequencing instructional transactions, Student characteristics, Learner control, Integrated, Algorithms for enacting instructional transactions, Present frame to learner, Changing conditional parameters to adapt instruction to individual learners
Merrill (2006), Demonstration principle, Application principle, Task-centred approach, Activation principle, Integration principle
Knowledge objects and mental models, Knowledge structure, Concept knowledge structure, Conceptual networks, Knowledge objects, Mental models, Categorization problems, Classification, Generalization, Interpretation problems, Explanation, Predictiion, Trouble shooting, Meta-Mental-Models, A model for a model
The reusable information object (RIO) strategy is built upon the RIO. An RIO is granular, reusable chunk of information that is media independent. An RIO can be developed once, and delivered in multiple delivery mediums. Each RIO can stand alone as a collection of content items, practice items and assessment items that are combined based on a single learning objective. Individual RIOs are then combined to form a larger structure called a Reusable Learning Object (RLO). Cisco. (1999). Cisco Systems reusable information object strategy: definition, creation overview, and guidelines. Cisco Systems, Inc. http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/779/ibs/solutions/.../el_cisco_rio.pdf
Design, Need assessment, Tasks analysis, Learning objectives, Identify the cognitive level, RIO types
This article assumpts that the students can learn more deeply from well-designed multimedia messages consisting of words and pictures than from more traditional modes of communication involving words alone. It explores a program of of research aimed at determining effective methods and designing multimedia learning environments for learners. The premise in this research is that the intelligent design of multimedia instructioal messages depends on an understanding of how the human mind works. the role of instructional technology in this learner-centered scenario is to serve as a tool that increases the power of human cognition. Mayer, E. R. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media. Learning & Instruction, 13, 125-139.
Multimedia instructional message, Words and pictures, Meaningful learning
Multimedia effect, Printed text and illustrations
Coherence effect, Seductive details
The article gives an overview of the four-component instructional design system (4C/ID-modle). The 4C/ID model consists of four interrelated components are essential in blueprints for complex learning: 1.) learning tasks, 2.) supportive information, 3.) just-in-time information, and 4.) part-task practice. The 4C ID modle has beend tested for developing training programs that lead to higher transfer persformance thatn conventional insttruction, and that the effect increases as transfer tasks differ more from the original training tasks. As result, the $C/ID strategies yielded higher transfer performance than control strategies, and this superiority became more evident on far transfer problems for which learners had to design and construct new computer programs that required solution not encountered before. However, in terms of other domains including statistical analyzing, computer numerically controlled programming, and fault management in process industry training strategies, they followed and supported the 4C/ID principles. Van Merrienboer, J. J., Clark, R. E. & de Crook, M. B. (2002). Blueprints for Complex Learning: The 4C/ID-Model. ETR&D, 50(2), 39-64.
Learnig task, Tasks classes, Learner support
Supportive information, Mental models, Cognitive strategies, Cognitive feedback
JIT information, Information dsiplays, Demonstrations and instances, Corrective feedback
Part-task practice, Practice items, Overtrainging
The goals of learning by doing theory is to foster skill development and the learning of factuual information in the context o fhow it will be used. It provides guidelines for all major aspects of project-based learning. Schank, C. R., Berman, R. T. & Macpherson, A. K. (1990). Learning by doing. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, volume 2 (pp.397-424). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.
Values, Skills and factual knowledge, Relevant, meaningful, and interesting context, context of relevant tasks for outside the schools
Methods, Goals, Mission, motivatioal and realistic, Cover story, background story line, Role, Who the student will play, Scenario operations, Activities the student does, Resources, Readily accesible, form of stories, Feedback, Consequence of actions, Coaches, Experts' stories about similar experiences
The adoption and integration of web 2.0 and mobile technologies can have great impact in teaching and learning process for educators and students. The stockholders need to think outside of the traditional frameworks in order to adopt these innovation effectively in education. Churchill, D. (2007). Web 2.0 and possibilities for educational application. Educational Technology, 47(2), 24-29.
Individuals can create, manage, and publish information and resources that want others to access. Use of internet-mediated social learning spaces (which build on ideas and experiences from social spaces such as MySpace), and new forms of collaborative learning.
MySpaces and Facebook
Folksonomy, Information retrieval
RSS, information subscriber
Internet as a platform, Google Docs
Open sources, Wiki, Blog, Weather Bonk, Mashups
The article expores current applications for handheld devices and questions which of these make full use of the unique attributes of handheld devices in order to facilitate learning in a pedagogiclaly sensible manner. As a result, the researchers believe that there are reasons that handheld devices will have impacts on learning as long as the technology is being used within the educational targeted functionality framework. Patten, B., Sanchez, I. A., & Tangney, B. (2006). Designing collabroative, constructionist and contextual applications for handheld devices. Computers & Education, 46(3), 294-308.
Administration, Calendars, contact, grading, Little pedagogy
Referential, Dictionary, Word processors & office tools, e-books
Ineractive, Little pedagogy, Drill adn Tests, animation, graphing, and wireless response., i.e. Sketchy, study cards, Instructional, Behaviourist
Microworld, Constructionist, Models of real world domains., i.e. uDraumsteps
Collabrative, Collaborative, Contextual, Contructivist, and Constructionist, Co-present games and collaborative environemtns., i.e. moodle, syllable, cooties, etc..
Location Aware, Little pedagogy, behaviourist, constructivist, and contextual, Museum guides and augmented environments., i.e. FieldNote, Amient wood, etc..
Date collection, Little pedagogy, contextual, reflective, and constructivist, Note takin, sensor reading, and data logging., Applications for: scientific (i.e. microsoft excel), multimedia (i.e. ramese), and reflective (i.e. ramble)