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Learning Design and Technology by Mind Map: Learning Design and
Technology
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Learning Design and Technology

Design of Learning/Instructional Products

Skinner's learnig theory (1958)

Positive reinforcement learning

Criterion-referenced testing by Glaser (1960s)

Use of tests to spread out the performance of learners

Behavior objective learning by Mager (1962)

Preparation of objectives of programmed instruction

The conditional learning by Gagne (1965)

9 events of instructional designs

Formative evaluation by Scriven (1967)

Learning Hierarchies

History of instructional design

Part 1 The part focuses on the history of instructional media. A rational for using instructional design and technology as the label for the field. Events in the history of instructional media, from the early 1900s to the present day, are described.  The birth of school museums, the visual and audiovisual instructional movements, the use of media during World War II, and the interest in instructional TV, computers, and the internet.  It also gives the summary of the effects media have had on instructional practices, and a prediction regarding the effect computers the internet, and other digital media will have on such practices.   Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part I: A history of instructional media.ETR&D, 49(1), 53-64.   Part II   This part is focusing on the history of instructional design that starting with the efforts to develop training programs during WWII, and continuing on through the publication of some of the first instructional design models in the 1960s and 1970s, major events in the development of the instructional design over the last two decades, including increasing interest in cognitive psychology, microcomputers, performance technology, and constructivism.   Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part II: A history of instructional design. ETR&D, 49(2), 57-67.  

Theories and practices, analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation, managment

Changing views and practices, Constructivist views, Electronic performance support, Rapid prototyping, Internet for distance learning, Knowledge management

Computer, growth, and redirection(1950-on)

Teacher interaction

The result of the study indicate that social context must become the object of the design as well as the source of it.  The designers must create those aspects of social contexts that have important consequences of learning.  They must also consider what designers and other participants in the design activity bring to the social situation and how their knowledge, motives, beliefs and actions constrain the interactional processes that guide their activities. Moallem, M. (1998). An expert teacher's thinking and teaching and instructional design models and principles: an ethnographic study. ETR&D, 46(2), 37-64.  

Macrodesign models

Microinstructional Design Models, Components, Elements, Goals

The teacher's knowledge and beliefs

Teacher's early experiences as a student and later as a teacher affect the way she thinks of herself and her students in the classroom.  In addition, the limitations of her knowledge also influences her actions and relationship with students.

The teacher's planing and interactive teaching

Teacher engaged in two forms of reflection-in-action: reflection-in-action and reflection

Reflection-in-action and reflection-in-action, Happen in the during the teacher's instruction, Happen before and after the instruction

The teacher's reflective thinking

Teacher views tests as a way of communicating to students how they are progressing in terms of classroom  goals and expectations.

Social and cultural construct of thinking and teaching

The teacher's decision before, during and after classroom instruction are based on her interpretations of the social context of the classroom and the school

Cognitive construct of instructional design

Context for instructional /learning design

The study show that teachers tend to become more constructivist as a product of technology integration experience.  In addition, the study also show the understanding that when private theories about learning dominate the participants' (teachers) design, their products tend to incorporate student-centered technology-based learning.  When the other three areas (technology, students, and teacher) of theory dominated design, it appeared to lead a direct instruction model. This indicated the necessary for institutes' reforms that need to be focused on a shift towards student-centered practice, the decisions of participating teachers should be dominated by their private theories about learning instead of students, technology, or teacher. Churchill, D. (2006). Teachers' private theories and their design of technology-based learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37(4), 559-576.  

Instituational influence

Student's learning ability and confidence

Technical skills

technology

management

Individual beliefs

Teacher-directed instruction, Student

Student-centred learning, Technology

Design

Selection criteria for topics to suit for technology-based learning, planning, and design

Educational changes

Change in society and impactions in education that impacts teachers and students

Designing for concept learning

Activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning enviroments

This paper suggests that active theory provides an appropriate framework for analyzing needs, tasks, and outcomes for designing constructivist learning environments.  It focuses on the interaction of human activity and consciousness within its relevant environmental context. As a result, it views that applying activity theory to analyzing real-world situations for the purpose of designing CLEs involves examining and elaborating serval factors: the activity structures engaged by work; the tools, rules, and symbol systems.   Jonassen, H.D. & Rohrer-Murphy, L. (1999). Activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning environment.  ERT&D, 47(1), pp. 61-99.

Clarify purpose of activity system, Motives and goals, Outcomes

Analyze the activity system, Defining the components, Outcomes

Analyze the activity sturcture, Purpose of the activity system, Outcomes

Analyze tools and mediators, Components, Outcomes

Analyzing the context, Contextuality, Outcomes

Analyzing activity system dynamics, Reality check, Outcomes

Designing for collaborative learning

For pedagogical progress to be made in electronic learning environments, educators must begin to realize that the lockstep factory model of education is out of sync with prevailing views of learning.  In addition, a sociocultural view on collaborative tools explicitly points to the social origin of higher mental functions, the distributed nature of learning and problem solving, and the importance of technology tools in mediating individual and cultural development.   Bonk, C. J., & Cunningham, D.J. (1998).  Searching for learner-centered, constructivist, and sociocultural components of collaborative  educational learning tools.  In C.J. Bonk, & K.S. Kind (Eds.), Electronic collaborators: Learner-centered  technologies for literacy, apprenticeship, and discourse, (pp. 25-50). Mahwah, NL: Erlbaum.

Learner-centered, Cognitive and metacognitive factors, Motivational and affective factors, Developmental and social factors, individual differences

Cognitive constructivistic teaching, Mind, Raw Materials, Meaningfulness and personal motivation, Conceptual organization/cognitive framing, Prior knowledge and misconceptions, Questioning, individual exploration and generating connections, Self-regulated learning, Assessment

Social constructivistic teaching, Mind, Authentic problems, Team choice and common interests, Social dialogue and elaboration, Group processing and reflection, Teacher explanations, support, and demonstrations, Multiple viewpoints, Collaboration and negotiation, Learning communites, Assessment

Designing for concept learning

This article ponits out the concepts can ouly be fully understood as processes of conceptual change, the reorganization of conceptual frameworks.  Although very little research has focused on assessing conceptual change, the theories conceptual change recommend assessing patterns of concepts and concepts-in-use.  Additionally, it suggests that treating concept learning only as the ability to classify new instances and reorganized by conceptual change. In the processes of conceptual change, the meanings of concepts and their elationships with other concepts change in substantive, functional ways.  In order to capture the complexity of conceptual frameworks, concept learning must be assessed in patterns and in use.  In order to engage and support learners in meaningful concept learning, students should learn how to use a variety of tools to build models of learnings and to engage in solving complex and ill-structured problems. Jonassen, H. D. (2006).  On the role of concepts in learning and instructional design.  ETR&D, 54(2), 177-196.

Implication for assessment: Proposition

Elicting conceptual patterns

Free word associations

Similarity ratings

Card sort

Representing conceptual patterns, Congitive maps, Pathfinder networks

Cocept maps, Implications for instructions: Propositions

Concept-in-use

Semistructured interviews

Think-aloud problem solving

Designing instructional /learning technology product II

Storyboarding a project

Design specification

Evaluating design deocumentation

Designing for constructivist learning

1. Understand is in our interactions with the environemnt. 2. Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organization and nature of what is learned. 3. Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of individual understandings. Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T.M. (1995).  Problem based learning: an instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35(5), 31-38.

problem based learning, Learning goals, Problem generation, Problem presentation, Facilitator role

Rich environments for active learning, Student responsibility and initiative, Generative learning activities, Authentic learning contexts, Authentic assessment strategies, Co-operative support

Problem-based learning design

The key to learning to solve problems is the problem space construction because rich problem representations most clearly distinguish experts for novices and scaffold working memory.  So, developing elaborate, multiple representations of problems along with learning to regulate different kinds of problem performance needs to be explicitly taught.   Jonassen, D. (2000). Towards design theory of problem solving. ETR&D. 48(4), 63-85

well-structured problems

ill-structured problems

Constructivist learning environments

The goal of this theory is to foster problem solving and conceptual development for ill-structured domains Jonassen, D. (1999). Designing constructivist learning environments. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instuctional Theory, volume 2 (pp. 215-239). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.  

Methods, Select learning problem, Provide related case examples, Provide learner with just-in-time information, Provide cognitive tools, Provide conversation and collaboration tools, Provide social/contextual support for the learning environment

Instructional activities, Model, Coach, Scaffold

Development of a product

Interface design

http://designingwebinterfaces.com/6-tips-for-a-great-flex-ux-part-5

Student centered learning design

Active lessons, Present multimedia scenario, Engage student to explore resources, web sites, Templates and organizer to scaffold, Requires the use of technology-based tools, Artifacts evaluation and disccusion

Design process, Identify topic, Learning outcomes, Plan interesting scenario, Locate resources and tools, Plan support componoents, Evaluation of the learning

Resource-based learning evironments

In order to successfully implement resource-based learning environments, there are issues related to people, place, things, and ideas need to be addressed. Resource-based learning offer great promise for teachers when there are ways to enhance and extend existing approaches to meet the demands of the digital era are provided.  The physical infrastructure needed to implement these environments is already well developed and continues to expand and be refined. The tasks for educator is to find ways to consolidate and integrate cross-disciplinary practices into more comprehensive and grounded methods and models for the design and implementation of resource-based learning environments. Hill, J. R., & Hannafin, M.J. (2001).  Teaching and learning in digital environments: the resurgence of resource-based learning.  ETR&D, 49(3), 37-52.

Tools, Searching, Processing, Manipulating, Communicating

Scaffolding mechanisms, Conceptual, Metacognitive, Procedural, Strategic

Classification of learning objects

This paper attempts to address the ill-defined concept problem by providing classification that potentially brings together various perspectives of what a learning object may be. Six unique types of learning objects are proposed and discussed: presentation, practice, simulation, conceptual models, information and contextual representation objects. Based on common characteristics of these six types, a learning object is defined as a representation designed to afford uses in different educational context.   Churchill, D. (2006).  Towards a useful classification of learning objects. Educational Communications and Technology. Education Tech Research dev (2007) 55: 479-497

Presentation objects, PowerPoint

Practice objects, Jumpstart

Simulation objects, Youda game

Conceptional model, Cyberchase

Information objects, Google maps

Contextual representation, Bus station

E-learning design

This book is mainly concerned with the latter, the use of online learning as the principal form of course delivery. Naturally much of the researchers discuss has implications for any form of online and Web- supported setting.  Furthermore, designing learning environments that support knowledge construction requires deliberate forms of planning. From this book, it suggests that the learning environment needs to provide the learners with a raft of motivating and engaging tasks that cause the learner to make choices and decisions in the learning process, to reflect on what is being learned, to articulate and to share the new ideas and knowledge that is being acquired with others.   Oliver, R., & Herrington, J. (2001).  Teaching and learning on-line: a beginner's guide to e-learning and e-teaching in higher education.  Perth, Australia: Edith Cowan University.

Situated learning, Authentic context, Authentic activities, Access to expert performances and the modelling of processes, Multiple roles and perspectives, Collaborative construction of knowledge, Reflection, Articulation, Coaching and scaffolding, Authentic assessment

Problem-based learning, Well chosen problem, Adequate environmental needs support, Process

Case-based learning, Choosing case-based learning, Planning case-based learning in online settings, Learning tasks, Learning resources, Learning supports

Project-based learning, Planning project-based learning in online settings, Learning tasks, Learning resources, Learning supports

Inquiry-based learning, Choosing inquiry-based learning, Planning inquiry-based learning settings, Learning tasks, Learning resources, Learning supports

Role-based learning, Role-playing in online settings, Planning and designing role-playing activities, Role-playing activities online

Instruction design models

Learning theories and ID

This paper is a study of how the behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism learning theories support and impact the instructional designs.  The conclusions of this study are: 1.) there is place for each theory within the practice of instructional design, depending upon the situation and environment.  2.) Whichever situation the instructional designer finds themselves in, they will require a thorough understanding of learning theories to enable them to provide the appropriate learning environment. 3.) Though instructional design may have a behaviorist tradition, new insights to the learning process continue to replace, change and alter the process. Advancements in technology make branched constructivist approaches to learning possible.   Mergel, B (1998).  Instructional design & learning theories. http://www.usask.ca/education/coursework/802papers/mergel/brenda.html

Behaviorism, Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning (Bloom 1956), Gagne's Taxonomy of Learning (Gagne 1972)

Cognitivism, Computer-based insturction

Constructivism, Constructivist learning environments by Jonassen

Gagne's 9 events of instruction

Instruction consists of a set of events external to the learner designed to support the internal process of learning. The events of instruction are designed to make it possible for learners to proceed from "where they are " to the achievement of the capability identified as the target objective.   Chapter 10 "The events of instruction" from Gagne, R., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1992).  Principles of instructional design.  Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

Gaining attention

Informing learner of the objective

Stimulating recall of prerequisite learing

Presenting the stimulus material

Providing learning guidance

Eliciting the performance

Providing feedback about performance correctness

Assessing the performance

Enhancing retention and transfer

Merrill's ID1 and ID2

First generation instructional designs base on Gange's (1985) early work

Second generation instructional by Merrill (1994), Instructional transaction theory, Descriptive theory strategy, Transaction shells, Conditional parameters, Descriptive theory of knowledge, Knowledge objects, Entities, Activities, Part, Property, Process, Kind, Interrelationships, Components, Properities, astractions, Associations between knowledge objects, Prescriptive theory of instructional design (Rules), Selecting knowledge objects, Dividing knowledge into chunks, Sequencing knowledge objects, Rules and parameters for sequencing decisions, Selecting instructional transactions, Instructional goals, Sequencing instructional transactions, Student characteristics, Learner control, Integrated, Algorithms for enacting instructional transactions, Present frame to learner, Changing conditional parameters to adapt instruction to individual learners

Merrill (2006), Demonstration principle, Application principle, Task-centred approach, Activation principle, Integration principle

Knowledge objects and mental models, Knowledge structure, Concept knowledge structure, Conceptual networks, Knowledge objects, Mental models, Categorization problems, Classification, Generalization, Interpretation problems, Explanation, Predictiion, Trouble shooting, Meta-Mental-Models, A model for a model

CISCO reusable learning object models analysis stage of instructional/learning product development

The reusable information object (RIO) strategy is built upon the RIO. An RIO is granular, reusable chunk of information that is media independent. An RIO can be developed once, and delivered in multiple delivery mediums. Each RIO can stand alone as a collection of content items, practice items and assessment items that are combined based on a single learning objective.  Individual RIOs are then combined to form a larger structure called a Reusable Learning Object (RLO). Cisco. (1999).  Cisco Systems reusable information object strategy: definition, creation overview, and guidelines.  Cisco Systems, Inc. http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/779/ibs/solutions/.../el_cisco_rio.pdf

Design, Need assessment, Tasks analysis, Learning objectives, Identify the cognitive level, RIO types

Design instructional/learning teachnology product 1

Multimedia learning theory

This article assumpts that the students can learn more deeply from well-designed multimedia messages consisting of words and pictures than from more traditional modes of communication involving words alone. It explores a program of of research aimed at determining effective methods and designing multimedia learning environments for learners. The premise in this research is that the intelligent design of multimedia instructioal messages depends on an understanding of how the human mind works.  the role of instructional technology in this learner-centered scenario is to serve as a tool that increases the power of human cognition.    Mayer, E. R. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media. Learning & Instruction, 13, 125-139.

Multimedia instructional message, Words and pictures, Meaningful learning

Multimedia effect, Printed text and illustrations

Coherence effect, Seductive details

Contiguity effect

Personalization effect

4C instructional design model

The article gives an overview of the four-component instructional design system (4C/ID-modle).  The 4C/ID model consists of four interrelated  components are essential in blueprints for complex learning: 1.) learning tasks, 2.) supportive information, 3.) just-in-time information, and 4.) part-task practice. The 4C ID modle has beend tested for developing training programs that lead to higher transfer persformance thatn conventional insttruction, and that the effect increases as transfer tasks differ more from the original training tasks.  As result, the $C/ID strategies yielded higher transfer performance than control strategies, and this superiority became more evident on far transfer problems for which learners had to design and construct new computer programs that required solution not encountered before.  However, in terms of other domains including statistical analyzing, computer numerically controlled programming, and fault management in process industry training strategies, they followed and supported the 4C/ID  principles.   Van Merrienboer, J. J., Clark, R. E. & de Crook, M. B. (2002).  Blueprints for Complex Learning:  The 4C/ID-Model. ETR&D, 50(2), 39-64.

Learnig task, Tasks classes, Learner support

Supportive information, Mental models, Cognitive strategies, Cognitive feedback

JIT information, Information dsiplays, Demonstrations and instances, Corrective feedback

Part-task practice, Practice items, Overtrainging

Learning by doing approach to instructional design

The goals of learning by doing theory is to foster skill development and the learning of factuual information in the context o fhow it will be used.  It provides guidelines for all major aspects of project-based learning.   Schank, C. R., Berman, R. T. & Macpherson, A. K. (1990).  Learning by doing. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, volume 2 (pp.397-424). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.

Values, Skills and factual knowledge, Relevant, meaningful, and interesting context, context of relevant tasks for outside the schools

Methods, Goals, Mission, motivatioal and realistic, Cover story, background story line, Role, Who the student will play, Scenario operations, Activities the student does, Resources, Readily accesible, form of stories, Feedback, Consequence of actions, Coaches, Experts' stories about similar experiences

Web 2.0-based Learning Technologies

The adoption and integration of web 2.0 and mobile technologies can have great impact in teaching and learning process for educators and students.  The stockholders need to think outside of the traditional frameworks in order to adopt these innovation effectively in education.   Churchill, D. (2007). Web 2.0 and possibilities for educational application.  Educational Technology, 47(2), 24-29.

Web 2.0

Read-Write Web

Social networking and instructional/learning design

Individuals can create, manage, and publish information and resources that want others to access.  Use of internet-mediated social learning spaces (which build on ideas and experiences from social spaces such as MySpace), and new forms of collaborative learning.

MySpaces and Facebook

Youtube

CiteUlike

Media repositories

Folksonomy, Information retrieval

RSS, information subscriber

Cloud Computing

Internet as a platform, Google Docs

Collective design

Open sources, Wiki, Blog, Weather Bonk, Mashups

Designing learning technology for mobile learning

The article expores current applications for handheld devices and questions which of these make full use of the unique attributes of handheld devices in order to facilitate learning in a pedagogiclaly sensible manner.  As a result, the researchers believe that there are reasons that handheld devices will have impacts on learning as long as the technology is being used within the educational targeted functionality framework.   Patten, B., Sanchez, I. A., & Tangney, B. (2006). Designing collabroative, constructionist and contextual applications for handheld devices.  Computers & Education, 46(3), 294-308.

Functionality framework pedagogical underpinnings

Administration, Calendars, contact, grading, Little pedagogy

Referential, Dictionary, Word processors & office tools, e-books

Ineractive, Little pedagogy, Drill adn Tests, animation, graphing, and wireless response., i.e. Sketchy, study cards, Instructional, Behaviourist

Microworld, Constructionist, Models of real world domains., i.e. uDraumsteps

Collabrative, Collaborative, Contextual, Contructivist, and Constructionist, Co-present games and collaborative environemtns., i.e. moodle, syllable, cooties, etc..

Location Aware, Little pedagogy, behaviourist, constructivist, and contextual, Museum guides and augmented environments., i.e. FieldNote, Amient wood, etc..

Date collection, Little pedagogy, contextual, reflective, and constructivist, Note takin, sensor reading, and data logging., Applications for: scientific (i.e. microsoft excel), multimedia (i.e. ramese), and reflective (i.e. ramble)