Learning Design and Technology

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Learning Design and Technology by Mind Map: Learning Design and Technology

1. Design of Learning/Instructional Products

1.1. Skinner's learnig theory (1958)

1.1.1. Positive reinforcement learning

1.2. Criterion-referenced testing by Glaser (1960s)

1.2.1. Use of tests to spread out the performance of learners

1.3. Behavior objective learning by Mager (1962)

1.3.1. Preparation of objectives of programmed instruction

1.4. The conditional learning by Gagne (1965)

1.4.1. 9 events of instructional designs

1.5. Formative evaluation by Scriven (1967)

1.5.1. Learning Hierarchies

1.6. History of instructional design

1.6.1. Theories and practices analysis design development implementation evaluation managment

1.6.2. Changing views and practices Constructivist views Electronic performance support Rapid prototyping Internet for distance learning Knowledge management

1.6.3. Computer, growth, and redirection(1950-on)

2. Teacher interaction

2.1. Macrodesign models

2.1.1. Microinstructional Design Models Components Elements Goals

2.2. The teacher's knowledge and beliefs

2.3. The teacher's planing and interactive teaching

2.3.1. Reflection-in-action and reflection-in-action Happen in the during the teacher's instruction Happen before and after the instruction

2.4. The teacher's reflective thinking

2.5. Social and cultural construct of thinking and teaching

2.6. Cognitive construct of instructional design

3. Context for instructional /learning design

3.1. Instituational influence

3.1.1. Student's learning ability and confidence

3.1.2. Technical skills

3.1.3. technology

3.1.4. management

3.2. Individual beliefs

3.2.1. Teacher-directed instruction Student

3.2.2. Student-centred learning Technology

3.3. Design

3.4. Educational changes

4. Designing for concept learning

4.1. Activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning enviroments

4.1.1. Clarify purpose of activity system Motives and goals Outcomes

4.1.2. Analyze the activity system Defining the components Outcomes

4.1.3. Analyze the activity sturcture Purpose of the activity system Outcomes

4.1.4. Analyze tools and mediators Components Outcomes

4.1.5. Analyzing the context Contextuality Outcomes

4.1.6. Analyzing activity system dynamics Reality check Outcomes

4.2. Designing for collaborative learning

4.2.1. Learner-centered Cognitive and metacognitive factors Motivational and affective factors Developmental and social factors individual differences

4.2.2. Cognitive constructivistic teaching Mind Raw Materials Meaningfulness and personal motivation Conceptual organization/cognitive framing Prior knowledge and misconceptions Questioning individual exploration and generating connections Self-regulated learning Assessment

4.2.3. Social constructivistic teaching Mind Authentic problems Team choice and common interests Social dialogue and elaboration Group processing and reflection Teacher explanations, support, and demonstrations Multiple viewpoints Collaboration and negotiation Learning communites Assessment

4.3. Designing for concept learning

4.3.1. Implication for assessment: Proposition

4.3.2. Elicting conceptual patterns

4.3.3. Free word associations

4.3.4. Similarity ratings

4.3.5. Card sort

4.3.6. Representing conceptual patterns Congitive maps Pathfinder networks

4.3.7. Cocept maps Implications for instructions: Propositions

4.3.8. Concept-in-use

4.3.9. Semistructured interviews

4.3.10. Think-aloud problem solving

5. Designing instructional /learning technology product II

5.1. Storyboarding a project

5.2. Design specification

5.3. Evaluating design deocumentation

5.4. Designing for constructivist learning

5.4.1. problem based learning Learning goals Problem generation Problem presentation Facilitator role

5.4.2. Rich environments for active learning Student responsibility and initiative Generative learning activities Authentic learning contexts Authentic assessment strategies Co-operative support

5.5. Problem-based learning design

5.5.1. well-structured problems

5.5.2. ill-structured problems

5.6. Constructivist learning environments

5.6.1. Methods Select learning problem Provide related case examples Provide learner with just-in-time information Provide cognitive tools Provide conversation and collaboration tools Provide social/contextual support for the learning environment

5.6.2. Instructional activities Model Coach Scaffold

6. Development of a product

6.1. Interface design

6.2. Student centered learning design

6.2.1. Active lessons Present multimedia scenario Engage student to explore resources web sites Templates and organizer to scaffold Requires the use of technology-based tools Artifacts evaluation and disccusion

6.2.2. Design process Identify topic Learning outcomes Plan interesting scenario Locate resources and tools Plan support componoents Evaluation of the learning

6.3. Resource-based learning evironments

6.3.1. Tools Searching Processing Manipulating Communicating

6.3.2. Scaffolding mechanisms Conceptual Metacognitive Procedural Strategic

6.4. Classification of learning objects

6.4.1. Presentation objects PowerPoint

6.4.2. Practice objects Jumpstart

6.4.3. Simulation objects Youda game

6.4.4. Conceptional model Cyberchase

6.4.5. Information objects Google maps

6.4.6. Contextual representation Bus station

6.5. E-learning design

6.5.1. Situated learning Authentic context Authentic activities Access to expert performances and the modelling of processes Multiple roles and perspectives Collaborative construction of knowledge Reflection Articulation Coaching and scaffolding Authentic assessment

6.5.2. Problem-based learning Well chosen problem Adequate environmental needs support Process

6.5.3. Case-based learning Choosing case-based learning Planning case-based learning in online settings Learning tasks Learning resources Learning supports

6.5.4. Project-based learning Planning project-based learning in online settings Learning tasks Learning resources Learning supports

6.5.5. Inquiry-based learning Choosing inquiry-based learning Planning inquiry-based learning settings Learning tasks Learning resources Learning supports

6.5.6. Role-based learning Role-playing in online settings Planning and designing role-playing activities Role-playing activities online

7. Instruction design models

7.1. Learning theories and ID

7.1.1. Behaviorism Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning (Bloom 1956) Gagne's Taxonomy of Learning (Gagne 1972)

7.1.2. Cognitivism Computer-based insturction

7.1.3. Constructivism Constructivist learning environments by Jonassen

7.2. Gagne's 9 events of instruction

7.2.1. Gaining attention

7.2.2. Informing learner of the objective

7.2.3. Stimulating recall of prerequisite learing

7.2.4. Presenting the stimulus material

7.2.5. Providing learning guidance

7.2.6. Eliciting the performance

7.2.7. Providing feedback about performance correctness

7.2.8. Assessing the performance

7.2.9. Enhancing retention and transfer

7.3. Merrill's ID1 and ID2

7.3.1. First generation instructional designs base on Gange's (1985) early work

7.3.2. Second generation instructional by Merrill (1994) Instructional transaction theory Descriptive theory strategy Descriptive theory of knowledge Prescriptive theory of instructional design (Rules)

7.3.3. Merrill (2006) Demonstration principle Application principle Task-centred approach Activation principle Integration principle

7.3.4. Knowledge objects and mental models Knowledge structure Concept knowledge structure Conceptual networks Knowledge objects Mental models Categorization problems Interpretation problems Meta-Mental-Models

7.4. CISCO reusable learning object models analysis stage of instructional/learning product development

7.4.1. Design Need assessment Tasks analysis Learning objectives Identify the cognitive level RIO types

8. Design instructional/learning teachnology product 1

8.1. Multimedia learning theory

8.1.1. Multimedia instructional message Words and pictures Meaningful learning

8.1.2. Multimedia effect Printed text and illustrations

8.1.3. Coherence effect Seductive details

8.1.4. Contiguity effect

8.1.5. Personalization effect

8.2. 4C instructional design model

8.2.1. Learnig task Tasks classes Learner support

8.2.2. Supportive information Mental models Cognitive strategies Cognitive feedback

8.2.3. JIT information Information dsiplays Demonstrations and instances Corrective feedback

8.2.4. Part-task practice Practice items Overtrainging

8.3. Learning by doing approach to instructional design

8.3.1. Values Skills and factual knowledge Relevant, meaningful, and interesting context context of relevant tasks for outside the schools

8.3.2. Methods Goals Mission motivatioal and realistic Cover story background story line Role Who the student will play Scenario operations Activities the student does Resources Readily accesible form of stories Feedback Consequence of actions Coaches Experts' stories about similar experiences

9. Web 2.0-based Learning Technologies

9.1. Web 2.0

9.1.1. Read-Write Web

9.2. Social networking and instructional/learning design

9.2.1. MySpaces and Facebook

9.2.2. Youtube

9.2.3. CiteUlike

9.3. Media repositories

9.3.1. Folksonomy Information retrieval

9.3.2. RSS information subscriber

9.4. Cloud Computing

9.4.1. Internet as a platform Google Docs

9.5. Collective design

9.5.1. Open sources Wiki Blog Weather Bonk Mashups

10. Designing learning technology for mobile learning

10.1. Functionality framework pedagogical underpinnings

10.1.1. Administration Calendars, contact, grading Little pedagogy

10.1.2. Referential Dictionary, Word processors & office tools, e-books

10.1.3. Ineractive Little pedagogy Drill adn Tests, animation, graphing, and wireless response., i.e. Sketchy, study cards Instructional Behaviourist

10.1.4. Microworld Constructionist Models of real world domains., i.e. uDraumsteps

10.1.5. Collabrative Collaborative, Contextual, Contructivist, and Constructionist Co-present games and collaborative environemtns., i.e. moodle, syllable, cooties, etc..

10.1.6. Location Aware Little pedagogy, behaviourist, constructivist, and contextual Museum guides and augmented environments., i.e. FieldNote, Amient wood, etc..

10.1.7. Date collection Little pedagogy, contextual, reflective, and constructivist Note takin, sensor reading, and data logging. Applications for: scientific (i.e. microsoft excel), multimedia (i.e. ramese), and reflective (i.e. ramble)