Learning Design and Technology

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Learning Design and Technology by Mind Map: Learning Design and Technology

1. Design of Learning/Instructional Products

1.1. Skinner's learnig theory (1958)

1.1.1. Positive reinforcement learning

1.2. Criterion-referenced testing by Glaser (1960s)

1.2.1. Use of tests to spread out the performance of learners

1.3. Behavior objective learning by Mager (1962)

1.3.1. Preparation of objectives of programmed instruction

1.4. The conditional learning by Gagne (1965)

1.4.1. 9 events of instructional designs

1.5. Formative evaluation by Scriven (1967)

1.5.1. Learning Hierarchies

1.6. History of instructional design

1.6.1. Theories and practices

1.6.1.1. analysis

1.6.1.2. design

1.6.1.3. development

1.6.1.4. implementation

1.6.1.5. evaluation

1.6.1.6. managment

1.6.2. Changing views and practices

1.6.2.1. Constructivist views

1.6.2.2. Electronic performance support

1.6.2.3. Rapid prototyping

1.6.2.4. Internet for distance learning

1.6.2.5. Knowledge management

1.6.3. Computer, growth, and redirection(1950-on)

2. Teacher interaction

2.1. Macrodesign models

2.1.1. Microinstructional Design Models

2.1.1.1. Components

2.1.1.2. Elements

2.1.1.3. Goals

2.2. The teacher's knowledge and beliefs

2.3. The teacher's planing and interactive teaching

2.3.1. Reflection-in-action and reflection-in-action

2.3.1.1. Happen in the during the teacher's instruction

2.3.1.2. Happen before and after the instruction

2.4. The teacher's reflective thinking

2.5. Social and cultural construct of thinking and teaching

2.6. Cognitive construct of instructional design

3. Context for instructional /learning design

3.1. Instituational influence

3.1.1. Student's learning ability and confidence

3.1.2. Technical skills

3.1.3. technology

3.1.4. management

3.2. Individual beliefs

3.2.1. Teacher-directed instruction

3.2.1.1. Student

3.2.2. Student-centred learning

3.2.2.1. Technology

3.3. Design

3.4. Educational changes

4. Designing for concept learning

4.1. Activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning enviroments

4.1.1. Clarify purpose of activity system

4.1.1.1. Motives and goals

4.1.1.2. Outcomes

4.1.2. Analyze the activity system

4.1.2.1. Defining the components

4.1.2.2. Outcomes

4.1.3. Analyze the activity sturcture

4.1.3.1. Purpose of the activity system

4.1.3.2. Outcomes

4.1.4. Analyze tools and mediators

4.1.4.1. Components

4.1.4.2. Outcomes

4.1.5. Analyzing the context

4.1.5.1. Contextuality

4.1.5.2. Outcomes

4.1.6. Analyzing activity system dynamics

4.1.6.1. Reality check

4.1.6.2. Outcomes

4.2. Designing for collaborative learning

4.2.1. Learner-centered

4.2.1.1. Cognitive and metacognitive factors

4.2.1.2. Motivational and affective factors

4.2.1.3. Developmental and social factors

4.2.1.4. individual differences

4.2.2. Cognitive constructivistic teaching

4.2.2.1. Mind

4.2.2.2. Raw Materials

4.2.2.3. Meaningfulness and personal motivation

4.2.2.4. Conceptual organization/cognitive framing

4.2.2.5. Prior knowledge and misconceptions

4.2.2.6. Questioning

4.2.2.7. individual exploration and generating connections

4.2.2.8. Self-regulated learning

4.2.2.9. Assessment

4.2.3. Social constructivistic teaching

4.2.3.1. Mind

4.2.3.2. Authentic problems

4.2.3.3. Team choice and common interests

4.2.3.4. Social dialogue and elaboration

4.2.3.5. Group processing and reflection

4.2.3.6. Teacher explanations, support, and demonstrations

4.2.3.7. Multiple viewpoints

4.2.3.8. Collaboration and negotiation

4.2.3.9. Learning communites

4.2.3.10. Assessment

4.3. Designing for concept learning

4.3.1. Implication for assessment: Proposition

4.3.2. Elicting conceptual patterns

4.3.3. Free word associations

4.3.4. Similarity ratings

4.3.5. Card sort

4.3.6. Representing conceptual patterns

4.3.6.1. Congitive maps

4.3.6.2. Pathfinder networks

4.3.7. Cocept maps

4.3.7.1. Implications for instructions: Propositions

4.3.8. Concept-in-use

4.3.9. Semistructured interviews

4.3.10. Think-aloud problem solving

5. Designing instructional /learning technology product II

5.1. Storyboarding a project

5.2. Design specification

5.3. Evaluating design deocumentation

5.4. Designing for constructivist learning

5.4.1. problem based learning

5.4.1.1. Learning goals

5.4.1.2. Problem generation

5.4.1.3. Problem presentation

5.4.1.4. Facilitator role

5.4.2. Rich environments for active learning

5.4.2.1. Student responsibility and initiative

5.4.2.2. Generative learning activities

5.4.2.3. Authentic learning contexts

5.4.2.4. Authentic assessment strategies

5.4.2.5. Co-operative support

5.5. Problem-based learning design

5.5.1. well-structured problems

5.5.2. ill-structured problems

5.6. Constructivist learning environments

5.6.1. Methods

5.6.1.1. Select learning problem

5.6.1.2. Provide related case examples

5.6.1.3. Provide learner with just-in-time information

5.6.1.4. Provide cognitive tools

5.6.1.5. Provide conversation and collaboration tools

5.6.1.6. Provide social/contextual support for the learning environment

5.6.2. Instructional activities

5.6.2.1. Model

5.6.2.2. Coach

5.6.2.3. Scaffold

6. Development of a product

6.1. Interface design

6.2. Student centered learning design

6.2.1. Active lessons

6.2.1.1. Present multimedia scenario

6.2.1.2. Engage student to explore resources

6.2.1.2.1. web sites

6.2.1.3. Templates and organizer to scaffold

6.2.1.4. Requires the use of technology-based tools

6.2.1.5. Artifacts evaluation and disccusion

6.2.2. Design process

6.2.2.1. Identify topic

6.2.2.2. Learning outcomes

6.2.2.3. Plan interesting scenario

6.2.2.4. Locate resources and tools

6.2.2.5. Plan support componoents

6.2.2.6. Evaluation of the learning

6.3. Resource-based learning evironments

6.3.1. Tools

6.3.1.1. Searching

6.3.1.2. Processing

6.3.1.3. Manipulating

6.3.1.4. Communicating

6.3.2. Scaffolding mechanisms

6.3.2.1. Conceptual

6.3.2.2. Metacognitive

6.3.2.3. Procedural

6.3.2.4. Strategic

6.4. Classification of learning objects

6.4.1. Presentation objects

6.4.1.1. PowerPoint

6.4.2. Practice objects

6.4.2.1. Jumpstart

6.4.3. Simulation objects

6.4.3.1. Youda game

6.4.4. Conceptional model

6.4.4.1. Cyberchase

6.4.5. Information objects

6.4.5.1. Google maps

6.4.6. Contextual representation

6.4.6.1. Bus station

6.5. E-learning design

6.5.1. Situated learning

6.5.1.1. Authentic context

6.5.1.2. Authentic activities

6.5.1.3. Access to expert performances and the modelling of processes

6.5.1.4. Multiple roles and perspectives

6.5.1.5. Collaborative construction of knowledge

6.5.1.6. Reflection

6.5.1.7. Articulation

6.5.1.8. Coaching and scaffolding

6.5.1.9. Authentic assessment

6.5.2. Problem-based learning

6.5.2.1. Well chosen problem

6.5.2.2. Adequate environmental needs support

6.5.2.3. Process

6.5.3. Case-based learning

6.5.3.1. Choosing case-based learning

6.5.3.2. Planning case-based learning in online settings

6.5.3.2.1. Learning tasks

6.5.3.2.2. Learning resources

6.5.3.2.3. Learning supports

6.5.4. Project-based learning

6.5.4.1. Planning project-based learning in online settings

6.5.4.1.1. Learning tasks

6.5.4.1.2. Learning resources

6.5.4.1.3. Learning supports

6.5.5. Inquiry-based learning

6.5.5.1. Choosing inquiry-based learning

6.5.5.2. Planning inquiry-based learning settings

6.5.5.2.1. Learning tasks

6.5.5.2.2. Learning resources

6.5.5.2.3. Learning supports

6.5.6. Role-based learning

6.5.6.1. Role-playing in online settings

6.5.6.2. Planning and designing role-playing activities

6.5.6.3. Role-playing activities online

7. Instruction design models

7.1. Learning theories and ID

7.1.1. Behaviorism

7.1.1.1. Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning (Bloom 1956)

7.1.1.2. Gagne's Taxonomy of Learning (Gagne 1972)

7.1.2. Cognitivism

7.1.2.1. Computer-based insturction

7.1.3. Constructivism

7.1.3.1. Constructivist learning environments by Jonassen

7.2. Gagne's 9 events of instruction

7.2.1. Gaining attention

7.2.2. Informing learner of the objective

7.2.3. Stimulating recall of prerequisite learing

7.2.4. Presenting the stimulus material

7.2.5. Providing learning guidance

7.2.6. Eliciting the performance

7.2.7. Providing feedback about performance correctness

7.2.8. Assessing the performance

7.2.9. Enhancing retention and transfer

7.3. Merrill's ID1 and ID2

7.3.1. First generation instructional designs base on Gange's (1985) early work

7.3.2. Second generation instructional by Merrill (1994)

7.3.2.1. Instructional transaction theory

7.3.2.1.1. Descriptive theory strategy

7.3.2.1.2. Descriptive theory of knowledge

7.3.2.1.3. Prescriptive theory of instructional design (Rules)

7.3.3. Merrill (2006)

7.3.3.1. Demonstration principle

7.3.3.2. Application principle

7.3.3.3. Task-centred approach

7.3.3.4. Activation principle

7.3.3.5. Integration principle

7.3.4. Knowledge objects and mental models

7.3.4.1. Knowledge structure

7.3.4.1.1. Concept knowledge structure

7.3.4.1.2. Conceptual networks

7.3.4.2. Knowledge objects

7.3.4.3. Mental models

7.3.4.3.1. Categorization problems

7.3.4.3.2. Interpretation problems

7.3.4.3.3. Meta-Mental-Models

7.4. CISCO reusable learning object models analysis stage of instructional/learning product development

7.4.1. Design

7.4.1.1. Need assessment

7.4.1.2. Tasks analysis

7.4.1.3. Learning objectives

7.4.1.3.1. Identify the cognitive level

7.4.1.4. RIO types

8. Design instructional/learning teachnology product 1

8.1. Multimedia learning theory

8.1.1. Multimedia instructional message

8.1.1.1. Words and pictures

8.1.1.2. Meaningful learning

8.1.2. Multimedia effect

8.1.2.1. Printed text and illustrations

8.1.3. Coherence effect

8.1.3.1. Seductive details

8.1.4. Contiguity effect

8.1.5. Personalization effect

8.2. 4C instructional design model

8.2.1. Learnig task

8.2.1.1. Tasks classes

8.2.1.2. Learner support

8.2.2. Supportive information

8.2.2.1. Mental models

8.2.2.2. Cognitive strategies

8.2.2.3. Cognitive feedback

8.2.3. JIT information

8.2.3.1. Information dsiplays

8.2.3.2. Demonstrations and instances

8.2.3.3. Corrective feedback

8.2.4. Part-task practice

8.2.4.1. Practice items

8.2.4.2. Overtrainging

8.3. Learning by doing approach to instructional design

8.3.1. Values

8.3.1.1. Skills and factual knowledge

8.3.1.2. Relevant, meaningful, and interesting context

8.3.1.3. context of relevant tasks for outside the schools

8.3.2. Methods

8.3.2.1. Goals

8.3.2.2. Mission

8.3.2.2.1. motivatioal and realistic

8.3.2.3. Cover story

8.3.2.3.1. background story line

8.3.2.4. Role

8.3.2.4.1. Who the student will play

8.3.2.5. Scenario operations

8.3.2.5.1. Activities the student does

8.3.2.6. Resources

8.3.2.6.1. Readily accesible

8.3.2.6.2. form of stories

8.3.2.7. Feedback

8.3.2.7.1. Consequence of actions

8.3.2.7.2. Coaches

8.3.2.7.3. Experts' stories about similar experiences

9. Web 2.0-based Learning Technologies

9.1. Web 2.0

9.1.1. Read-Write Web

9.2. Social networking and instructional/learning design

9.2.1. MySpaces and Facebook

9.2.2. Youtube

9.2.3. CiteUlike

9.3. Media repositories

9.3.1. Folksonomy

9.3.1.1. Information retrieval

9.3.2. RSS

9.3.2.1. information subscriber

9.4. Cloud Computing

9.4.1. Internet as a platform

9.4.1.1. Google Docs

9.5. Collective design

9.5.1. Open sources

9.5.1.1. Wiki

9.5.1.2. Blog

9.5.1.3. Weather Bonk

9.5.1.4. Mashups

10. Designing learning technology for mobile learning

10.1. Functionality framework pedagogical underpinnings

10.1.1. Administration

10.1.1.1. Calendars, contact, grading

10.1.1.1.1. Little pedagogy

10.1.2. Referential

10.1.2.1. Dictionary, Word processors & office tools, e-books

10.1.3. Ineractive

10.1.3.1. Little pedagogy

10.1.3.1.1. Drill adn Tests, animation, graphing, and wireless response., i.e. Sketchy, study cards

10.1.3.2. Instructional

10.1.3.3. Behaviourist

10.1.4. Microworld

10.1.4.1. Constructionist

10.1.4.1.1. Models of real world domains., i.e. uDraumsteps

10.1.5. Collabrative

10.1.5.1. Collaborative, Contextual, Contructivist, and Constructionist

10.1.5.1.1. Co-present games and collaborative environemtns., i.e. moodle, syllable, cooties, etc..

10.1.6. Location Aware

10.1.6.1. Little pedagogy, behaviourist, constructivist, and contextual

10.1.6.1.1. Museum guides and augmented environments., i.e. FieldNote, Amient wood, etc..

10.1.7. Date collection

10.1.7.1. Little pedagogy, contextual, reflective, and constructivist

10.1.7.1.1. Note takin, sensor reading, and data logging.

10.1.7.2. Applications for: scientific (i.e. microsoft excel), multimedia (i.e. ramese), and reflective (i.e. ramble)