Age related changes of the older adult

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Age related changes of the older adult by Mind Map: Age related changes of the older adult

1. Cardiovascular

1.1. thicker and rigid heart valves

1.2. dilated aorta

1.2.1. slight ventricular hypertrophy

1.2.2. thickening of left ventricular wall

1.3. less efficient myocardial muscle

1.3.1. decreased contractile strength

1.3.2. when demands are increased, CO decreased

1.4. reduced elasticity and calcification of vessels

1.4.1. decreased compliance

1.5. less sensitive to baroreceptor regulation of Blood pressure

1.6. strong arterial pulses, diminished peripheral pulses

1.6.1. cool extremities

1.7. Common disease processes

1.7.1. Hypertension

1.7.1.1. BP of 140/90 on 3 separate occasions

1.7.1.2. s/s: headache, impaired memory, disorientation, confusion, tremors

1.7.2. Congestive Heart failure

1.7.2.1. complication of arteriosclerosis

1.7.2.2. s/s: SOB, dyspnea on exertion, confusion, insomnia, orthopnea, wheezing, edema, weight gain

1.7.3. Coronary artery disease

1.7.3.1. ischemic heart disease

1.7.4. Hyperlipidemia

1.7.4.1. elevated total cholesterol

1.7.5. Arrythmias

1.7.5.1. irregular heart beat

1.7.5.2. s/s: weakness, fatigue, palpitations, confusion, dizziness, hypotension, bradycardia

2. Respiratory

2.1. Decreased respiratory muscle strength

2.2. stiffer chest wall

2.2.1. reduced compliance

2.3. reduced cough reflex

2.4. reduction in lung size and weight

2.5. decreased elastic recoil

2.6. less elastic alveoli

2.7. reduction in vital capacity

2.8. increased residual volume

2.9. drier mucous membranes

2.10. decreased response to hypercapnia and hypoxia

2.11. Common disease processes

2.11.1. COPD

2.11.1.1. group of diseases

2.11.1.1.1. Asthma

2.11.1.1.2. Chronic bronchitis

2.11.1.1.3. Emphysema

2.11.2. Lung cancer

2.11.2.1. s/s: dyspnea, coughing, chest pain, fatigue, anorexia, wheezing, resp. infections

2.11.3. Lung abcess

2.11.3.1. s/s: anorexia, weight loss, elevated temp, chronic cough

2.11.4. smoking common risk

2.11.5. Pulmonary Emboli

2.11.5.1. blood clot in pulmonary system

2.11.5.2. s/s: confusion, SOB, elevated temp

3. Renal and GU

3.1. decrease in drug clearing

3.1.1. decrease in ability of kidney filtration

3.2. decrease in kidney size

3.3. decrease in GFR rate

3.4. decrease in bladder capacity

3.5. prostate enlargement in men

3.5.1. increase risk for BPH

3.6. hypertrophy and thickening of bladder muscle

3.7. changes in cortical control of micturition

3.7.1. nocturia

3.8. decreased tubular function

3.9. increase in renal threshold for glucose

3.10. Common disease processes

3.10.1. Urinary incontience

3.10.1.1. stress, urgency, overflow, neurogenic, functional, mixed

3.10.2. Renal calculi

3.10.2.1. small, hard stone in kidney

3.10.2.2. painful when passing

3.10.3. Glomerulonephritis

3.10.3.1. acute inflammation of kidneys

3.10.3.2. chronic and acute

3.10.3.3. s/s: hematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, edema

4. Gastrointestinal

4.1. atrophy of the tongue

4.1.1. decreased taste sensation

4.2. decrease in saliva production

4.2.1. swallowing can be difficult

4.3. prebyesophagus

4.3.1. weaker esophageal contractions

4.3.2. weakens sphincter

4.4. esophageal and stomach motility decreases

4.4.1. risk for aspiration and indigestion

4.5. decreased elasticity of the stomach

4.5.1. reduction in amount of food accommodation at one time

4.6. decline in hydrochloric acid and pepsin

4.6.1. stomach has higher pH

4.6.2. gastric irritation

4.6.3. interferes with absorption of calcium, iron, folic acid, and vitamin b12

4.6.4. interferes with absorption of protein

4.7. fewer cells on absorbing surface of intestinal wall

4.7.1. impact absorption of dextrose, xylose, and vitamin B and D

4.8. slower peristalsis, inactivity, reduced food/fluid intake, drugs, and low-fiber diet

4.8.1. risk of constipation

4.9. sensory perception decreases

4.9.1. constipation or incomplete emptying of bowel

4.10. decrease synthesis of bile salt

4.10.1. risk of gallstones

4.11. digestion of fats affected by pancreas changes

4.12. Common disease processes

4.12.1. Dysphagia

4.12.1.1. difficult in swallowing

4.12.2. Chronic constipation

4.12.3. Colorectal cancer

4.12.3.1. changes in bowel consistency

4.12.3.2. s/s: bloody stool and abdominal pain

4.12.4. GERD

4.12.4.1. acid reflex causing heartburn

4.12.5. Hiatal hernia

4.12.5.1. part of stomach protrudes into diaphragm

4.12.6. Peptic ulcer disease

4.12.6.1. sore in the lining of stomach, small intestine or esophagus

4.12.6.2. upper abdominal pain is main symtpom

5. Musculoskeletal

5.1. decline in size and number of muscle fibers

5.1.1. decreased body strength

5.1.2. decline in endurance

5.2. reduction in muscle mass

5.3. connective tissue changes

5.3.1. reduced flexibility

5.4. decrease bone strength

5.5. common musculoskeletal conditions

5.5.1. fractures

5.5.1.1. s/s: swelling, brusing, deformity

5.5.2. osteoarthritis

5.5.2.1. s/s: joint pain, stiffness, swelling

5.5.3. rheumatoid arthritis

5.5.3.1. s/s: painful swelling, stiffness, weakness

5.5.4. osteoporosis

5.5.4.1. s/s: bone fractures, loss of height

5.5.5. Gout

5.5.5.1. uric acid build up--kidney stones

5.5.5.2. painful passage

6. Nervous system and Cognition

6.1. loss of nerve cell mass

6.1.1. atrophy of brain and spinal carod

6.1.2. decrease in weight of brain

6.2. decreased number of dendrites

6.3. demyelinization

6.3.1. slower nerve conduction

6.3.2. slower reaction times

6.3.3. weaker reflexes

6.4. plaques, tangles, atrophy of brain

6.5. accumulation of free radicals

6.6. decrease in cerebral blood flow

6.7. fatty deposits accumulate in blood vessels

6.8. decline in ability to compensate

6.9. slowing in central processing

6.10. decrease in number and sensitivity of sensory receptors, dermatomes, and neurons

6.10.1. tactile sensation dulls

6.11. decline in function of cranial nerves

6.11.1. affects taste and smell

6.12. common disease processes

6.12.1. parkinsons disease

6.12.1.1. s/s: rigidity, bradykinesia, tremors, shuffling gait

6.12.2. TIAs

6.12.2.1. mini-strokes that last minute to hours

6.12.3. CVAs

6.12.3.1. paralysis, trouble waling, trouble talking

7. Immune system

7.1. decline in size of thymus

7.2. increased number of immature T cells

7.3. T cell function decreaes

7.3.1. reduced response to foreign antigens

7.3.2. decrease in cell-mediated and humoral immunity

7.4. reduced antibody response

7.5. decreaed number of langerhans cells

7.6. reduced thickness and decreased circulation of the skin

7.7. immunologic heal promotion

7.7.1. diet

7.7.2. exercise

7.7.3. immunizations

7.7.4. stress managment

7.7.4.1. could have stress-related diseases

7.7.4.1.1. ex. hypertension can be a result of stress

7.7.5. mind-body connection

7.7.6. careful use of antibiotics

8. Sensory

8.1. Vision

8.1.1. reduced elasticity and stiffening of the muscle fibers of the lens

8.1.1.1. presbyopia

8.1.1.1.1. decreased ability to focus

8.1.2. reduction in pupil size

8.1.3. opacification of the lens and vitreous

8.1.3.1. decline in visual acuity

8.1.4. loss of photoreceptor cells in the retina

8.1.4.1. decrease in light perception threshold

8.1.4.2. longer time to adapt to dark and light

8.1.4.3. difficult with vision at night

8.1.5. increased sensitivity to glare

8.1.6. distortion in depth perception

8.1.7. reduced peripheral vision

8.2. hearing

8.2.1. sensorineural hearing loss

8.2.2. impacted cerumen

8.3. common disease processes

8.3.1. cataracts

8.3.1.1. blurry vision

8.3.2. glaucoma

8.3.2.1. slow vision loss

8.3.3. presbycusis

8.3.3.1. decrease ability to hear high pitched sounds

9. Integumentary

9.1. flattening of the dermal-epidermal junction

9.2. reduced thickness and vascularity of the dermis

9.3. reduction of epidermal turnover

9.4. degeneration of elastic fibers

9.5. increased coarseness of collage

9.6. reduction in melanocytes

9.7. atrophy of hair bulbs and decline in the rate of hair and nail growth

9.8. increased fragility of the skin

9.9. common problems

9.9.1. puritis

9.9.1.1. itching which increases potential for skin breakdown and infection

9.9.2. keratosis

9.9.2.1. acne like bumps on skin

9.9.3. skin cancer

9.9.3.1. basal cell carcinoma

9.9.3.2. squamous cell carcinoma

9.9.3.3. melanoma

9.9.3.4. monitor for changes in moles, moles with irregular borders, "growing" moles

9.9.4. stasis dermatitis

9.9.4.1. s/s: itching, thickened skin, broken skin

9.9.5. pressure ulcers

9.9.5.1. nercosis, sloughing, and tissue ulcerations

9.9.5.2. prevention is the priority intervention

10. Reproductive

10.1. Male

10.1.1. thinner epthlium of seminal vesicles

10.1.2. decreased ability to retain fluids

10.1.3. increased fibrosis, epithelium thinning, thickening of the basement membrane, and narrowing of lumen of seminiferous tubules

10.1.4. atrophy of testes

10.1.5. less live sperm

10.1.6. harder time to achieve an erection

10.1.7. enlargement of prostate

10.1.8. common disease processes

10.1.8.1. erectile dysfunction

10.1.8.1.1. impotenence

10.1.8.2. Benign prostatic hyperplasia

10.1.8.2.1. s/s: dribbling, increased frequency, increased urge, reduced kidney function, nocturia

10.1.8.3. prostate cancer

10.1.8.3.1. usually asympotomatic

10.2. Female

10.2.1. hormonal changes

10.2.1.1. vulva atrophies

10.2.1.2. flattening of labia

10.2.1.3. loss of subcutaneous fat and hair

10.2.2. vaginal epithelium thins

10.2.3. cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes atrophy

10.2.4. shortening and narrowing of vaginal canal

10.2.5. less lubrication of vagina

10.2.6. more alkaline vaginal pH

10.2.7. decrease in size of uterus and ovaries

10.2.8. breasts sag and less firm

10.2.9. cervix becomes smaller

10.2.10. common disease processes

10.2.10.1. infections of the vulva

10.2.10.1.1. senile vulvitis

10.2.10.1.2. more fragile and more susceptible

10.2.10.1.3. s/s of infections: smelly odor, fever, discharge

10.2.10.2. atrophic vaginitis

10.2.10.2.1. occurs in postmenupasual

10.2.10.2.2. can lead to discomfort in sexual activity

10.2.10.3. cancer of cervix and endometrium

10.2.10.3.1. postmenopasual bleeding

10.2.10.4. cancer of ovaries

10.2.10.4.1. leading cause of death from gynecologic maligancies

10.2.10.4.2. s/s: pain in abdomen, changes in bowel habits, weight loss

10.2.10.5. dyspareunia

10.2.10.5.1. painful intercourse

10.2.10.6. breast cancer

10.2.10.6.1. encourage regular breast exams

10.2.10.6.2. s/s: discomfort, lump in breast, discharge from nipple

11. Endocrine

11.1. thyroid gland atrophies and activity decreases

11.2. adrenal function decreases

11.3. secretion of ACTH decreases

11.4. decrease volume of pituitary gland

11.5. insufficient release of insulin

11.6. reduced tissue sensitivity to circulating insulin

11.7. common disease processes

11.7.1. Diabetes Mellitus

11.7.1.1. screening, monitoring, and good control of disease is very crucial

11.7.1.2. s/s: polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia

11.7.2. hypothydroidism

11.7.2.1. s/s: everything slows down

11.7.3. hyperthyrodism

11.7.3.1. s/s: everything speeds up