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iGCSE Geography by Mind Map: iGCSE Geography
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iGCSE Geography

This map is supposed to support the iGCSE EDEXCEL textbook.

B. Urban Environments

Global urbanisation

A growing percentage of the world's population lives in urban areas.

Character of urbanisation

Problems of urbanisation

Urban segregation

The urban environment is characterised by the segregation of different land uses and of people of different economic status and ethnic background.

Functional clustering

Social & Ethnic segregation

Shanty towns

Case studies, A case study of one city to show the land use patterns and the distribution of social/ethnic groups., A case study of shanty town management in a LIC city.

Urban change

Changes occur as urban environments age and the needs of people change.

Edge of town

Inner city

Roles of city managers

Case studies, A case study of one named urban area in an HIC to explain how and why changes are taking place.

Fieldwork

Environmental quality survey

Land use transects plotting

A. Hazardous Environments

Introduction

Some places are more hazardous than others.

Types of hazard, Climatic, Tectonic, Other

Distribution of hazards, Volcanic, Earthquake, TRS

Characteristics of hazards, Volcanic, Earthquake, TRS

Fieldwork, Collecting and recording weather data

Impacts

Hazards have an impact on people and the environment.

Short term impacts

Long term impacts

Why people continue to live in areas of hazard

Case study, Comparative study of two TRS - HIC & LIC impacts

Managing Hazards

Different levels of economic development affect how people cope with hazards.

Before the event, Prediction & Preparation, Shelters, Early warning systems, Education

After the event, Short term, emergency aid & disaster relief, Long term, risk assessment, adjustment, improving prediction

Case study, Managing event: Tectonic & TRS, HIC v. LIC

Fieldwork, Surveying peoples'views on the management of a hazard event

A. Coastal Environments

Physical processes

Physical processes give rise to characteristic coastal landforms.

Processes, Marine, wave characteristics, erosion, deposition, transportation, Sub-aerial, weathering, mass movement

Landforms, Erosional, Lulworth, Swanage & Aldbrough, Depositional, Role of Geology, Aldbrough soft cliffs, Role of Vegetation, Role of People, Sea level change, Estuaries, Raised beaches, Fieldwork, Beach measurements, eg profiles and sediments

Ecosystems & Biodiversity

Distinctive ecosystems develop along particular stretches of coastline.

Distibution of coastal ecosystems

mangroves

coral reefs

Managing coasts

Distinctive ecosystems develop along particular stretches of coastline.

Conflict between users, agricultural practices, industrialisation;, deforestation

Coastal retreat & management

Fieldwork, Surveying peoples' views on the management of pressured and/or retreating coastlines

Case studies, Coral reef or Mangrove management, stretch of a coastline under pressure, stretch of retreating coastline

B. Economic Activity & Energy

Sectors of industry

Economic activity sustains people and involves output from a number of different economic sectors.

Classification

Sectorial change

Informal employment

Location and growth

The location and growth of particular types of economic activity are influenced by a range of factors.

Location & growth of tertiary & quaternary industry

Changing location of manufacturing

Rising demand for energy

Increased economic production creates a rising demand for energy and/or energy efficiency.

The rising demand for energy & the energy gap

"Precious energy" & energy conservation

Renewable v. Non-renewable

Case studies

A comparative study of sectoral shifts in one HIC and one LIC.

Case study of the factors affecting the development and location of one hightech industry

Case study of recent employment changes within an area of a HIC.

Fieldwork

Investigating peoples' views on the use of renewable and nonrenewable energy

Reasons for the location of factories or services

C. Globalisation & Migration

Globalisation is making the nations of the world increasingly interdependent. Major movements of people are both a cause and a consequence of this interdependence.

Rise of globalisation

The rise of the global economy

Global shift in manufacturing

TNCs

Tourism

Growth of tourism

Impact of mass tourism

Sustainable tourism?

Migration

Linked to demographic change

Types of migration

Managing migration

Case studies

Migration — a component of population change; international migration; net migration.

TNC

A package holiday destination.

Sustainable tourism (eg Galapagos, Bhutan).

REVISION POINT

Fieldwork booklet

Past Paper pile

A. Coastal Environments

A. Hazardous Environments

B. Urban Environments

B. Economic Activity & Energy

C. Globalisation & Migration #1, C. Globalisation & Migration #2

Case study pile