by Misha Begay
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Intelligence: the ability to benefit from
experience and thereby modify future
behaviors to accomplish new tasks
Steinberg- intelligent behavior involves adaptation, one
must modify their responses to deal successfully with
specific environmental conditions or modify the
environment to better fit their own needs.
Steinberg- intelligent behavior sometimes
involves the individual to use prior
experiences which plays a crucial role.
Steinberg- proposes that numerous cognitive processes are involved
in intelligent behavior, interpreting new situation in ways that promote
successful adaptation, sustaining concentration on a task,
deciphering information and identifying effective problem solving
Group Differences in Intelligence
Culture Bias- when one or more of its items either offend or
unfairly penalize people of a particular ethnic background,
gendar, or socioeconomic status, to the point that the test
has less predictive and constraint validity for those
Socioeconomic Status- affacts the quality of prenatal and
postnatal nutrition, availibility of stimulating books, toys, access
to educational oppurtunities and other environmental factors
that are likely to affect intellectual development and test
Why are there so many theories?
Are they now more
Are they accurate for a child
of possible Special Needs?
Are they accurate for a
Which theory is most
relevant in testing a child?
How Children Acquire
Nature and Nurture play a role in the
development of intelligence. Also, environmental
differences play a role in intellectual
Childrens genes require
environmental support to work
In an impoverished environment a child with a lack of
adequate nutrition and little stimulation- heredity may have
little to say about the extent to which children develop
In an ideal environment a child with nutrition, proper
parenting practices, and educational oppurtunities are
optimal and age appropriate. Heredity is likely to have a
significant influence on children's IQ scores.
As children grow they choose their environment and their
experiences. A child with quantitative reasoning may choose
something that nurtures their inherited talents or a child of
average quantitative abilities may choose something less
Four factors are at (inter)play: Genetic
Activity affects Neural Activity, which
affects Behavior, which affects the
Spearman's G: General factor in intelligence
that influences performance in a wide
variety of tasks and content.
Cattell's Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence: ability to
acquire knowledge and adapt to new situations.
Knowledge and skills accumulated from proir experiences
Gardner's 8 Multiple Intelligences: Linguistic, Logical-Mathematical,
Spatial, Musical, Bodily Kinesthetic, Interpersonal,
Intrapersonal, and Naturalist.
Steinberg's Triarchic Theory: 3 Factors, The
Environmental Context, Prior Experiences,
and The Cognitive Process.