Deforestation

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Deforestation by Mind Map: Deforestation

1. National Geographic

1.1. Forest covers about 30% of the world.

1.1.1. The number of new tree plantations is growing each year, but their total still equals a tiny fraction of the Earth’s forested land.

1.2. “The world’s rain forests could completely vanish in a hundred years at the current rate of deforestation.”

1.3. The biggest cause of deforestation is agriculture.

1.3.1. Farmers cut down trees to make room for crops.

1.3.2. Small farmers will clear a few acres by cutting down trees and burning them in a process known as slash and burn agriculture.

1.3.3. Logging operations, which provide the world’s wood and paper products, also cut countless trees each year.

1.3.3.1. Some of them acting illegally, also build roads to access more and more remote forests—which leads to further deforestation.

1.4. The most dramatic impact is a loss of habitat for millions of species.

1.4.1. Eighty percent of Earth’s land animals and plants live in forests, and many cannot survive the deforestation that destroys their homes.

1.5. Deforestation also drives climate change.

1.5.1. Forest soils are moist, but without protection from sun-blocking tree cover, they quickly dry out.

1.5.2. Trees also help perpetuate the water cycle by returning water vapor to the atmosphere.

1.5.3. Without trees and forests a lot of places would become deserts.

1.5.4. Removing trees deprives the forest of portions of its canopy, which blocks the sun’s rays during the day, and holds in heat at night.

1.5.5. This can cause extreme temperature swings that can be harmful to plants and animals.

1.5.6. Fewer forests means larger amounts of greenhouse gases entering the atmosphere—and increased speed and severity of global warming.

1.6. Solution

1.6.1. Eliminating clear-cutting to make sure forest environments remain intact.

1.6.2. The cutting that does occur should be balanced by planting young trees to replace older trees felled.

2. World Wildlife

2.1. Deforestation comes in many different forms.

2.1.1. Illegal Logging

2.1.1.1. National laws regulate the production and trade of timber products at all stages, from harvesting to processing to sales.

2.1.1.2. Taking wood from protected areas, harvesting more than is permitted and harvesting protected species.

2.1.1.3. Illegal logging is more common than the legal variety.

2.1.1.4. This destruction threatens some of the world’s most famous and valuable forests, including rain forests in the Amazon, Congo Basin, Indonesia and the forests of the Russian Far East.

2.1.1.5. Poor communities near forests are often vulnerable when outsiders try to gain control over the timber nearby, which can lead to repression and human rights violations.

2.1.2. Fires

2.1.2.1. Fires are problematic when they occur in the wrong place, at the wrong frequency or at the wrong severity

2.1.2.2. Each year, millions of acres of forest around the world are destroyed or degraded by fire.

2.1.2.3. The same amount is lost to logging and agriculture combined.

2.1.2.4. Fires not only alter the structure and composition of forests, but they can open up forests to invasive species, threaten biological diversity, alter water cycles and soil fertility, and destroy the livelihoods of the people who live in and around the forests.

2.1.3. Fuelwood Havesting

2.1.3.1. Wood is still a popular fuel choice for cooking and heating around the world, and about half of the illegal removal of timber from forests is thought to be for use as fuelwood.

2.2. Deforestation gives us food, water, clothes, oxygen, and medicine.

2.3. Impacts

2.3.1. Increased Greenhouse Gas Emissions

2.3.1.1. Forests help to mitigate carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, but they become carbon sources when they are cut, burned or otherwise removed.

2.3.1.2. Tropical forests hold more than 210 gigatons of carbon, and deforestation represents around 15% of greenhouse gas emissions.

2.3.1.3. Changes in climate can affect forest-dwelling creatures by altering their habitats and decreasing availability of food and water.

2.3.2. Disruption of the Water Cycle

2.3.2.1. Deforestation or degradation occurs, that balance can be thrown off, resulting in changes in precipitation and river flow.

2.3.3. Increased Soil Erosion

2.3.3.1. Without trees to anchor fertile soil, erosion can occur and sweep the land into rivers.

2.3.3.2. Scientists have estimated that a third of the world’s arable land has been lost through soil erosion and other types of degradation since 1960.

2.3.3.3. Fertile soil washes away, agricultural producers move on, clearing more forest and continuing the cycle of soil loss.

2.3.4. Disrupted Livelihood

2.3.4.1. In the Greater Mekong in Southeast Asia, where land tenure systems are weak, deforestation has contributed to social conflict and migration.

2.3.4.2. In Brazil, poor people have been lured from their villages to remote soy plantations where they may be abused and forced, at gunpoint, to work under inhumane conditions.

2.4. Solution

2.4.1. Reducing Deforestation

2.4.1.1. Given the amount of deforestation around the world, zero net deforestation may seem unattainable.

2.4.1.2. Paraguay reduced the rate of deforestation in their country by 85% in the years just following enactment of its 2004 Zero Deforestation Law.

2.4.2. Offsetting Carbon Emissions From Forests

2.4.2.1. Brazil and Indonesia would rank in the top 10 of the world’s worst polluters.

2.4.2.2. developing countries and the conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (called REDD+).

2.4.2.3. These efforts will also address many of the drivers of deforestation and provide incentives for nations to protect their forests while safeguarding the rights of local communities and indigenous peoples.

2.4.3. Creating Protected Areas

2.4.3.1. Creating protected areas can preserve can keep valuable plants and trees.

2.4.3.2. This can also keep animals from becoming extinct or endangered.

2.4.4. Promoting Sustainable Bioenergy

2.4.4.1. Humans have used forests for fuel for thousands of years, and 2.6 billion people today still use biomass

2.4.4.2. Promote bioenergy from scrap wood, oil and fats, sugar and starch crops, residues and wastes, and even algae to reduce reliance on forests and decrease greenhouse gas emissions.

2.4.5. Stopping Illegal Logging

2.4.5.1. One is ensuring that powerful policies and trade agreements are in place in the US and other countries.

2.4.5.2. Provides guidance on best practices related to legality and responsible sourcing to hundreds of companies around the world, including in the US, and supports an alliance that monitors the status of the remaining natural forests in Sumatra's province of Riau.

3. Live Science

3.1. About 18 million acres of forest are lost each year.

3.1.1. Location

3.1.1.1. Tropical rain forest are most targeted for deforestation.

3.1.1.2. If current deforestation levels proceed, the world's rain forests may completely vanish in as little as 100 years, according to National Geographic.

3.1.1.3. Countries with significant deforestation in 2016 included Brazil, Indonesia, Thailand, the Democratic Republic of Congo and other parts of Africa, and parts of Eastern Europe, according to GRID-Arendal.

3.1.1.4. The country with the most deforestation is Indonesia. Since the last century, Indonesia has lost at least 39 million acres of forest land, according to a study by the University of Maryland and the World Resource Institute.

3.1.1.5. 90% of continental United States' indigenous forest has been removed since 1600, according to the University of Michigan.

3.2. Most trees are cut down illegally and used for fuel.

3.3. Causes

3.3.1. Reasons

3.3.1.1. To harvest timber to create commercial items such as paper, furniture and homes.

3.3.1.2. To create ingredients that are highly prized consumer items, such as the oil from palm trees.

3.3.1.3. To create room for cattle ranching.

3.3.1.4. To make more land available for housing and urbanization.

3.3.2. Methods

3.3.2.1. Burning Trees

3.3.2.1.1. Burning can be done quickly, in vast swaths of land, or more slowly with the slash-and-burn technique.

3.3.2.1.2. Slash and burn agriculture entails cutting down a patch of trees, burning them and growing crops on the land.

3.3.2.1.3. The ash from the burned trees provides some nourishment for the plants and the land is weed-free from the burning.

3.3.2.1.4. When the soil becomes less nourishing and weeds begin to reappear over years of use, the farmers move on to a new patch of land and begin the process again.

3.3.2.2. Clear Cutting

3.3.2.2.1. Clear cutting is when large swaths of land are cut down all at once.

3.4. Climate Change

3.4.1. According to Michael Daley, an associate professor of environmental science at Lasell College in Newton, Massachusetts, the No. 1 problem caused by deforestation is the impact on the global carbon cycle.

3.4.2. Gas molecules that absorb thermal infrared radiation are called greenhouse gases.

3.4.3. If greenhouse gases are in large enough quantity, they can force climate change, according to Daley.

3.4.4. About 300 billion tons of carbon, 40 times the annual greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, is stored in trees, according to Greenpeace.

3.4.5. The deforestation of trees not only lessens the amount of carbon stored, it also releases carbon dioxide into the air. This is because when trees die, they release the stored carbon.

3.4.6. According to the 2010 Global Forest Resources Assessment, deforestation releases nearly a billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere per year, though the numbers are not as high as the ones recorded in the previous decade.

3.4.7. Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic human-caused source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere after fossil fuel combustion, ranging between 6 percent and 17 percent, according to a study published in 2009 in Nature.

3.4.8. Carbon isn't the only greenhouse gas that is affected by deforestation. Water vapor is also considered a greenhouse gas.

3.4.9. Deforestation has decreased global vapor flows from land by 4 percent, according to an article published by the journal National Academy of Sciences. Even this slight change in vapor flows can disrupt natural weather patterns and change current climate models.

3.5. Other Effects

3.5.1. Loss of Species

3.5.1.1. Seventy percent of the world's plants and animals live in forests and are losing their habitats to deforestation, according to National Geographic.

3.5.1.2. This can lead to extinction of the species.

3.5.1.3. This also has negative consequences for medicinal research and local populations that rely on the animals and plants in the forests for hunting and medicine.

3.5.2. Water Cycle

3.5.2.1. They absorb rain fall and produce water vapor that is released into the atmosphere.

3.5.2.2. Trees also lessen the pollution in water, according to the North Carolina State University, by stopping polluted runoff.

3.5.3. Soil Erosion

3.5.3.1. Tree roots anchor the soil. Without trees, the soil is free to wash or blow away, which can lead to vegetation growth problems.

3.5.3.2. "The situation in Haiti compared to the Dominican Republic is a great example of the important role forests play in the water cycle," Daley said. Both countries share the same island, but Haiti has much less forest cover than the Dominican Republic. As a result, Haiti has endured more extreme soil erosion, flooding and landslide issues.

3.5.4. Life Quality

3.5.4.1. Soil erosion can also lead to silt entering the lakes, streams and other water sources. This can decrease local water quality and contribute to poor health in populations in the area.

3.5.5. Disturbance of Native People

3.5.5.1. Many native tribes live in the rain forests of the world, and their destruction is the destruction of these peoples' homes and way of life.

3.6. Counteracting Deforestation

3.6.1. Restoring the ecosystem services provided by forests including carbon storage, water cycling and wildlife habitat.

3.6.2. Reducing the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

3.6.3. Rebuilding wildlife habitats.

4. Deforestation 11 Facts

4.1. Tropical Forest are being destroyed at the rate of 31,000 square miles each year which is the size of North Carolina.

4.2. 200,000 acres of rain forest have been lost since the 1960's which is 14 times the size of Manhattan everyday.

4.3. About 36 football fields’ worth of trees are lost every minute due to deforestation.​

4.4. In 2015, Brazil lost about 3,600 square miles of forest which about the size of Maine.

4.5. Indonesia has the highest deforestation rate in the world, losing 15 million acres of forest between 2000 and 2012.

4.6. 80% of deforestation is due to agriculture.

4.7. Forest products account for about 1% of the world’s gross domestic product, and the total global market for commercial wood products.

4.8. More than 1 billion rural people depend on forests to some extent, and over 90 percent of people living in extreme poverty depend on forests for all or part of their livelihoods.

4.9. By 2050, the global demand for food could double. A more sustainable alternative is using existing farmland more efficiently, rather than clear more forests to grow food.​

4.10. Forests are vital for food, water and livelihoods.

5. Links and Credits

5.1. National Geographic: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/deforestation/

5.2. World Wildlife: https://www.worldwildlife.org/threats/deforestation

5.3. Live Science: https://www.livescience.com/27692-deforestation.html

5.4. Deforestation 11 Facts: https://www.conservation.org/stories/Pages/11-deforestation-facts-you-need-to-know.aspx

5.5. Credits: Most information used is quotes from the following sources.