Helping theories, models & process

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Helping theories, models & process by Mind Map: Helping theories, models & process

1. one way of expressing to helpees that we are in their frame of reference. Skillful use of reflecting depends on the the helper's ability to identify feelings and cues for feelings, from body cues as well as words.

1.1. Reflection skills represent a set of interventions used to help stimulate clients' exploration of their thoughts and feelings related to the presenting problems.

1.1.1. Reflection of feelings can promote the development of accurate emphaty and help to create a safe environment for the client.

2. how. what, when, where, why

2.1. Purpose: To begin on interview

2.2. To encourage helpee elaboration

2.3. To motivate helpee to communicate

3. Egan Stage 1 - Exploration

3.1. Exploring the client's existing situation

3.2. Purpose of stage 1 : to build a non-threatening counselling relationship and help the client explore their situation and then focus on chosen issues.

3.3. Egan Stage II - Helping the client establish aims and goals.

3.3.1. Purpose : to help facilitate the client in developing a more depth and objective understanding of their situation.

3.4. Egan Stage III - Help the client to develop strategies

3.4.1. Help the client to cope with current problems and assist in the learning of new skills that will enable them to live more effectively in the future.

4. Gerard Egan Skilled helper Model

4.1. Essential Therapeutic Orientations

4.2. The Ergan Skilled Helper

4.3. approach clients to become active interpreters of the world, giving meanings to actions, events and situations, facing and overcoming challenges, exploring problems issues.

4.4. The Skilled Helper aims to help their clients develop & the knowledge necessary to solve both their current problems issues and ones that may arise in the future.

4.4.1. helps their client to transfer newly acquired skills and knowledge to fresh situations, facilitates them in establishing appropriate and realistic goals.


5.1. It is a systematic five-stage model or set of guidelines for helper choices to manage problems.


6.1. Life skills helping has preventive and development as well as problem management goals.

6.1.1. Being an educational approach, life skills helping lends itself to both individual and group training interventions. Life skills helpers assist clients to alter underlying patterns of problematic skills. Many problems occur in repetitive cycles.

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9.1. Takes place in a relationship

9.2. The helping relationship is dynamic, that is constantly changing at verbal and nonverbal levels.

9.3. The relationship is the principal process vehicle for both helper and helpee to express and fullfill their needs.

9.4. The relationship is the primary means for meshing helpee problems with helper expertise.

9.5. Relationship emphasizes the "affective" mode, because relationship is commonly defined as the inferred emotional quality of the interaction.

10. Stages in the helping process

10.1. Entry

10.2. Clarification

10.3. Structure

10.4. Relationship

10.5. Exploration

10.6. Consolidation

10.7. Planning

10.8. Termination

11. Helper as facilitator


12.1. Stage 1: Develop the relationship, identify and clarify problems

12.2. Stage 2: Assess problem and redefine in skills terms

12.2.1. Stage 3: State working goals and plan interventions.

12.2.2. Stage 4: Intervene to develop self-helping skills. Stage 5: End and consolidate self-helping skills.

13. Helper Emphaty

13.1. Emphaty is the principal route to understand helpees and allowing them to feel understood.

13.2. Emphatic Listening

13.3. Emphatic listening is listening at its deepest level. When we listen emphatically, we try to step out of our own perspective. Emphatic listening requires listening non-judgementally.

13.4. Non-judgementally listening does not mean that we agree with what a person is saying, only that we are willing to step out of ourselves long enough to see how the person views what he or she is saying.

14. Helper warmth & caring

14.1. Warmth is a condition of friendliness and considerateness manifested by smiling, eye contact and nonverbal attending behaviours

14.2. Caring is a term closely related to warmth, showing compassion and genuine concern about the welfare of the helpee.

15. Helper Positive Regards & Respect

15.1. Respect the helpee individually and worth as persons.

15.2. It says to helpees that they are free to be themselves and that they will be respected for it.

15.3. Respect the helpee indiviually and worth as persons.

16. Five Basic of Types of listening

16.1. Non-listening

16.2. the receiver may be hearing but is not paying.

16.3. Selective-listening

16.4. refers to the receiver's screening certain types of messages or information and paying attention to others. Focusing on facts rather than feelings.

16.5. Pretend listening

16.6. looks like listening but the receiver is actually nonlistening, is thinking about something else.

16.7. Self-focused listening

16.8. concentrates on the perspective of the listener. It involves judging, interpreting, and experiencing the information as it impacts the listener.

16.9. Emphatic listening

16.10. hearing the message and accurately understanding the sender's perspective. Empathy means understanding the experience of the other person, in terms of that person, in terms of that persons's thoughts, feelings or behaviours.

17. Basic counselling skills

17.1. Attending behaviour

17.2. Close and open ended questions

17.3. Encourages

17.4. Paraphrase

17.5. summary

17.6. Reflection

17.7. Confrontation

18. Paraphrase

18.1. method of restating the helpee's basic message in similar, but usually fewer words.

18.1.1. Purpose of paraphrasing

18.1.2. To convey that you are understanding him/her

18.1.3. Help the client by simplifying and focusing on what they said

18.1.4. May encourage the client to elaborate

18.1.5. Provide a check on the accuracy of your perceptions

19. Summary

19.1. Summarizing skills include attention to what the helpee says, how it is said(feelings), it involves tying together into one statement several ideas and feelings at the end of a discussion or the end of an interview.

19.1.1. 3 common types of summaries

19.1.2. Focusing summaries- used at the beginning of the session to pull together prior information the client has given and to provide a focus to the session Signal summaries- used to 'signal' to the client that you have captured the essence of their topic and that the session can move on to the next area of concern Planning summaries- help to provide closure and are used to recap the progress, plans, any recommendations made.

20. Encourages

20.1. variety of verbal and non verbal ways of prompting clients to continue talking.

20.2. Non-verbal minimal responses such as a nod of the head or positive facial expressions

20.2.1. Verbal minimal responses such as "Uh-huh" and "I hear what you're saying"

21. Attending Behaviour

21.1. Attending is the behavioral aspect of building rapport. When a counsellor first meets with a client, they must indicate to the client that tehy are interested in listeningto them and helping them.

21.2. Square, Open, Lean, Eye, Relaxed

22. Closes and Open ended Questions

22.1. Helpers use questions to ask people to expand on points, start conversations, obtaion specific illustrations, check perceptions and obtain information.

22.1.1. 1H4W

23. Reflection

23.1. Purpose of reflection

23.1.1. Helps clients Feel understood, express more feelings, manage feelings.

24. Confrotation

24.1. as a counselling skills is an attempt by the counsellor to gently bring abiut awareness in the client of something that may they may overlooked or avoided.

24.1.1. 4 discrepancies which the client could display

24.1.2. Thoughts and feelings

24.1.3. Thoughts and actions Feelings and actions a combination of thoughts, feelings and actions.

25. Communication Competence

25.1. Helping is so dependent on clear communication

25.2. Awareness of the cultural basis is important