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Forces : Quest 2011 by
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# Forces : Quest 2011

## Challenges

Limit resources and provide constraints

### Roman Ballista

http://www.stormthecastle.com/catapult/popsicle-stick-ballista/popsicle-stick-ballista.htm

### Trebuchet

http://www.instructables.com/id/The-Paper-Trebuchet/

## Syllabus

### 4.6.1 the law of conservation of energy

a) identify situations or phenomena in which different forms of energy are evident b) use models to describe different forms of energy c) identify objects that possess energy because of their motion (kinetic) or because of other properties (potential) d) qualitatively account for the total energy involved in energy transfers and transformations.

Kinetic and potential

Energy Transformation

### 4.6.2 forces

a) identify changes that take place when particular forces are acting b) use the term ‘field’ in describing forces acting at a distance.

### 4.6.3 electrical energy

a) associate electricity with energy transfer in a simple circuit b) construct and draw circuits to show transfer of energy.

### 4.6.7 frictional force

a) describe friction as a contact force which opposes motion b) identify everyday situations where friction acts.

### 4.6.8 electrostatic force

a) describe ways in which objects acquire an electrostatic charge b) identify everyday situations where the effects of electrostatic forces can be observed c) describe the behaviour of charges when they are brought close to each other.

### 4.6.9 magnetic force

a) describe the behaviour of magnetic poles when they are brought close to each other b) identify everyday situations in which magnets and electromagnets are used.

### 4.6.10 gravitational force

a) identify that all objects exert a force of gravity on all other objects in the universe.

## Revision: Syllabus

### 4.6.4 sound energy

a) describe sound as a form of energy requiring a medium for propagation.

### 4.6.5 light energy

a) describe light as a form of energy not requiring a medium for propagation.

### 4.6.6 heat energy

a) identify processes of heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation.

## BIG IDEAs FOR UNIT

### Research based on project

Identify submission dates and purpose of submitting work - progress moments

TEAMS - student chosen within class? project dependent?

PBL focus - only last three lessons devoted to project in labs

### Integrate with INCA's

http://www.peru-travel-confidential.com/inca-technology.html

FOrces INCA's would encounter

Difference in technology available - benefits to Spanish?

Forces involved in the technologies each culture had

## Blooms

Recalling information Recognising, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding

### Understanding Research and Practical Activities

Explaining ideas or concepts Interpreting, summarising, paraphrasing, classifying, explaining

### Applying: Practical Activities and Challenge

Using information in another familiar situation Implementing, carrying out, using, executing

### Analysing: Challenge

Breaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships Comparing, organising, deconstructing, interrogating, finding

### Evaluating: Friction Practical Activity and Challenge

Justifying a decision or course of action Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judging

### Creating: Challenge

Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing.

## Syllabus PFA

### 4.2

Outcome 4.2: A student uses examples to illustrate how models, theories and laws contribute to an understanding of phenomena. Students learn to: a) evaluate the role of creativity, curiosity, objectivity and logical reasoning in describing phenomena, carrying out investigations and in the devising and testing of hypotheses b) distinguish between scientific argument and economic or legal argument c) apply scientific processes to test the validity of ideas and theories f) give examples that demonstrate the benefits and limitations of using models

## Syllabus: Skills

### 4.31.1 identifying data sources

Outcome 4.13: A student clarifies the purpose of an investigation and, with guidance, produces a plan to investigate a problem. 4.13.1 Students learn to: a) describe a problem and develop an hypothesis or question that can be tested or researched b) propose possible sources of data and/or information relevant to the investigation c) identify what type of information or data need to be collected d) justify why particular types of data or information are to be collected e) identify the appropriate units to be used in collecting data f) recommend the use of an appropriate technology or strategy for collecting data or gathering information g) formulate a means of recording the data to be gathered or the information to be collected.

### 4.13.2 planning first hand investigations

4.13.2 planning first hand investigations a) identify variables that need to be held constant if reliable first-hand data is to be collected b) specify the dependent and independent variables when planning controlled experiments c) describe a logical procedure for undertaking a simple or controlled experiment to collect valid first-hand data d) establish an appropriate timeline for an investigation.

### 4.13.3 choosing equipment or resources

4.13.3 choosing equipment or resources a) identify advantages and limitations of using particular laboratory and field equipment for a specific task b) select appropriate equipment (including safety equipment) and/or resources to perform the task c) describe ways to reduce the risk to themselves and others when working in the laboratory or field.

### 4.14 Performing First hand investigations

Students learn to: a) follow the planned procedure when performing an investigation b) use time and resources effectively c) safely and efficiently construct, assemble and manipulate identified equipment d) record data using the appropriate units e) evaluate and modify experimental procedures f) demonstrate the use of safe and hygienic work practices including the correct use of safety equipment.

### 4.15 gathering first hand information

Students learn to: a) make and record observations and measurements accurately b) use independently a range of data collection strategies and technologies such as data loggers.

### 4.16 gathering information from secondary sources

Students learn to: a) use a range of sources, including databases, CD-ROMs and the internet, to access information b) use a variety of techniques, such as keywords, skimming and scanning to identify appropriate information c) extract information from column graphs, histograms, divided bar and sector graphs, line graphs, composite graphs, flow diagrams, other texts and audio/visual resources d) summarise information from identified oral and written secondary sources.

### 4.17 processing information

Students learn to: a) collate information from a number of sources b) distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information c) check the reliability of gathered data and information by comparing them with observations or information from other sources d) organise data using a variety of methods including diagrams, tables, spreadsheets and databases e) critically analyse the accuracy of scientific information presented in mass media

### 4.18 presenting information

Students learn to: a)    select, and use appropriately, types of texts for different purposes and contexts including a discussion, explanation, procedure, exposition, recount, report, response or experimental record for oral or written presentation b)    select and use an appropriate medium to present data and information d)    use symbols to express relationships, including mathematical ones, and appropriate units for physical quantities e)    use drawings, diagrams, graphs, tables, databases, spreadsheets and flow charts to show relationships and present information clearly and/or succinctly

### 4.19 thinking critically

Students learn to: a)    justify inferences in light of gathered information b)    identify data which supports or discounts an hypothesis, a question being investigated or a proposed solution to a problem c)    predict outcomes and generate plausible explanations directly related to observations made d)    make generalisations in relation to a relevant set of observations or experimental results e)    anticipate and/or respond to problems as they arise in practical situations f)    use models, including mathematical ones, to explain phenomena or make predictions g)    use cause and effect relationships to explain ideas.

### 4.20 Problem solving

Students learn to: a) identify the nature of a presented problem b) describe different strategies that could be employed to solve an identified problem c) use identified strategies to develop a range of possible solutions to a particular problem d) evaluate the appropriateness of different strategies for solving an identified problem.

### 4.21 use of creativity and imagination

Students learn to: a)    seek evidence to support claims b)    evaluate evidence for reliability and validity c)    produce creative solutions for problems d)    propose ideas that demonstrate coherence and logical progression e)    apply critical thinking in the consideration of proposals f)    formulate cause and effect relationships.

### 4.22.2 Working in Teams

a) identify the specific roles needed when working in a team b) match the tasks to the team members according to the requirements of the task and the skills of the individual c) negotiate and allocate individual roles to members of the team d) accept specific roles in a team while planning and conducting investigations, communicating information and understanding and solving problems e) set and work to realistic timelines and goals as a team f) accept personal responsibility for maintenance of a safe working environment for the team g) monitor progress of the team towards completion of a task h) evaluate the process used by the team and effectiveness of the team in completing the task.