Special Education and Context!

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Special Education and Context! by Mind Map: Special Education and Context!

1. Terminology

1.1. Exceptional children: children who deviate from the norm to such an extent that special educational services are required Disability: an inability or incapability to perform a task or activity in a normative fashion. Handicap: difficulties imposed by the environment on a person with a disability. Handicapism: the unequal and differential treatment accorded individuals with a disability. Developmental delay: a term defined by the individual states referring to children ages 3-9 who perform significantly below the developmental norms. At risk: an infant or child who has a high probability of exhibiting delays in development or developing a disability. Special education: specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of an individual recognized as exceptional. Related service: services defined by federal law whos purpose is to assist a student with exceptionalities in deriving benefit from a special education. Noncategorical: programs developed based on student needs and common instructional requirements rather than on disability. Self-contained: a separate classroom for children with disabilities usually found in a public school. Individualized education program (IEP): a written detailed plan developed by a team for each pupil ages 3-21 who receive special education; management tool. Individualized family service plan (IFSP): a written plan developed by a team that coordinates services for infants and toddlers and their families. Expan

2. Categories and Labels.

2.1. Labeling children can often lead to stereotyping and discrimination and can cause exclusionary practices in the educational and social arenas.

2.2. 13 Categories: Autism, Deaf-Blindness, Developmental Delay, Emotional disturbance, Hearing impairment including deafness, Intellectual disability, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairments, other health impairments, specific learning impairments, speech or language impairments, traumatic brain injury, and visual impairments including blindness.

3. History of the development of Special education.

3.1. Its history begins in late 18th century and early 19th century. By the end of19th century residential institutions were well embedded into American society. By the second half of the 19th century and early 20th century special ed. class began in public schools.

3.1.1. It was a luxury that could not be attain by wealthy families and first classroom were called self-contained; students were groups and segregated from "traditional"classroom or peers. After WW2 there was an increase in expansion of Special ed. due to legislation and leaders with federal power. Beginning of Mid-1790s all students with disabilities were given free appropriate public education.

4. Professionals who work with individuals with exceptionalities.

4.1. Individualized education program (IEP): written plan developed by a collaborate team for a child that receives special eduction

4.1.1. collaborative team for IEP include: parents, teachers, and professionals

4.2. Consultation services: is problem-solving process where a individual offers expertise and assistance to another with the intent to modify teaching or environment to accommodate to the student's needs

4.3. Service delivery teams:

4.3.1. multidisciplinary teams: form out of professionals of different disciplines that function as a team, but perform individual roles of one another.

4.3.2. interdisciplinary team: a team form out of professionals of different disciplines that perform evaluation independently, but recommendations are a result from sharing information and joint planing

4.3.3. transdisciplinary team: form out of professionals of different disciplines that are a collaborative team. Also, is distinguished by sharing roles and primary therapist

5. Cooperative Teaching.

5.1. Cooperative teaching, or co-teaching, is an increasingly popular approach for including students with disabilities in general education classrooms. Co-teaching occurs when a general education teacher and one or more support service providers work together in a collaborative manner in the general education classroom.

5.2. Common models of cooperative teaching include: 1.One teaches, one observes: one teacher teaches the class while the other teacher collects data on students. 2.One teaches, one support: one teacher takes the lead by teaching while the other teacher provides support and assistance to students who need it. 3.Station teaching: student change their locations throughout the classroom and work with all teachers during the rotations. 4.Parallel teaching: each teacher delivers instruction to half the class at the same time as the other teacher is presenting the same lesson to the other half of the class. 5.Alternative teaching: One teacher provides instruction to the larger group while the other teacher works individually with a smaller group to provide alternate teaching strategies. 6.Team teaching: Both teachers take equal turns in teaching and supporting the students.

6. Exceptionality across the Life Span.

6.1. Professionals have begun to focus on two distinct populations: Infants/Toddlers and Preschoolers, Adolescents and Young Adults.

6.1.1. Infants/Toddlers and Preschoolers with Special Needs: 1 million children from birth to the age of 5 now receive some form of support or special education. Before, service your children with disabilities were unheard. More than half the states did not provide special education for preschoolers who have special needs prior to PL 94-142. The Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986 (PL 99-457) are responsible for the rapid development of service for young children with disabilities as well as for those who are at risk for future problems in learning and development. Early intervention refers to the delivery of a coordinated and comprehensive package of specialized service to infants from birth to the age of 2 with development delays or at-risk conditions. Early childhood special education is to describe the provision of customized service uniquely crafted to meet individual needs from the age of 3 to 5.

6.1.2. Adolescents and Young Adults with Disabilities: The transition from school to work and adult life requires sound preparation in the secondary school, adequate support at the point of school leaving, and secure opportunities and services, if needed, in adult situations. Three levels of service: Top level: “No Special Service” refers to those generic services available to any citizen even if special accommodations may be necessary. (ex. Educational opportunities at a local community college) Middle rung: “Time-Limited Service” involves specialized, short term service that are typically necessary because of a disability. (ex. Vocational rehabilitation service) Third level: “Ongoing Service” an ongoing employment support system that was not widely available in the early 1980s. Transition services is an individualized and coordinated services that assist the adolescent with a disability to successfully move from school to post school activities. Transitioning adolescents from school to adult life is briefly examined by two related areas of concern for professionals. First is how to create a curriculum that prepares students to participate fully in all aspect of community life. The second is how to respond to the demands for higher standards while still preparing students for life after high school.

7. Prevalence of Children and Young adults with disabilities.

7.1. Approximately 5.8 million U.S. students between ages of 6 and 21 receive special education during the 2011-2012 school year. Learning disabilities account for about 4/10 pupils with disabilities; students with dual sensory impairments account fo the smallest percentage out of the pupils.

8. Universal Design for Learning

8.1. Universal design for learning (UDL) can be used simply stated as the design of instructional materials and activities that allows learning goals to be achievable by individuals with wide differences in their ability to see, hear , speak , move , read , write , understand English , organize and remember.

8.2. Universal design allows for equal access of learning and multiple means of representation, engagement, and expression.

9. Pioneers of Special Ed.

9.1. All pioneers help developed the foundation for Special education some contributions included:

9.1.1. Jacob Rodrigues Pereire, introduced the idea that deaf could be taught to communicate. Sign language emerged

9.1.2. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, taught children with hearing impairment to communicate using a system of signs Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard, introduce sensory training "behavior modification to assist students in learnign

9.1.3. Samuel Gridley Howe, founded the 1st facility for individuals who are blind

9.1.4. Dorothea Lyne DIx,1st American to better and more humane treatment for treatment of mental illness

9.1.5. Luis Braille, developed the tactile system is known as Unified English Braille that is based of embossed dots

9.1.6. Edouard Seguin, responsible for the teaching method of students with intellectual disabilty

9.1.7. Alexander Graham Bell, he advocated for educating children with disabilities in public schools

9.1.8. Alfred Binet, develop one of the infamous intelligence theory and the concept of mental age

9.1.9. Maria Montessori, expert in early development that children are capable of learning at an early age.

9.1.10. Lewis Terman, godfather of gifted education that developed the concept of IQ