Orthopaedics WikiMaps by #UQUOrtho Students 2013

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Orthopaedics WikiMaps by #UQUOrtho Students 2013 by Mind Map: Orthopaedics WikiMaps by #UQUOrtho Students 2013

1. Pain out of proportion and pain with passive stretching of muscle.

2. E=Exposure

3. If treatment is delayed surgical correction is the only choice

4. Management: • non operative: remove constructive dressings( casts, splints) and elevate the limb at the level of the heart . • Operative : urgent fascitomy, 48-72h post-op wound closure with or without necrotic tissue debridement .

5. Treatment : serial casting

6. Talipes equinovarus ( Club foot )

6.1. Flection and inversion of the foot

7. Difinition : avascular necrosis of femoral head in children

8. Look for Source of Bleeding

9. Jaw Thrust And Chin Lift

10. CT scan , MRI , Arthrography , Arthrocentesis , Arthroscopy , and bone scan can be used in some cases

11. Treatment

11.1. Pavlik harness

11.2. Hip spica cast

11.3. Open reduction

12. Developmental dysplasia (dislocation) of the hip (DDH)

12.1. Physical examination

12.1.1. Barlow's test

12.1.2. Ortaloni's test

12.2. Investigation

12.2.1. US

13. History

14. Pediatric Orthopaedics

14.1. Hip & foot pathology

14.1.1. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) Difinition : seperation of the epiphysis From the head of the femur Investigation : x-ray Treatment : stabilize with nail

14.1.2. Septic hip Sign & symp : cry , poor feeding , fever, inability to move the hip Common bacteria : staph aureus Investigation : CBC , blood culture , x-ray , aspiration Treatment : open the joint , irregation and antibiotic

14.1.3. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) Four Stages 1-Femoral head becomes more dense with possible fracture of supporting bone 2-Fragmentation and reabsorption of bone 3- Reossification when new bone has regrown 4-Healing, when new bone reshapes. Signs & symp : hip pain Investigations : x-ray

14.2. Fractures

15. Orthopaedic Oncology

15.1. Statistics

15.1.1. primary tumors Posterior Cruciate Ligament most of them are benign must be managed only by an oncologist orthopedic

15.1.2. secondary (Metastatic) tumors the majority of bone tumors can be managed by any orthopedic doctor

15.2. Important 7 quistions in x-ray

15.2.1. Site Size Effect on bone Bone response Matrix type Cortex erosion Soft tissue mass

16. Spine Surgery

17. Sport Injuries

18. Arthroplasty

19. Orthopaedic Trauma

19.1. Hx and PE

19.1.1. Physical Examination LOOK, FEEL & MOVE Special Tests Neurovascular Exam

19.2. imaging

19.2.1. at least 2 views

19.2.2. Joint Above & Joint Below

19.2.3. Before & After Reduction

19.2.4. 2 sides : bilateral

19.2.5. How to comment Take a history & Physical Ex Personal data The area and view Follow cortical outline description Dislocation for joint Angulation Shortening

19.3. ATLS

19.3.1. Primary Survey A,B,C,D,E A=Airway & Cervical Spine Protection B=Breathing C=Circulation D=Disability

19.3.2. Resuscitation Two peripheral large bore IVs Two liters of Ringers Lactate Monitor Blood pressure Urinary output Base deficit Initial Hematocrit/Hemoglobin -unreliable If no response then severe hemorrhage has occurred Immediate blood is needed Type specific cross match

19.3.3. Secondary Survey after pt stablization look for Dx

19.3.4. Tertiary Survey in 24 hr after stablization look for missing abnormality

20. Foot & Ankle

20.1. Achilles Tendon

20.2. Peroneal Tendons

20.3. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)

20.4. Foot Disorders

20.5. Fractures

21. Upper Extremities

21.1. Shoulder joint

21.1.1. Shoulder problems RC tear special tests Impingement syndrome Neer's test Hawkins-Kennedy test Shoulder trauma

21.2. Elbow joint

21.2.1. Dislocation Posterior most common Anterior is rare

21.3. wrist joint

21.4. Common complains

21.4.1. Pain

21.4.2. Instability

21.4.3. Loss of motion

21.5. Fractures

21.5.1. Clavicle Fx Proximal most common Common in child P/E & Radiology Check for brachial plexus injury X-ray, AP chest Rx Proximal & Middle Distal Complications Shoulder stiffness brachial plexus injury Pneumothorax

21.5.2. Proximal Humral Fx P/E & Radiology Neurovascular Examination Rx Treat osteoprosis Undisp. Disp. Complications AVN Axillary nerve palsy Post-trumatic arthritis

22. Acute Compartment Syndrome

22.1. Surgical ER. causes:after significant trauma,ischemic injury, prolonged limb compression or surgery.

23. Orthopadeic Basic Sciences

23.1. New Idea

23.2. New Idea

23.3. New Idea

23.4. New Idea

23.5. New Idea

24. Knee joint

24.1. Knee injuries

24.1.1. fracture Tibial Plateau Fractures Produced by varus or valgus forces combined w/axial loading which drives femoral condyles into tibial plateau Tibial Spine & Tuberosity Fractures Femoral Condyle Fractures Patella Fracture

24.1.2. ligament injuries Ligamentous & Meniscal Injuries Collateral ligament injury Meniscal tears Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL tear >PCL tear

24.1.3. dislocation Knee Dislocation:

24.1.4. inflammation Patellar Tendonitis osteoarthritis

24.1.5. Quadriceps/Patellar Tendon Rupture Patella Dislocation

24.1.6. Chondromalacia Patellae

25. New Idea

26. New Idea