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Orthopaedics WikiMaps by #UQUOrtho Students 2013 by Mind Map: Orthopaedics WikiMaps
by #UQUOrtho Students
2013
5.0 stars - 1 reviews range from 0 to 5

Orthopaedics WikiMaps by #UQUOrtho Students 2013

Pain out of proportion and pain with passive stretching of muscle.

E=Exposure

If treatment is delayed surgical correction is the only choice

Management: • non operative: remove constructive dressings( casts, splints) and elevate the limb at the level of the heart . • Operative : urgent fascitomy, 48-72h post-op wound closure with or without necrotic tissue debridement .

Treatment : serial casting

Talipes equinovarus ( Club foot )

Flection and inversion of the foot

Difinition : avascular necrosis of femoral head in children

Look for Source of Bleeding

Jaw Thrust And Chin Lift

CT scan , MRI , Arthrography , Arthrocentesis , Arthroscopy , and bone scan can be used in some cases

Treatment

Pavlik harness

Hip spica cast

Open reduction

Developmental dysplasia (dislocation) of the hip (DDH)

Physical examination

Barlow's test

Ortaloni's test

Investigation

US

History

Pediatric Orthopaedics

Hip & foot pathology

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), Difinition : seperation of the epiphysis From the head of the femur, Investigation : x-ray, Treatment : stabilize with nail

Septic hip, Sign & symp : cry , poor feeding , fever, inability to move the hip, Common bacteria : staph aureus, Investigation : CBC , blood culture , x-ray , aspiration, Treatment : open the joint , irregation and antibiotic

Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD), Four Stages, 1-Femoral head becomes more dense with possible fracture of supporting bone, 2-Fragmentation and reabsorption of bone, 3- Reossification when new bone has regrown, 4-Healing, when new bone reshapes., Signs & symp : hip pain, Investigations : x-ray

Fractures

Orthopaedic Oncology

Statistics

primary tumors, Posterior Cruciate Ligament, most of them are benign, must be managed only by an oncologist orthopedic

secondary (Metastatic) tumors, the majority of bone tumors, can be managed by any orthopedic doctor

Important 7 quistions in x-ray

Site Size Effect on bone Bone response Matrix type Cortex erosion Soft tissue mass

Spine Surgery

Sport Injuries

Arthroplasty

Orthopaedic Trauma

Hx and PE

Physical Examination, LOOK, FEEL & MOVE, Special Tests, Neurovascular Exam

imaging

at least 2 views

Joint Above & Joint Below

Before & After Reduction

2 sides : bilateral

How to comment, Take a history & Physical Ex, Personal data, The area and view, Follow cortical outline, description, Dislocation for joint, Angulation, Shortening

ATLS

Primary Survey, A,B,C,D,E, A=Airway & Cervical Spine Protection, Displacement for bone, B=Breathing, intubate if GCS <= 8, C=Circulation, D=Disability, by Glasgow Coma Scale, Eye Response, 1: no response, 2: open in response to pain, 3: open in response to command, 4: open spontaneously, Resuscitation, Verbal Response, 1: no response, 2: incomprehensible sound, 3: with incompatible words, 4: confusion, 5: oriented, Motor Response, 1: no response, 2: extention to pain, 3: flextion to pain, 4: withwrawal from pain, 5: localize to pain, 6: respond to command

Resuscitation, Two peripheral large bore IVs, Two liters of Ringers Lactate, Monitor Blood pressure Urinary output Base deficit Initial Hematocrit/Hemoglobin -unreliable, If no response then severe hemorrhage has occurred Immediate blood is needed, Type specific, the same blood group (A+ , B- , O-, etc) minor groups are not tested here, cross match, no reaction occurred bet. donor & recipient blood in the lap.

Secondary Survey, after pt stablization, look for Dx

Tertiary Survey, in 24 hr after stablization, look for missing abnormality

Foot & Ankle

Achilles Tendon

Peroneal Tendons

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)

Foot Disorders

Fractures

Upper Extremities

Shoulder joint

Shoulder problems, RC tear, special tests, Supraspinatus muscle, Jobe's test, Subscapularis muscle, lift-off test, Infraspinatus muscle & teres minor, posterior-cuff test, Impingement syndrome, Neer's test, Hawkins-Kennedy test, Shoulder trauma

Elbow joint

Dislocation, Posterior most common, Anterior is rare

wrist joint

Common complains

Pain

Instability

Loss of motion

Fractures

Clavicle Fx, Proximal most common, Common in child, P/E & Radiology, Check for brachial plexus injury, X-ray, AP chest, Rx, Proximal & Middle, figure of eight sling 2 weeks with early ROM, Distal, Undisp., Sling 2 weeks, Disp., ORIF, Complications, Shoulder stiffness, brachial plexus injury, Pneumothorax

Proximal Humral Fx, P/E & Radiology, Neurovascular Examination, Deltoid Contraction, Skin over deltoid, Axillary nerve, Rx, Treat osteoprosis, Undisp., Colsed redction, Disp., ORIF, Complications, AVN, Axillary nerve palsy, Decrease sensation over deltoid, decrease shoulder abduction, Post-trumatic arthritis

Acute Compartment Syndrome

Surgical ER. causes:after significant trauma,ischemic injury, prolonged limb compression or surgery.

Orthopadeic Basic Sciences

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Knee joint

Knee injuries

fracture, Tibial Plateau Fractures, Produced by varus or valgus forces combined w/axial loading which drives femoral condyles into tibial plateau, Tibial Spine & Tuberosity Fractures, Femoral Condyle Fractures, Patella Fracture

ligament injuries, Ligamentous & Meniscal Injuries, Collateral ligament injury, MCL > LCL, Meniscal tears, Medial >lateral, Anterior Cruciate Ligament, ACL tear >PCL tear

dislocation, Knee Dislocation:

inflammation, Patellar Tendonitis, osteoarthritis

Quadriceps/Patellar Tendon Rupture, Patella Dislocation

Chondromalacia Patellae

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