Orthopaedics WikiMaps by #UQUOrtho Students 2013

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Orthopaedics WikiMaps by #UQUOrtho Students 2013 by Mind Map: Orthopaedics WikiMaps by #UQUOrtho Students 2013

1. Pain out of proportion and pain with passive stretching of muscle.

2. E=Exposure

3. If treatment is delayed surgical correction is the only choice

4. Management: • non operative: remove constructive dressings( casts, splints) and elevate the limb at the level of the heart . • Operative : urgent fascitomy, 48-72h post-op wound closure with or without necrotic tissue debridement .

5. Treatment : serial casting

6. Talipes equinovarus ( Club foot )

6.1. Flection and inversion of the foot

7. Difinition : avascular necrosis of femoral head in children

8. Look for Source of Bleeding

9. Jaw Thrust And Chin Lift

10. CT scan , MRI , Arthrography , Arthrocentesis , Arthroscopy , and bone scan can be used in some cases

11. Treatment

11.1. Pavlik harness

11.2. Hip spica cast

11.3. Open reduction

12. Developmental dysplasia (dislocation) of the hip (DDH)

12.1. Physical examination

12.1.1. Barlow's test

12.1.2. Ortaloni's test

12.2. Investigation

12.2.1. US

13. History

14. Pediatric Orthopaedics

14.1. Hip & foot pathology

14.1.1. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE)

14.1.1.1. Difinition : seperation of the epiphysis From the head of the femur

14.1.1.2. Investigation : x-ray

14.1.1.3. Treatment : stabilize with nail

14.1.2. Septic hip

14.1.2.1. Sign & symp : cry , poor feeding , fever, inability to move the hip

14.1.2.2. Common bacteria : staph aureus

14.1.2.3. Investigation : CBC , blood culture , x-ray , aspiration

14.1.2.4. Treatment : open the joint , irregation and antibiotic

14.1.3. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD)

14.1.3.1. Four Stages

14.1.3.1.1. 1-Femoral head becomes more dense with possible fracture of supporting bone

14.1.3.1.2. 2-Fragmentation and reabsorption of bone

14.1.3.1.3. 3- Reossification when new bone has regrown

14.1.3.1.4. 4-Healing, when new bone reshapes.

14.1.3.2. Signs & symp : hip pain

14.1.3.3. Investigations : x-ray

14.2. Fractures

15. Orthopaedic Oncology

15.1. Statistics

15.1.1. primary tumors

15.1.1.1. Posterior Cruciate Ligament

15.1.1.2. most of them are benign

15.1.1.3. must be managed only by an oncologist orthopedic

15.1.2. secondary (Metastatic) tumors

15.1.2.1. the majority of bone tumors

15.1.2.2. can be managed by any orthopedic doctor

15.2. Important 7 quistions in x-ray

15.2.1. Site Size Effect on bone Bone response Matrix type Cortex erosion Soft tissue mass

16. Spine Surgery

17. Sport Injuries

18. Arthroplasty

19. Orthopaedic Trauma

19.1. Hx and PE

19.1.1. Physical Examination

19.1.1.1. LOOK, FEEL & MOVE

19.1.1.2. Special Tests

19.1.1.3. Neurovascular Exam

19.2. imaging

19.2.1. at least 2 views

19.2.2. Joint Above & Joint Below

19.2.3. Before & After Reduction

19.2.4. 2 sides : bilateral

19.2.5. How to comment

19.2.5.1. Take a history & Physical Ex

19.2.5.2. Personal data

19.2.5.3. The area and view

19.2.5.4. Follow cortical outline

19.2.5.5. description

19.2.5.5.1. Dislocation for joint

19.2.5.5.2. Angulation

19.2.5.5.3. Shortening

19.3. ATLS

19.3.1. Primary Survey

19.3.1.1. A,B,C,D,E

19.3.1.1.1. A=Airway & Cervical Spine Protection

19.3.1.1.2. B=Breathing

19.3.1.1.3. C=Circulation

19.3.1.1.4. D=Disability

19.3.2. Resuscitation

19.3.2.1. Two peripheral large bore IVs

19.3.2.2. Two liters of Ringers Lactate

19.3.2.3. Monitor Blood pressure Urinary output Base deficit Initial Hematocrit/Hemoglobin -unreliable

19.3.2.4. If no response then severe hemorrhage has occurred Immediate blood is needed

19.3.2.4.1. Type specific

19.3.2.4.2. cross match

19.3.3. Secondary Survey

19.3.3.1. after pt stablization

19.3.3.2. look for Dx

19.3.4. Tertiary Survey

19.3.4.1. in 24 hr after stablization

19.3.4.2. look for missing abnormality

20. Foot & Ankle

20.1. Achilles Tendon

20.2. Peroneal Tendons

20.3. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)

20.4. Foot Disorders

20.5. Fractures

21. Upper Extremities

21.1. Shoulder joint

21.1.1. Shoulder problems

21.1.1.1. RC tear

21.1.1.1.1. special tests

21.1.1.2. Impingement syndrome

21.1.1.2.1. Neer's test

21.1.1.2.2. Hawkins-Kennedy test

21.1.1.3. Shoulder trauma

21.2. Elbow joint

21.2.1. Dislocation

21.2.1.1. Posterior most common

21.2.1.2. Anterior is rare

21.3. wrist joint

21.4. Common complains

21.4.1. Pain

21.4.2. Instability

21.4.3. Loss of motion

21.5. Fractures

21.5.1. Clavicle Fx

21.5.1.1. Proximal most common

21.5.1.2. Common in child

21.5.1.3. P/E & Radiology

21.5.1.3.1. Check for brachial plexus injury

21.5.1.3.2. X-ray, AP chest

21.5.1.4. Rx

21.5.1.4.1. Proximal & Middle

21.5.1.4.2. Distal

21.5.1.5. Complications

21.5.1.5.1. Shoulder stiffness

21.5.1.5.2. brachial plexus injury

21.5.1.5.3. Pneumothorax

21.5.2. Proximal Humral Fx

21.5.2.1. P/E & Radiology

21.5.2.1.1. Neurovascular Examination

21.5.2.2. Rx

21.5.2.2.1. Treat osteoprosis

21.5.2.2.2. Undisp.

21.5.2.2.3. Disp.

21.5.2.3. Complications

21.5.2.3.1. AVN

21.5.2.3.2. Axillary nerve palsy

21.5.2.3.3. Post-trumatic arthritis

22. Acute Compartment Syndrome

22.1. Surgical ER. causes:after significant trauma,ischemic injury, prolonged limb compression or surgery.

23. Orthopadeic Basic Sciences

23.1. New Idea

23.2. New Idea

23.3. New Idea

23.4. New Idea

23.5. New Idea

24. Knee joint

24.1. Knee injuries

24.1.1. fracture

24.1.1.1. Tibial Plateau Fractures

24.1.1.1.1. Produced by varus or valgus forces combined w/axial loading which drives femoral condyles into tibial plateau

24.1.1.2. Tibial Spine & Tuberosity Fractures

24.1.1.3. Femoral Condyle Fractures

24.1.1.4. Patella Fracture

24.1.2. ligament injuries

24.1.2.1. Ligamentous & Meniscal Injuries

24.1.2.1.1. Collateral ligament injury

24.1.2.1.2. Meniscal tears

24.1.2.2. Anterior Cruciate Ligament

24.1.2.2.1. ACL tear >PCL tear

24.1.3. dislocation

24.1.3.1. Knee Dislocation:

24.1.4. inflammation

24.1.4.1. Patellar Tendonitis

24.1.4.2. osteoarthritis

24.1.5. Quadriceps/Patellar Tendon Rupture

24.1.5.1. Patella Dislocation

24.1.6. Chondromalacia Patellae

25. New Idea

26. New Idea