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Grastrointestinal Tract by Mind Map: Grastrointestinal Tract
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Grastrointestinal Tract


25cm long

Narrowest part of alimentary path

Most muscular segment of GIT

Typical 4-layered alimentary tube structure

Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

Diffuse lymphatics in lamina propria

Modified subepithelial layers

Muscularis mucosae, Longitudinal smooth mm., Thickest in proximal region

Muscularis externa, Upper 1/3 is straited muscle, Middle third is striated & smooth mm, Last third is smooth mm w/ rest of gut

Has adventitia

Esophageal Glands

Esophageal glands proper, Occur in submucosa, Mucous produced by esoph. Glands proper (acidic)

Esophageal cardiac glands, Occur in Lamina propria of mucosa, Similar to cardiac glands of stomach, Present in terminal parts of esophagus, Produce neutral mucous

Barret's esophagus

Metaplasia in cells of the lower end of esophagus

Caused by chronic acid exposure

Normal lining of esophagus (squamous epithelium) replaced by intestinal-type (columnar epithelium)


Filiform Papillae

Most numerous & smallest


Stratified squamous

No taste buds

Anterior dorsal surface of tongue

Fungiform Papillae


Found on dorsal surface

Most numerous near the tip

Taste buds are present

Circumvallate Papillae

Large, dome-shaped

Anterior to Sulcus Terminalis

8-12 in humans

Surrounded by moat-like space lined w/ strat. squamous epithelium

Lateral surface has taste buds

Ducts of lingual salivary glands- Von Ebner's Glands

Serous secretions from VE glands clean debris from moat


Salivary glands



Gall bladder

Alimentary canal



Lamina propria, Vascular, Fenestrated vessels, Absorption in small & large intestines, Numerous lymphatic capillaries, Contains glands, Components of immune system

Muscularis mucosae, Forms boundary between mucosa & submucosa, Deepest portion of mucosa, 2 layers, Inner circular, Outer longitudinal


Moderately dense irregular CT

Larger blood vessels


Glands in submucosa of esophagus and initial duodenum

Nerve plexus - submucosal plexus (Meissner's plexus) innervate smooth muscle. Post-ganglionic parasympathetic neurons.

Muscularis Externa

Two layers of smooth mm., Circular layer, Longitudinal layer

Contains Myenteric plexus (Auerbach's plexus)- Enteric ANS, Hirschsprung Disease (congenital megal colon), Genetic mutation, Arrest in migration of neural crest cells to distal colon, Absence of enteric nervous system

Serosa (adventitia)

Membrane - simple squamous epithelium. eg. Mesothelium

Extraperitoneal organs (esophagus, duodenum, ascending colon, descending colon) - absent serosa





Muscularis (3 layers)


Rugae (temporary glands)


Cardiac glands, Gastric juice, Tubular glands, Turtuous, Sometimes branches, Mucous secreting cells, Enteroendocrine cells


Pyloric glands, Branched tubular glands- coiled, Neuroendocrine cells, Glands empty into deep gastric pits, Glands are shorter while gastric pits are longer- opposite of fundic region


Fundic or Gastric glands, Produce digestive juice of stomach, Simple branched tubular glands, Extend from bottom of gastric pits to muscularis mucosae, Gastric pits shorter, glands longer, Several glands open into one gastric pit, Three divisions, Neck (parietal & mucous cells), Mucous, Shorter than surface mucous cell, Nucleus spherical rather than elongate, Secretes soluble mucous- compared to viscous surface mucous, Parietal, Oxyntic cells, Secrete HCL & Intrinsic factor, Give glandular epithelium beaded appearance, Large cells - often binucleate, Intracellular canalicular system, Communicates w/ lumen of fundic gland, Surface microvilli project from canaliculi, HCL produced in lumen of intracellular canaliculi, Pernicious anemia, Absence (achlorhydria) or loss of parietal cells (ulcers)- inadequate intrinsic factor production- Vitamine B12 not absorbed in ilium, Base or fundic (chief cells), Protein secreting cells, Cuboidal or low columbar, Intense basophilia, Secrete pepsinogen & a weak lipase, Enteroendocrines, Sit on basal lamina, Clear cytoplasm in contrast to chief cells, Small membrane-limited granules, Produce gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin into fenestrated capillaries in lamina propria, Peptic ulcers, Helicobacterium pylori, Destruction of mucus layer, 3 complications- perforation, haemorrhage, obstruction, Isthmus (undifferentiated stem cells)

Simple Columnar mucus cells

Gastric pits or Foveolae on mucosal surface

Gastric glands empty into bottom of gastric pits