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Ethics by Mind Map: Ethics

1. Scope & Application (Yuma)

1.1. What is Ethics?

1.1.1. Ethics more generally concerned with answering the question “what should one do?”

1.2. Ethics: the study of morality and morals

1.2.1. Four sub-categories

1.2.1.1. Meta-Ethics

1.2.1.1.1. What does it mean to say something is right or wrong? What is the nature of the good? What is the nature and justification of ethical claims?

1.2.1.2. Descriptive Ethics

1.2.1.2.1. Comparative ethics, based on empirical experiments, looking into people’s beliefs and morality

1.2.1.3. Normative Ethics

1.2.1.3.1. Constructing framework for guidance as how to make the right decision, starting with the assumption:

1.2.1.4. Applied Ethics

1.2.1.4.1. Deals with the actual application of ethical principles to a particular situation

1.3. Morals: the way people should act / their beliefs how they should act;

1.3.1. Two Types

1.3.1.1. Descriptive Morality: Describing what one believes should be the proper behaviour without judgement

1.3.1.2. Perspective morality: Telling us how one should behave

2. Language & Concepts (Candice)

2.1. The meaning of justice: varied in different fields

2.1.1. Economic justice

2.1.2. Criminal justice

2.1.3. In ancient Greek: Justice as harmony

2.1.4. Political liberation: allows its citizens to be maximally free

2.1.5. Nowadays: Justice is the most fundamental social, ethical and moral principles we deal with every day

2.1.6. Personally defines how you think society should work

2.1.7. Type of Justice

2.1.7.1. Justice as equality (the belief that everyone should get the same kind and amount of stuff)

2.1.7.2. Need-based justice (getting based what we need)

2.1.7.3. Merit-based justice (justice actually means giving unequally, based on what each person deserves.)

2.1.8. Sense of Moral Justice

2.1.8.1. Example of Trolley Problem

2.1.8.1.1. 1. Would you switch the lever to save 5 lives by sacrificing one? (most people say YES) 2. Would you push a guy to save 5 lives? (most people say NO)

2.2. The power of language

2.2.1. The problem occurs the distinction between speaker meaning and audience meaning

2.2.1.1. Result in confusing or hilarious

2.2.2. Ambiguity

2.2.2.1. A statement has more than one plausible interpretation

2.2.3. Metaphorical language

2.2.3.1. Example: Adam Smith's invisible hand

2.2.3.1.1. Definition: To describe an individual makes self interest on decisions can collectively affect economic system that in the public interest

2.3. Concept and terminology used in Ethics

2.3.1. Consequentialist Theories (consequences)

2.3.2. Non-consequentionalist Theories (intention, action)

2.3.3. Agent-centred Theories

3. Methodology(Jong)

3.1. Knowledge / Facts

3.1.1. how ethicists work and how we produce personal knowledge

3.1.1.1. guidance on how to make and understanding of our actions / moral decisions

3.1.2. Facts

3.1.2.1. normative statements

3.1.2.2. accepted principles

3.1.2.3. empirical facts

3.2. Ethical theories and predictions

3.2.1. Theories

3.2.1.1. explaining morality of behaviour

3.2.1.2. explaining the benefits of applied moral values

3.2.1.3. providing us a framework of how to make ethical decisions

3.2.1.4. exploring the principles that prescribe certain kind of behaviour / moral values

3.2.2. Distinguishing between competing theories

3.2.2.1. Kant: depends on the nature of rationality

3.2.2.2. Moral Skeptics:

3.2.2.2.1. there are no rational grounds and equally consistent moral systems

3.2.2.3. Nelson Goodman & John Rawls

3.2.2.3.1. Method of Reflective Equilibrium

3.3. Traditional method

3.3.1. Aristotle, Kant, Bentham, Miller

3.3.1.1. Goal: to seek understanding, not to be right

3.3.1.1.1. Importance of Shared Knowledge

3.3.1.1.2. Importance of Personal Knowledge

3.3.2. Descartes

3.3.2.1. Logic based

3.3.2.1.1. relying on mind and logic instead of sense and emotion

3.3.3. Reflective tools

3.3.3.1. convergent awareness

3.3.3.2. critical thinking

3.3.3.3. creative thinking

3.3.3.4. divergent thinking

4. Historical Development (Iris)

4.1. Religious Ethics

4.1.1. With every theistic foundation, there has been modification in ethical thinking and work of philosophers

4.1.2. Religious texts in each religion give ways in which people can be truer to their god --> ethic morals

4.1.3. Can one be ethical without religion?

4.2. Aristotle and Virtue Ethics

4.2.1. Influenced how we view ethical behaviour and our responsibility when it comes to it

4.2.1.1. Moral behaviour

4.3. Morality

4.3.1. Biological basis for instincts

4.3.1.1. co-operative

4.3.1.2. competitive/agressive

4.4. Technology

4.4.1. Processes of Knowledge Production & Changes of Methods used to establish ethical theories

4.4.1.1. Data-collection

4.4.1.1.1. Technology enables us to collect greater amounts of data and widen scale to global level

4.4.1.2. Data-handling

4.4.1.2.1. Easier and faster to handle data optained

4.4.1.3. New methodology

4.4.1.3.1. From traditional moral philosophy to experimental moral philosophy

4.4.2. Changes to Language & Concepts

4.4.2.1. Technical Language

4.4.2.1.1. Increasing technical language when it comes to use of technology and incorporating research of NS in ethical studies

4.4.2.2. Language used when moral values are communicated

4.4.2.2.1. From chat rooms to virtual reality

4.4.2.2.2. ie. SMS acronyms, emojis

4.4.2.3. PK shared via social media in written language

4.4.2.3.1. Misinterpretation of values shared

4.4.3. Always new issues to face when looking at moral behaviour in technology

4.4.3.1. Stealing of personal identity, plaigiarism

4.4.3.2. New methodologies in the Sciences

4.4.3.2.1. ie. Genomic research

4.4.3.3. Cyberbullying, cyber attacks

4.4.3.3.1. Knife, guns etc.

4.4.3.4. Artificial intelligence

4.4.3.4.1. Reasoning vs. Intuition

4.4.4. Self-driving cars

4.4.4.1. If on highway and boxed in from all sides and objects falls in front of car, which doesn't have time to stop, what will it do?

4.4.4.1.1. Drive into the object

4.4.4.1.2. Turn right into a motorcycle

4.4.4.1.3. Turn left into SUV

4.4.4.1.4. What is the 'right' decision?

5. Personal Knowledge (Audrey)

5.1. How does the AOK of Ethics affect us, as UWC students?

5.1.1. Mission statement

5.1.1.1. to unite people, nations and cultures for peace and a sustainable future

5.1.1.1.1. We will inevitably face ethical dilemmas and will come across people with different ethical standpoints than we do - so how do we deal with that?

5.1.1.1.2. UWC has people from many different nations, and often with culture comes different standpoints

5.1.1.1.3. Arguably Westernised society created within the UWC colleges

5.1.1.1.4. Does having this mission statement fool people into thinking they are doing good for the world, when in actuality it could be because the opportunities are so easily presented to them and they have ulterior motives?

5.1.2. Food Delivery vs Sodexo

5.1.2.1. Everybody wants to eat good food, and with the rise of delivery apps - why not? Also Veggie Wednesday isn't everyone's favourite.

5.1.2.1.1. We have been taught that delivering food into campus is bad in terms of contributing to our carbon footprint, but also overall food wastage, however, we really just want to order in good food. One delivery can't hurt right?

5.1.2.1.2. We know that not consuming meat once a week can have a great impact on the environment and can cut down our carbon footprint. But what about meat?