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Placebo Effect by Mind Map: Placebo Effect
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Placebo Effect

defined

The treatment effect measured in the placebo arm of a clinical trial, which includes those subjects who have received a fake or inert treatment. If a trial is rigorously designed, placebo effects should include everything other than a physiological response to a biologically active treatment. Therefore, we can subtract placebo-effect findings from the treatment group, who will display treatment effects plus placebo effects, and we are left with a measurement of the treatment effect alone.

illusions of observation

regression to the mean

a statistical phenomenon that includes extreme symptoms becoming less extreme as a matter of course. For any variable symptom, periods of time when symptoms are at their worst are likely, by chance alone, to be followed by a return to more average symptoms.

self-limiting conditions

biases

of observers

of subjects

countered by

conditioning

subjects associate a treatment ritual with feeling better

Hawthorne effect

the very fact of being observed in a clinical trial results in a change in behavior and reporting (McCarney et al. 2007)

trial effects

subjects more likely to:

physiological

the ritual of treatment

if treatment involves

Believing one is being treated may reduce

Hands-on treatments

based on

The Poor, Misunderstood Placebo

by Steven Novella

Skeptical Inquirer