Chapter 5 Notes

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Chapter 5 Notes by Mind Map: Chapter 5 Notes

1. Rome

1.1. Cultural

1.1.1. Spread Medaterranian culture west, into Europe.

1.1.2. Most citizens spoke Latin

1.1.3. Emperor Constantine

1.1.3.1. Adopted Christianity

1.1.3.1.1. Wanted to unite the Empire under new traditions

1.1.3.2. Hoped to reverse the decline of Rome

1.1.4. Military of extreme importance in Roman society

1.1.4.1. All Romans required to serve

1.1.4.2. In later years, the military relied heavily on non-Roman recruits

1.1.5. Sheer power of the empire restricted the political activity of most citizens.

1.1.6. Relative tolerance for local customs and religions

1.1.6.1. Judaism and Christianity both flourished under Roman rule.

1.1.7. Religion focused on a pantheon of gods who regulated human life.

1.1.7.1. Similar to the Greek gods, with different names: Jupiter, Venus, Pluto, etc.

1.1.7.2. Held power over nature, and daily human tasks like literature or metalworking

1.1.7.3. Gods were very human in their characterization and actions

1.1.8. Philosophy

1.1.8.1. Cicero

1.1.8.1.1. Conservative Roman Senator

1.1.8.1.2. A stoic philosopher

1.1.8.1.3. Killed after the assassination of Julius Caesar

1.1.8.1.4. Stressed balance and moderation in human life.

1.2. Human Environment

1.2.1. Strong Military Orientation

1.2.2. Population Decline Began in 180 CE

1.2.3. Similar size (land wise) to the Chinese Han Empire, smaller population.

1.3. Economy

1.3.1. Most people speaking Latin allowed for easier trade and spread of knowledge

1.3.2. Economic decline began in 180 CE

1.3.2.1. Trade levels decreased

1.3.3. Commercial Economy

1.4. Social Structures

1.5. Politics

1.5.1. Began as a local monarchy in central Italy in 800 BCE

1.5.1.1. Monarchy driven out in 509 BCE

1.5.1.2. More elaborate political structures put in place

1.5.2. Roman Republic

1.5.2.1. Aristocratic Senate

1.5.2.2. Panel of Magistrates

1.5.2.3. Several Popular Assemblies

1.5.2.4. The rise of Julius Caesar ended the traditional Roman state.

1.5.2.4.1. He was later assassinated by Senators hoping to conserve the Republic

1.5.3. Roman Empire

1.5.3.1. Increasinlgly Unstable

1.5.3.2. Generals sought their own power

1.5.3.3. Caesar Augustus

1.5.3.3.1. Seized power after the death of Julius Caesar

1.5.3.3.2. Established the structures of the Roman Empire

1.5.3.4. Brought peace to the entire Medeterranian world

1.5.3.5. Less Centralization

1.5.3.5.1. Toleration of Local Political Units

1.5.3.5.2. Common Legal Principles

1.5.3.5.3. This helped leade to the collapse as the most effective governments became local and regional.

1.5.3.6. Military force used to keep the Empire in line.

1.5.4. All Roman citizens could gather in periodic assemblies.

1.5.4.1. Did not pass laws.

1.5.4.2. Elected magistrates

1.5.5. The Senate

1.5.5.1. Assembly of Roman Aristocrats

1.5.5.2. Advised on policy

1.5.5.3. Early element of Roman constitution

1.5.5.4. Members held executive offices within the state.

1.5.5.5. Ideals of public service and the search for the common good.

1.5.6. Two consuls shared exectuive power

1.5.6.1. In times of crisis, Rome chose a dictator to lead until the emergency had passed.

2. Greece

2.1. Cultural

2.1.1. Oral Tradition

2.1.1.1. The Epics of Homer

2.1.1.1.1. The Odyssey

2.1.1.1.2. The Iliad

2.1.2. One Common Greek Culture

2.1.2.1. Religion

2.1.2.2. Written Language

2.1.2.2.1. Rich

2.1.2.2.2. Developed from the Phoenician Alphabet

2.1.3. Olympic Games

2.1.3.1. Pan-Helenic Ritual

2.1.3.2. Observed by all City States

2.1.3.3. Series of Atheletic Competitions

2.1.4. Athens

2.1.4.1. Prided itself on Intellectual Ledearship and Art

2.1.5. Hellenistic

2.1.5.1. Spread of Greek Influence

2.1.5.2. Result of Macedonian Conquests

2.1.5.2.1. Philp of Macedonia

2.1.5.2.2. Alexander the Great

2.1.5.3. Greek Culture+Eastern Politics

2.1.5.4. Scientific Centers Established

2.1.5.5. Advances in Philosophy

2.1.5.5.1. Aristotle

2.1.5.5.2. Stoics

2.1.5.5.3. Socrates

2.1.5.5.4. Plato

2.1.5.6. Greek and Persian Cultures Combine

2.1.5.7. Major Building Structures

2.1.5.7.1. Doric, least ornate

2.1.5.7.2. Ionic, medium ornate

2.1.5.7.3. Coromthian, most ornate

2.1.6. Citizens believed the state was theirs. They had obligations to the state that it could not survive without.

2.1.7. Religion focused on a pantheon of gods who regulated human life.

2.1.7.1. Examples: Zeus, Apollo, Hades, etc.

2.1.7.2. Held power over nature, and daily human tasks like literature or metalworking

2.1.7.3. Tended to be human, stories of the gods were like soap operas.

2.1.7.3.1. Literary tradition very important, similar to India in a sense.

2.1.7.3.2. Gods displayed a variety of human flaws. Represented aspects of human nature.

2.1.7.4. Lack of spiritual passion lead to many of the lower classes being unsatisfied with the Greek religion. This allowed numerous 'mystery religions' to sweep across Greece. None gained a strong foothold.

2.1.7.5. Did not provide a basis for ethical thougt

2.2. Human Environment

2.2.1. Indo European

2.3. Economy

2.3.1. Sparta

2.3.1.1. Military Aristocarcy

2.3.1.2. Slaves

2.3.2. Athens

2.3.2.1. Commercial Economy

2.3.2.2. Slaves

2.3.3. Both States Decline After Peloponessian Wars

2.3.4. Trade flourished between city states

2.3.4.1. Trade Continues in Hellensistic Age

2.4. Social Structures

2.4.1. Extensive Use of Slavery

2.4.2. Upper Class Athenian 'Good Life'

2.4.2.1. Activity in Politics

2.4.2.2. Discussions of the Affairs of the State

2.4.3. Upper class aristocrats controlled most of the power.

2.4.3.1. Considerable class division regarding religious beliefs adn devotion

2.4.3.2. Open ended and questioning religion satisfied the educated upper classes, but not the lower.

2.5. Politics

2.5.1. Strong City States

2.5.1.1. Tyranny Ruled in Some States

2.5.1.2. Aristocratic Rule in Some States

2.5.2. No Centralized Authority

2.5.3. Mountains and Geography would have made centralized government difficult.

2.5.4. Pericles

2.5.4.1. 5th Century Political Leader

2.5.4.2. Athenian Aristocrat

2.5.4.3. Guided Developement of Athenian Empire

2.5.4.4. Did not rule through traditional means, rather through wise council and negotiation.

2.5.5. Peloponnesian Wars

2.5.5.1. War Between Athens and Sparta

2.5.5.1.1. Battle for Supremacy

2.5.5.1.2. Other City States on Both Sides

2.5.5.1.3. Both States Damaged

2.5.5.2. Sparta Victorious

2.5.5.3. Political and Economic Decline

2.5.6. Philip of Macedonia

2.5.6.1. Conqured Greece, creating a centralized kingdom.

2.5.6.2. His son, Alexander the Great

2.5.6.2.1. Expanded the Empire to India

2.5.6.2.2. 13 Years of Stunning victories

2.5.6.2.3. Died at 33, leading to the collapse of his empire.

2.5.7. Helleniatic Kings

2.5.7.1. Greece split into multiple kingdoms following the death of Alexander the Great

2.5.7.2. Autocratic

2.5.7.3. Little Political Activity

2.5.8. Democracy

2.5.8.1. Derived from the Greek word 'Demos', meaning 'the people'.

2.5.8.2. Athens

2.5.8.2.1. Following Aristocratic Rule, and several tyrants, many decisions were made by general assemblies.

2.5.8.2.2. All citizens could, and were encouraged to, participate.

2.5.8.2.3. Direct Democracy, NOT through elected representatives.

2.5.8.2.4. Executives and judges chosen for brief terms

2.5.8.2.5. Only citizens could vote

2.5.8.2.6. Drawbacks of Democracy

3. Persia

3.1. Cultural

3.1.1. Center of a Major New Religion

3.1.1.1. Greater Religious Influence than Greece

3.1.2. Zorostrianism

3.1.2.1. Material existance is a battle between giid and evil.

3.1.2.2. Importance of Moral Choice

3.1.2.3. Worthy Live on After Death

3.1.2.3.1. Afterlife: 'The House of Song'

3.1.2.4. Influential in the Classical World, fails to compete with Islam.

3.1.2.4.1. Influence does contiue after classical period, actual practice declines.

3.1.3. Zoroaster

3.1.3.1. Religious Leader

3.1.3.2. Introduced Monotheism

3.1.3.3. Banned Animal Sacrifices

3.1.4. Distinct Artistic Tradition

3.1.4.1. Fine Craftmanship

3.2. Human Evnironemnt

3.2.1. Population

3.2.1.1. Persia 'Proper': 4 Million

3.2.1.2. Height of the Empire: 14 Million

3.3. Economy

3.3.1. Network of Roads

3.3.1.1. Indian Border to Medetrranian

3.3.1.2. Highway to Egypt

3.3.1.3. Inns built along roads to accomadate travelers.

3.3.2. Connected Middle Eastern trade to Asian trade.

3.4. Social Structures

3.5. Politics

3.5.1. Several Key Characteristics

3.5.1.1. Tolerance for Diversity

3.5.1.2. Authoritarian

3.5.2. Darius

3.5.2.1. Successor to Cyrus

3.5.2.2. Centralized Law and Taxes

3.5.3. Rejected Wide Participation

3.5.4. Substancial Bureaucracy