Adapting Buildings NYS

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Adapting Buildings NYS by Mind Map: Adapting Buildings NYS

1. Introductions

1.1. Robert Shibley, Dean, U Buffalo

1.1.1. Hayes Hall Designed by George Metzger as "insane asylum" Was 17! Renewed in 2017

1.2. Amanda Stevens, NYSERDA

1.2.1. understanding and mitigation public health impacts of energy use in NYS Adaption relatively new area. Haven't focused until now on building sector.

1.3. Nick Rajkovich

1.3.1. Snow dump image

1.3.2. Costs of hazards Winter storm hazard Sever storm hazard Flood Hazard Hurricane, Tropical Storms Also by region with NYS In absolute terms Hurricane Sandy dwarfs other costs. In terms of % of total building stock affected, NYC is lower than other parts of NYS

1.3.3. Symposium Audience Diverse, interdisciplinary

1.3.4. Symposium Program see rest of this mind map

1.3.5. Resources: will email links afterwards

1.3.6. Acknowledgements: Don't underestimate youth!

2. Keynotes

2.1. Kristin Baja, Urban Sustainability Directors Network, Climate Resilience Officer [email protected]

2.1.1. USDN Started in 2008 Network run by the members Now at 200, all about peer-to-peer engagement Partnering on innovation Focii Healthier Env Economic prosperity Equity International connection Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance Now also including Counties Firewall where can talk behind the scenes, Resources developed are free to anyone

2.1.2. Defining Resilience How can communities thrive in the face of changes/disruptions Shocks and stressors connecting them, prepping for shocks helps with current stressors use high-end scenarios/low-range aren't working for us

2.1.3. Resilience Strategic Action Plan Integrate Build this into existing plans/structures instead making a new one Implement Adaptation-Mitigation-Equity Nexus Innovation Pilot projects Connectivity and Collaboration Research Advisory Workshops Metrics & Tracking Costs & Benefits

2.1.4. Racism Real estate red lining Not able to build financial equity Lack of access to transportation, jobs Prioritize most affected communities Active listening

2.1.5. Background Community Preparedness Campaign Make a Plan Build a Kit Help Each Other Community Resilience approach with empathy identify assets Shortcoming mapping

2.1.6. Definition: Resilience Hubs Or call them "community hubs" Locations with resources in emergency But used & trusted year-round buildings and outdoor space Require governments to shift power to community Want community members to actively manage Trainings Community Emergency Responses Teams (CERT) Resources & Tools Employment opportunities skills training and intro jobs Reentry and employment from incarceration Greening Project integration Green infrastructure Use vacant lots as assets Ideal Hubs LBC criteria Hub feasibility study coming 10/5 Short white paper available Schools as hubs: Schools go on lock down when crisis, to protect the kids Rec centers work

2.1.7. Citizen Science urban heat island sensors

2.1.8. Community Network Building We need to trust community members! Trust goes both ways, but so does power Peer networks Train members to identify need

2.1.9. Challenges Solar & Storage is expenses, slow How does the Hub/site stay active, running How are the projects funded? City capital budgets Grants Private donations: esp for panels, but not for battery backup

2.2. Illya Azaroff, +LAB architect PLLC; NYC College of Technology

2.2.1. Resilient Design in Four Dimension Life is film you can't edit Everyone in the room! Dominica Pledged to UN to be first 100% resilient nation in the world

2.2.2. Climate change = increased risk Since 1980, 233 disasters with over $1b in damage = 1.5 trillion By 2050, 200m+ people in need annually (SwissRe)

2.2.3. Urbanization = more people in coastal/areas Florence in 1940 would have affected 793,000 homes; now 11.3 million

2.2.4. Water scarcity 2.3b people don't have access to safe water

2.2.5. Lots of people displaced constantly due to disasters

2.2.6. Most exposed to risks: 1. India 2. China 3. Indonesia 4. US Real estate equity erased from coastal communities in NJ & NY

2.2.7. One dimension: "We're preparing for the last storm" Uncoordinated action

2.2.8. 4 dimensions Scale Location All Hazards Time project forward +100 years

2.2.9. Resilience is HSW Resilience is about life safety Sometimes carbon intensive--anti-sustainability Sustainability: risk isn't immediate Grid example Transmission loses 70% ???? About redundancy some sustainable solutions Some not

2.2.10. "Best practices of zone A" -- Don Watson FEMA TB-2 on materials in flood zone

2.2.11. Opportunity Innovation in all forms Codes work! Lots of new construction happening by 2030 over 900b ft2 new and rebuilt in cities worldwide (3.5x entire US building stock) Small moves--smallest network = house/community

2.2.12. Breezy Point case study: Beyond code is the key You can't unknow these things Passive Temp & WAter Wind Time materials elevating beyond city requirements (up to cap allowed for single story house) Social planning Hub for parties in neighborhood Insurance 45% less b/c met voluntary certification ICF construction, spray foam in roof Will be releasing cost info; all plans & specs 7-9% higher construction lower maintenance Low utility bills House is resilient, but nothing else in neighborhood is (despite being elevated) Not accessible? Must follow FEMA rules on accessibility.

2.2.13. Q: if most countries aren't meeting targets, we need bigger solutions Moving large populations creates opportunities

2.2.14. Q: Will technology save us: How we build buildings is changing. AI to review plans Drones for enforcement The way cities operate is changing Will technology reach less privileged: Old technology is also good

2.2.15. Q: about valuation on home Researcher at Tulane working on that: Amy Also Florida: Anoinette Jackson

3. Session #1: Anticipating an Uncertain Future

3.1. Seth Holmes, moderator

3.2. Bess Krietmeyer, Syracuse U. Tools for Community Energy Empowerment: A co-Design Approach

3.2.1. Climate change visualization tools need tools that offer more localized feedback & adaption strategies for citizen engagement Effective ways: Contextualizing Visualization Co-production of knowledge

3.2.2. Consumer focused energy feedback tools exist apps smart thermostats bill feedback

3.2.3. Co-designed climate adaption strategies Types of data Building & Urban Data Climate Data User-driven visualization

3.2.4. Platform urban-scale model at MoST (museum) library of spatialized data sets climatic data Visualize changes over time match opportunity with demand current & project future scenarios Can record/view visitors interaction with model (anonymously) Tech tracks movement of users, they can gesture to make selections Makes it a social experience Even with multiple simultaneous users, selections stay with individual Working on interpretation of data Adaptive design feedback loop Next steps: Integration other emergency scenarios Streamline collection and use of data 3. 4. Further research

3.3. Michelle Laboy, RHOnDA: Online Tool to Help Homeowners and Tenants Increase Resilience

3.3.1. Existing Residential Urban Fabrice 70% of US homes are SF 81% of population is "urban", but most in small towns Research opportunities: Repetitive fabric Generalizable modeling & solutions

3.3.2. By 2035 50% additional new buildings 50% existing buildings remodeled Limiting Factors Regulations Agency & Motivation 5% building professionally designed

3.3.3. Shelter in Place? prep to do it. Or understand if you can Or return more quickly

3.3.4. Inequality: disaster risk and vulnerability

3.3.5. Resilience is about people and systems, not just property. Expanding Climate adaptation planning community based measures

3.3.6. Tool Information loop between experts and user Risk literacy databases often focused on one hazard at a time . Created a better database Vulnerability: social/ecological factors Buildings data: sample sort and map Started from tax assessors database augmented by estimates from Google street view Modeled set of buildings. Questionnaire Results Dashboard Risks/hazards Indices of resilience baselines Testing with local communities Most useful to Govt, homeowners Less to tenants (issue of agency)

3.4. Brittany Perez, occupational therapist, U Buffalo

3.4.1. Improving adaptive capacity of vulnerable populations through inclusive design Who is vulnerable? Baby Boomers becoming "older adults" We're not used to living with active people >85 years old 44 million people with disabilities or inability to accomplish daily tasks Other demographics compound vulnerabilities What vulnerabilities? physical cognitive Example: decrease capacity for thermal regulation Sensory impairment Less connected to social networks Mental health Inclusive (universal design) Process Evidence based goals Built environment

3.5. Kim Knowlton & Lindsay Robbins

3.5.1. Climate Change and Health connecting dots between climate change and people's health through this lens, CC is happening to us, right now Extreme heat flooding vulnerability

3.5.2. Building Sector (Lindsay) Both a challenge to address and opportunity to address other issues Centering Health & Equity We Act, NYC Placing Equity at the Center Chicago NRDC: Energy Efficiency for All Collective advocacy for investing in affordable MF housing 12 states Goal is to increase # of retrofits Adaptation strategies/ research needs What is the cost of NOT investing? Quantify multiple benefits that you get from these buildings Will cost a lot to do retrofits, so have to justify with multiple benefits Two great challenges: Rising inequality increasing climate impact

3.6. Q&A

3.6.1. How can high tools like Bess' help with community engagement? Anything that make it easier to get data to participants, make it more accessible is great. But the platform now isn't so portable

3.6.2. How to reach populations who might not have computer?

3.6.3. How to keep housing affordable as we upgrade for resilience? Huge issue in NYC Much of affordable housing is by rent-stabilization; capital improvements can eliminate that.

3.6.4. Resolution of climate change data--disconnect from scale of the tools

4. Session #2: From the Atmosphere to the Detail

4.1. Seth Holmes, U of Hartford

4.1.1. Urban Green, Building Resiliency Task Force Maintaining habitable power

4.1.2. Energy models: zonal heat flow Need weather to simulate For future, starting to incorporate probabilistic weather data

4.1.3. Literature review Criteria simulate using projected weather data Assess resilient design measures Have clear metrics Found 39 papers--all within last 5 years even tho was looking at 10 year period Mostly from Europe Who is using what weather files For future weather shifted from SRES to RCP ECMs and RDMs (resilient design measures) Metrics Energy efficiency studies use EUI Overheating studies use indoor operative temperatures. No common metric for heat health

4.2. Parag Rastogi: planning for a changing climate without accurate predictions

4.2.1. Focus on indoor environment, given changing climate conditions

4.2.2. We don't/can't have accurate conditions

4.2.3. averaging predictions over multiple helps, if chosen right How to pick scenarios Use realistic weather generator Testing this using historical weather generator

4.2.4. buildings are tied into a grid

4.2.5. built today to be operated tomorrow

4.2.6. by definition I can't have future weather data precision vs. accuracy

4.2.7. The problem of coverage several possible pathways Need hourly resolution Need large # of simulations to cover most probabilities

4.2.8. Needs better estimates about the futreu Good data on building stock Plan for robust data: plan with uncertainty Ulysses traveling from Troy to Ithaca

4.2.9. Is a Monte Carlo simulation but need a reasonable sample

4.2.10. Why not picking extremes and just working off those How to extend the current extremes to account for future extremes?

4.2.11. How I learned to stop worrying and love uncertainty There are times when you can't squeeze the error bar down any further; you have to live with it

4.3. Alex Wilson, RDI, Passive Survivability

4.3.1. Many reasons buildings could lose power

4.3.2. Passive Survivability emerged from Post-Katrina Charrettes Superdome had to be evacuated Older houses maintained habitability Passive design works

4.3.3. NYC Green Codes Task Force glass towers become uninhabitable within hours of losing power

4.3.4. Building Resiliency Task Force, after Sandy Maintaining habitable temps recommended

4.3.5. RDI convened mtg in 2013 to quantify PS

4.3.6. Paper in BRI examines the topic

4.3.7. Atelier 10 models for Urban green Buildings built to current energy codes hold temps much better.

4.3.8. LEED Pilot credit on PS Were in place for a year, taken down for improvement

4.3.9. RELi Rating system Calls it "thermal safety"

4.3.10. Standard Effective Temperature Eric Olsen, Transsolar helped come up with In Germany is common to model buildings without HVAC running Includes RH and MRT

4.3.11. Heat Index outdoor criteria being used indoors.

4.3.12. Have proposed Passive House as compliance path

4.3.13. Kenogami House extreme thermal enclosure lots of thermal mass

4.3.14. Spalding Hospital First modern hospital with operable windows in every patient room triple glazing Well insulated

4.3.15. Buildings with good PS will also be efficient to operate

4.4. Laura Garofalo/Omar Khan: Architectural Terra Cotta

4.4.1. Clay is abundant (more than sand and stone), easy to get to

4.4.2. Lower embodied energy than most other building materials 1000–1800F firing

4.4.3. Recyclable--can become new ceramic

4.4.4. Durability Exposed can last centuries. finished with glaze--also terra-cotta Much finer structure than brick, doesn't break down as easily freeze-thaw cycle: engineered material withstands it (unlike clay pot) Historically not durable local clays not engineered Woolworth building Don't have good standards for durability use brick standards that aren't appropriate

4.4.5. Fire retardant/fire proofing was used to replace stone holds up better than stone doesn't have same corrosion problems

4.4.6. Strength Not good in tension Very good in compression

4.4.7. Thermal buffer/sink Lower U value than other assemblies Open joint ventilated facade Very effective on South and West Less effective on North Mortarless system eliminates need for repointing

4.4.8. Metal fasteners are a weak link working on alternatives

5. Session #3: From Discourse to Policy

5.1. Martha Bohm: Tracking the discourse from sustainability to resilience

5.1.1. Mindful of how we are framing issues

5.1.2. Both terms are about long-term planning

5.1.3. Sustainability historically husbanding of resources Came from forest-management Stuart Brand anecdote: New College, Oxford Dining Hall

5.1.4. modern society can't be sustainable: presuppose consumptive growth Bruntland report; taking needs of future generations into account Continuity within limits strong sustainability

5.1.5. Resilience First uses from engineering elasticity, about to rebound in 1970s, C.S. HOlling talked about ecosystem resilience lifecycle of spruce budworm adaptive cycle

5.1.6. Subject-object framework to look at PlaNYC: Who is the Actor--not asked. Subjects--who is acted on Objects--what is acted on Mechanisms--how is action happening?

5.1.7. Who is to be sustained, or made resilient? Often unclear

5.1.8. Resulting questions Active or conservative adaptation? Plan for opportunities of cycles How can cyclic catastrophes be harnessed How can we better measure sustainability and resilience at various scales?

5.2. Josh Stack

5.2.1. Adaptive Law for Buildings and Cities Stockholm Resilience Center How to use Law as a problem solving tool? Resilience: capacity to manage change while retaining identity Humans have become a geologic force Specified Resilience of what, to what, for whom? Optimize in isolation reduces system resilience General resilience ability to manage unknown change Maintain diversity and redundancy Remember Force of remembering is structural City deconstruction project Not just recycling houses, I'm recycling kids Sacred Ecology and Land Use Law

5.3. Jamie Vanucchi

5.3.1. Community floodplains along the Susquehanna River: Disturbance & uncertainty as drivers for design Wicked Problems USDA funded project: buyout process Management of buyouts often falls to local officials, untrained How do the communities understand flood risk? How do they assess vulnerability people think FEMA maps determine safe or unsafe. Risk Mitigation vs. adaptation Loop event denial fear forgetting Inaction Whether or not you can talk about, most know cc is happening storm events: seeing them regularly terms that are taboo: resiliency, climate change, etc. community characteristics inland small weak economy less predictable flooding than coasts lack resources, expertise in planning Findings: No policy learning over time in buyout process Increase capacity where authority exists Connecting hazard mitigation planning to city planning Make adaptation processes (buyouts) better

5.4. Dana Kochnower, NYC Mayor's office of recovery & resiliency

5.4.1. Policy approaches to multifamily building resiliency New buildings being built to today's higher standards Retrofitting older ones is a challenge Lots of old ones They'll be here a long time Resilience through Code Appendix G Roof replacement must be reflective Resilience through education Smaller MF owners Resilience Through Design NYC Climate Design Guidelines

6. Wrap up

6.1. Nadav Malin, BuildingGreen, Inc.

6.1.1. All about engaging the communities Technology platform Personal (active listening) Pros/Cons Nothing about me without me is for me don't assume that we know the needs of each of these communities

6.1.2. Probabilistic approach is generational Generative parametric modeling

6.1.3. Learning mindset is key

6.1.4. Talk about tomorrow's workshop

6.1.5. Martha--models for resilience; how little we know about what's going on!

6.1.6. Relational asking, engaging, seeking to learn Not just recycling houses, I'm recycling kids

6.1.7. Mitigation & adaptation--it's about scale

6.1.8. don't work in silos

6.1.9. "We're preparing for the last storm"

6.1.10. investing health dollars in our built environment

7. Potential Outcomes

7.1. Broad summary to all participants