Teaching, Learning & Development 5015Q Katelyn Browning

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Teaching, Learning & Development 5015Q Katelyn Browning by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning & Development 5015Q Katelyn Browning

1. Week 1: Planning for the Upcoming School Year


1.1.1. What needs to be planned? What will be taught? When will it be taught? How and when will learning be assessed and evaluated? What teaching methods and materials will be used? How will we establish a learning environment?

1.1.2. Top Down Approach to Learning • Determine the curricula for the year • Determine the curricula for each term • Break the curricula down into units • Determine what will be taught on a daily basis

1.1.3. Instructional Approaches Teacher Centered Teacher determines content, provides direction, and sets academic and social tone Student Centred Teacher adopts constructivist perspective and acknowledges that students actively construct their own understandings

1.1.4. Schwab's Four common places for education - the teacher - the student - the curriculum - the classroom


1.2.1. GOALS: improve the teaching and learning process

1.2.2. CENTRAL TOPICS: • Learning and Cognition • Development • Social and Cultural Influences • Motivation • Behaviour/Classroom Management • Individual Differences • Assessment and Evaluation • Teaching and Instruction • Psychological Foundations of Curricula


1.3.1. STEP 1: Observation of Phenomena: An educational phenomena does not fit within the current explanations

1.3.2. STEP 2: Formation of Questions: Research questions are generated

1.3.3. STEP 3: Application of Research Methods: Research methods reveal relationship between phenomena

1.3.4. STEP 4: Development of Guiding Principles: Similar research outcomes regarding the same topic become guiding principles

1.3.5. STEP 5: Development of Theories: Collection of principles about related phenomena merge into theories. If a theory is not found then you go back to step one

2. Week 2: Considering Developmental Differences

2.1. Theoriteical Developmental Stages

2.1.1. Piaget Basic learning Instinct Schemes/Schemas: organizing behaviours and thoughts into coherent systems Adaptation: adjusting to one’s surrounding environment

2.1.2. Chomsky Language acquisition devices

2.1.3. Vygotsky Zone of proximal development The difference between what a learner can and cannot do without the help of a teacher Social interaction Scaffolding Assess the learner’s current knowledge and experience for the academic content Relate content to what students already know or can do Break a task into small, more manageable tasks with opportunities for intermittent feedback Use verbal cues and prompts to assist students

2.1.4. Kholberg Stages of moral reasoning

2.2. Constructivist Based Classrooms Include:

2.2.1. Complex, challenging learning environments

2.2.2. Real world situations

2.2.3. Social negotiation – collaborative work

2.2.4. Multiple representations of content

2.2.5. Making students aware of the knowledge construction process –becoming self-regulated learners

2.2.6. Student-centered instruction; student ownership of learning

2.3. Ways to Apply Constructivist Based Classrooms:

2.3.1. Dialogue & Instructional Conversations

2.3.2. Inquiry Learning

2.3.3. Problem-based Learning

2.3.4. Teacher and Peer Learning

2.3.5. Cognitive Apprenticeships

2.3.6. Collaborative Learning


2.4.1. qualities can be developed by working on them

3. Week 3: Views of Learning


3.1.1. What is Development Physical, cognitive, and social changes Learning becomes more organized Behaviours become more adaptive

3.1.2. Views of Development Orderly progression/gradual process Periods of rapid and slow growth Quantitative and qualitative changes Individuals develop at different rates Genetics set developmental potential Environment determines potential realized


3.2.1. Achievement for all students Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Differentiated Instruction Response to intervention


3.3.1. Cognitive 1. Mental processes exist and they are important to learning.  Examples: thinking, knowing, understanding, remembering, planning, self-monitoring 2. Learners are “Sources of plans, intentions, goals, ideas, memories, and emotions actively used to attend to, select, and construct meaning from stimuli and knowledge from experience” 3. Learners bring knowledge to each new learning situation, and that affects what they learn from that situation (more related knowledge = better learning).

3.3.2. Behavioural 1. Understanding Learning 2. Contiguity and Classical Conditioning 3. Operant Conditioning 4. Applied Behaviour Analysis 5. Putting it All Together 6. Thinking About Behaviour 7. Problems and Issues 8. Diversity and Convergences in Behavioural Learning

3.3.3. reasoning skills

3.3.4. Social Cognitive and Constructivist Learners are active in constructing their own personal knowledge – they actively seek meaning Social negotiating is important to knowledge construction /learning Learning includes developing skills to solve problems, think critically, answer questions, accept multiple views Self-determination is needed to further knowledge development Constructivist Classrooms: Complex, challenging learning environments Real world situations Social negotiation – collaborative work Multiple representations of content Making students aware of the knowledge construction process –becoming self-regulated learners Student-centered instruction; student ownership of learning

4. Week 4: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment


4.1.1. Bloom's knowledge comprehension application analysis synthesis evaluation

4.1.2. Stiggen's knowledge products attitudes and dispositions


4.2.1. Emphasize reflective dialogue

4.2.2. Develop pedagogical content knowledge

4.2.3. Engage in a socially constructivist learning process

4.2.4. Improve student achievement


4.3.1. academic success is dependent on the learning environment

4.3.2. creating exemplary learning environments requires good planning and good classroom management

4.3.3. goal of classroom management is to provide all students with optimum opportunities for learning

4.3.4. exemplary learning environments especially important for students with exceptionalities


4.4.1. Good self-esteem

4.4.2. Sense of competence

4.4.3. Optimistic

4.4.4. Personal control

4.4.5. Feel connected

4.4.6. Motivated to learn

4.4.7. Self-disciplined


4.5.1. Depicts how a child learns

4.5.2. Includes types of learners

4.5.3. Sometimes depicts environment where student learns best

4.5.4. Interests The students area of appeal or curiosity Advantage of grouping students by interests

4.5.5. Readiness The students skill development level

4.5.6. Diagnostic assessments can be put into profile


4.6.1. Tasks Tasks should be complex

4.6.2. Control Students make decisions, have choices, and take responsibility for planning, setting goals, judging progress

4.6.3. Self-evaluation Students monitor their own process and outcomes and learn to adjust their efforts in order to attain goals

4.6.4. Collaboration Students and teachers engage in shared problem solving.


4.7.1. Difficulty level

4.7.2. Space

4.7.3. Time

4.7.4. Language

4.7.5. Interpersonal relations


4.8.1. Proximity

4.8.2. Student’s Name

4.8.3. Gesture

4.8.4. The Look

4.8.5. The Pause

4.8.6. Ignore

4.8.7. Signal to Begin / Signal for Attention

4.8.8. Deal with the problem not the student


4.9.1. gradual release I do it We do it We do it together You do it

5. Week 5: Making Instructional Decisions


5.1.1. Challenging and meaningful tasks

5.1.2. Being able to effectively use

5.1.3. learning strategies

5.1.4. Having teacher support

5.1.5. Being required to demonstrate knowledge

5.1.6. Feeling that the teacher cares for them


5.2.1. Determining the starting point for instruction

5.2.2. Initiating instruction at the right curricular junctures

5.2.3. What’s up with multiple entry points


5.3.1. Bloom's Taxonomy

5.3.2. Cognitive Processess Remembering Understanding Applying Analyzing Creating Evaluating


5.4.1. Instructional system designed and delivered with the needs of the least independently able students in mind

5.4.2. Results in instruction that is accessible and effective for all students


5.5.1. Developmentally Appropriate Schools Metaphor: Child as Explorer Have active learners More playful learning (guided play) Whole child approach -- brains and heart Integrated curricula Social emotional development Greater emotional regulation Less child stress Less behavior problems More motivation for school

5.5.2. Direct Instruction Schools Metaphor: Child as empty vessel metaphor More passive learners Learning is more compartmentalized, example:10AM it’s math! Clear learning objectives Well-planned lessons Explicit teaching Lots of practice

6. Week 6: Knowing that the Students Know


6.1.1. Visual Learn best from information that they see or read. Illustrations, pictures, diagrams, graphic organizers help to construct meaning.

6.1.2. Auditory Learn best through spoken and heard material and like to be involved in aural questioning i.e. Listening to lectures, and stories.

6.1.3. Tactile Learn best by doing and moving. Enjoy role-playing and being physically involved in the learning process.


6.2.1. Assessment should focus on learning for improvement as opposed to simply measuring for “the mark”- Weighing the pig does not make it grow

6.2.2. Purposes It may be used to find out what students already know and can do; it may be used to help students improve their learning; or may be used to let students and their parents know how much they have learned within a prescribed amount of time

6.2.3. Planned and Purposeful Backwards Design What do I expect students to be able to do at the end of the course (CURRICULUM) How will I know that they have learned these things? (ASSESSMENT) What lessons will be most effective in helping students demonstrate that they have learned these things?(INSTRUCTION)

6.2.4. Enduring Understandings Not just material worth covering Enduring value beyond the classroom Resides at the heart of the discipline Required un-coverage of abstract or often misunderstood ideas Offer potential for engaging students Not broader(more) deeper ( less) Allow for strong culture of instructional practice


6.3.1. "Teaching for understanding" is another central premise of Understanding by Design.

6.3.2. There should be coherent curriculum design and clear distinctions between big ideas and essential questions.

6.3.3. Teachers should tell students about big ideas and essential questions, performance requirements, and evaluative criteria at the beginning of the unit or course.

6.3.4. Students should be able to describe the goals (big ideas and essential questions) and performance requirements of the unit or course.

6.3.5. The learning environment should have high expectations and incentives for all students to come to understand the big ideas and answer the essential questions.


6.4.1. Early ID ( JK – 3)

6.4.2. Phonological Awareness

6.4.3. Grade 1 – literacy,

6.4.4. DRA

6.4.5. Speech and language – screening / assessment

6.4.6. Insight – grade 4 TVDSB

6.4.7. WIAT– School Personnel (LST)

6.4.8. WISC – Psychologist, other

6.4.9. Other – Adaptive Functioning, OT, PT, etc…..

7. Week 7: Individual Differences-Intellectual Abilities and Challenges


7.1.1. Knowing your students

7.1.2. Knowing where they are in their learning

7.1.3. Knowing where they need to go in their learning

7.1.4. Knowing how to get the to where they need to go in their learning

7.1.5. Knowing what steps to take when they don’t


7.2.1. Special Education Accommodating the special learning needs of students with exceptionalities Specialized instruction based on the assessment of students’ abilities People First Language High Incidence Exceptionalities Mild disabilities Typically include learning disabilities, behavioural disorders, giftedness, and intellectual disabilities Low Incidence Exceptionalities Moderate and severe disabilities Typically include autism, hearing and visual impairments, serious health impairments, and multiple disabilities Cognitive VS Physical Access to the Curriculum

7.2.2. §FOCUS: Schools, systems, and communities; assistive technology; other professionals in education; Special Education Plans and the Special Education Advisory Committee (SEAC).

7.2.3. Some of the "big ideas" Focus on the trifecta of support: school, systems, and communities.

7.2.4. a "laminated system" (Gable, 2014), whereby we draw information from multiple facets, including the medical model, social model, cultural model, etc.

7.2.5. One is not sufficient to understand the whole child. (360 degrees approach)

7.2.6. Inclusion Acceptance of differences Instruction focuses on appropriate teacher interventions Material being taught is made accessible to all students UNESCO Inclusive education policy addressing and responding to diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning, cultures and communities, and reducing exclusion within and from education. Field of Dreams Model The key issue for inclusion is, therefore, how to make a paradigm shift in research, thinking, and practice happen.


7.3.1. Ability to learn from experience

7.3.2. Ability to adapt to one’s environment

7.3.3. Intelligence Is measured through Standardized Aptitude and Achievement Tests Aptitude Tests predict ability to learn a skill or accomplish something with further education e.g., WISC-IV Achievement Tests measure what the student has learned or the skills they have mastered e.g., WJ-III, WIAT

7.3.4. Range of 'Normal'

8. Week 8: Socio-Cultural Considerations


8.1.1. Languages spoken

8.1.2. Aboriginal students

8.1.3. One-parent families

8.1.4. Same-sex couples

8.1.5. Newcomers to Canada

8.1.6. Religions practised


8.2.1. Critical Lenses Political values and beliefs An ideological clarity A socio-cultural consciousness

8.2.2. Responsive Practice Teachers must know the following: Their own cultural assumptions How to inquire about students’ backgrounds How to develop teaching approaches and curriculum to meet needs of culturally diverse learners Establishing links across cultures

8.2.3. In terms of learning and achievement, there are as many differences between individuals from within a cultural group as there are between group and non-group members.

8.2.4. Socio-economic Status Compared to all other social or cultural attributes, an individual’s socio-economic status has the greatest impact on scholastic achievement Children in low SES Development is at risk Economic hardships Scarcity of resources More likely to experience authoritarian parenting style

8.2.5. Multicultural Education Diversity valued No culture considered dominant Dominant culture stressed Surviving in real world Diversity and dominant culture Valued striking a balance Content integration Equity pedagogy Empowering school culture and social structure Prejudice reduction Knowledge construction process

8.2.6. Indigenous Education Risk Factors Early school failures Moving from school to school Lack of parent support Lack of teachers with knowledge of Aboriginal studies Living in remote communities Lack of resources Special needs Protective Factors Early intervention Resiliency Positive self-image Family engagement Community involvement Relevant programming Aboriginal role models


8.3.1. Individualism Act within a unique identity and exclusive purpose

8.3.2. Collectivism Act within a shared identity and common purpose


8.4.1. Children are different

8.4.2. All children can learn

8.4.3. Different abilities, ethnic groups, size, age, background, gender

8.4.4. Change the system to fit the child

9. Week 9: Standardized Achievement Tests


9.1.1. Federal Achievement levels of 13 year olds (math, reading, and science)

9.1.2. Provincial Different uses including math and literacy testing at certain grade levels and Grade 12 exit exams

9.1.3. Contain the same questions for all test-takers

9.1.4. Are administered to all test-takers in same fashion

9.1.5. Are scored in systematic and uniform manner

9.1.6. Are different from teacher-made tests and aptitude tests

9.1.7. Types of Tests Criterion-Referenced Student’s score determined by comparing performance to established criteria Norm-Referenced Student’s score determined by comparing performance to that of other students

9.1.8. Preparation Convey positive attitudes about testing Teach test-taking skills Simulate use of time limits during testing Familiarize students with types of questions used Involve students in marking questions of each type


9.2.1. Biased tests

9.2.2. Stressful for students and teachers

9.2.3. Results in teaching to the test

9.2.4. Takes up too much time

9.2.5. Does not enhance student learning

9.2.6. Content of tests does not reflect instruction


9.3.1. Be based on the same curriculum framework

9.3.2. Address the same cognitive demands

9.3.3. Incorporate similar tasks

9.3.4. Use common standards for judging quality of work

9.3.5. Use same benchmarks to represent learning over time