Please see attached files for more examples.
It is this knowledge that the students need to know based on the state and national standards. It is also the skills that the teacher has to teach the students to help them grow into productive members of society.
Help student to continue to develop their reading skills. At this age (middle school) some students are starting to slow down with reading because reading is seen as uncool. As a teacher I have to reach out to those students and get them involved in reading. Help them to find things weather it is novels, short stories, or poets that they like and can enjoy. I have to make reading matter to my students.
As a teacher I have to make sure that my student are not just depending on the computer to help them with their writing. Basic writing skills are important to for students to know. They need to know how to proof read their writing., http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OonDPGwAyfQ
Students have to continue to develop their math skill because it helps student with their reasoning skills. Math is something that students will use in their everyday life.
Students have to understand why and how things work around them. Science helps student to understand the world around them. It is important for students to know about the different scientific parts of the world.
I truly believe that student have to know where the world has been to understand were that world is going. Learning about the past helps students to not make the same mistakes. Also it helps them to see the changes that are happening around them.
History, Geography, Economics, Government, Citizenship, Culture, (Science, technology, and society), and Social Studies skills.
(Culture and Cultural Diversity) , (Time, Continuity, and Change),( People, Places, and Environments),( Individual Development and Identity),( Individuals, Groups, and Institutions),( Power, Authority, and Governance),( Production, Distribution, and Consumption),( Science, Technology, and Society),( Global Connections),and ( Civic Ideals and Practices)
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills, o Social Studies http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter113/ch113b.pdf Update 2011 State Board of Education
National Standards for Socail Studies, o Social Studies http://downloads.ncss.org/NCSSTeacherStandardsVol1-rev2004.pdf Update 2002 National Council for the Social Studies
“Students study people, places, and societies of the contemporary world. Societies for study are from the following regions of the world: Europe, Russia and the Eurasian republics, North America, Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Southwest Asia-North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Pacific realm.” (TEKS pg.1), “History. The student understands that historical events influence contemporary events. The student is expected to: (A) trace characteristics of various contemporary societies in regions that resulted from historical events or factors such as invasion, conquests, colonization, immigration, and trade; and (B) analyze the historical background of various contemporary societies to evaluate relationships between past conflicts and current conditions.” (TEKS pg.2)
CULTURE AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY, “Teachers of the middle grades can assist learners to explore and ask questions about the nature of culture that provide a wider range of cultural universals and in-depth study of the specific aspects of particular cultures in similar and different places, times, conditions, and contexts. Teachers can encourage learners to consider the connections between the assumptions, beliefs, and values of a culture and the actions, policies, and products of people in multiple situations. They can help them analyze the ways that a people’s cultural ideas and actions influence its members. Through this inquiry, learners can begin to consider such phenomena as cultural lag, assimilation, accommodation, and the strength of the impact traditions have on thought and action within any particular social group.” (NCSS pg.20)
With the TEKS, it does not give specific strategies of instruction. It is very limited as to how a teacher si to teacher the information. But it is very through in what to teacher the students.
NCSS does have five specific strategies for instruction of Social Studies. The five strategies are, Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are meaningful, Example: “Meaningful learning activities and assessment strategies focus students’ attention on the most important ideas embedded in what they are learning. The significance and meaningfulness of the content is emphasized both in how it is presented to students and how it is developed through activities.” (NCSS pg.12), Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are integrative, Example: “The instruction interconnects knowledge, skills, beliefs, values, and attitudes with effective social/political action. The teaching makes effective use of technology.” (NCSS pg.12), Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are values-based, Example: “Social studies teachers guide students to consider the ethical dimensions of topics and address controversial issues, providing an arena for reflective development of concern for the common good and application of social values. Students are made aware of potential social policy implications and taught to think critically and make value-based decisions about related social issues.” (NCSS pg.13), Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are challenging, Example: “Students are expected to strive to accomplish the instructional goals, both as individuals and group members. Teachers model seriousness of purpose and a thoughtful approach to inquiry, and use instructional strategies designed to elicit and support similar qualities from students.” (NCSS pg.13), Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when the learning is active., Example: “Teachers and students engage in reflective thinking and decision-making as events unfold during instruction. Students develop new understanding through a process of active construction of knowledge.” (NCSS pg.13-14)
The TEKS just give you the standards that must be talked about in the classroom. It is just the basic information about major issues.
The NCSS has a lot of suggestions for dealing with controversial topics. It tells teacher that they have to talk about these things in order to fully teacher Social Studies., “Rather than promulgating personal, sectarian, or political views, teachers make sure that students: (a) become aware of the values, complexities, and dilemmas involved in an issue; (b) consider the costs and benefits to various individuals and groups that are embedded in potential courses of action; and (c) develop well-reasoned positions consistent with basic democratic social and political values. Teachers encourage recognition of opposing points of view, respect for well-supported positions, sensitivity to cultural similarities and differences, and a commitment to social responsibility.” (NCSS pg.13)
The TEKS gives the teacher free range of how they are going to teach the information that students need to know. With the TEKS it is up to the teacher how they will teacher the information. The TEKS just give the assessment for the knowledge.
The NCSS give teacher expectations for each of the major educational goals. But those expectations are broad based. It is up to the teacher to adjust those expectations for their grade level.
Due to how the TEKS are structure, I believe that Tyler’s theory on curriculum it in line with it. Tyler’s theory is based around structure. It is based around four question: (1)What purposes should the school seek to attain?, (2) How can learning experiences be selected to help attain these? ,(3) How can learning experiences be organized for effective instruction?, and (4) How can learning experiences be evaluated. The TEKS are answering these questions by the way that it is formatted. It is formatted it what is taught when is it builds on itself. It is very detailed to what the students need to know.
The NCSS curriculum standards a line with Dewey’s theory. This is because NCSS is a constructivist learning process. It is based on three learning elements: (1) knowledge they gain from the new experience, (2) their prior understanding, and (3) their personal connection of the new and the old. These elements a line with Dewey’s theory of students interacting with the content.