Natural Sciences

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Natural Sciences by Mind Map: Natural Sciences

1. Methodology (Josephine)

1.1. Knowledge Production in NS

1.1.1. Based on rationalism = using reason as primary WOK Inductive Method 1) Observation is made 2) Collection of data 3) Interpretation of data 4) Hypothesis / Conjecture is made Hypothetico-deductive Method 1) Starts with hypothesis 2) Experiments 3) Outcome / Conclusion drawn from results Accuracy VS Precision accuracy = how close measured values are to "true" value precision = how consistent are the results you obtain from the same method development of new technology

2. Scope & Application (Siyu)

2.1. Areas of natural sciences

2.1.1. life science biology examines phenomena related to living organisms scale fields

2.1.2. physical science physics study of fundamental constituents of the universe, forces and interactions and their results "the fundamental science" chemistry constitutes the study at the atomic and molecular scale composition, statistical properties, transformations, reactions most processes can be studied in labs rooted from alchemy systemized by discovery of chemical elements & atomic theory "the central science" applications astronomy science of celestial objects and phenomena outside Earth earth science related to the planet earth applications material science matter and its properties discovery and design of new materials

2.2. nature's patterns

2.2.1. a pattern is something regular, not completely random not necessarily with identical elements

2.2.2. all kinds of scientists are interested in patterns

2.2.3. Turing structures explains how chemicals interact may apply to biological patterns as well

2.3. reductionism

2.3.1. reduce complex systems into fewer and more basic terms Pro: help scientists understand basic parts Con: not able to represent the whole

3. Language & Concepts (Amelie)

3.1. Science v Humanities

3.1.1. Humanities Language need not be precise, what's important is understanding the key idea behind it Focuses on trends Largely based on Anthropology It should be expected that human behavior changes overtime VERY hard to have x--> y

3.1.2. Science Precise Exact understanding of the idea is needed. Empirical evidence is needed. cannot have ambiguity Verbose Steps (eg in a scientific experiment) need to be clear, people should be able to recreate it perfectly. Need to include everything. Causal relationships Delivers facts x --> y Predicts outcomes using formulae and observations Alternative hypothesis and Null hypothesis in use Abstract theories Part of science is accepting that there is still a lot to know This may mean that they can become outdated, but that should be expected. Science evolves all the time. Heavy use of mathematical concepts and language Units Needed in science for measurements, humanities no exact measurements Use of symbols Diagrams and graphs also need units Latin expressions Conventions Type of arbitrary agreement SI Units Models and Metaphors represent reality Solves a particular problem

4. Historical Development (Kayris)

4.1. Science over time

4.1.1. Proposal of the paradigm/shifts Kuhn's "Structure of Scientific Revolutions" Refuted prior beliefs that scientific history is linear Proposed cyclical advancement model

4.1.2. Development of paradigms Physics Newtonian mechanics Gave way to Einsteinian relativity theory Evolution of atomic model Chemistry Schroedinger Equation --> Omega intracule Old Density Functional Theory Biology Evolution Medicine The scientific method (of challenging held theories through experimentation) Can be altered due to outside influences Faith Intuition Bias (usually confirmation)

5. Personal Knowledge (Everyone <3)


5.1.1. Mathematics as foundation logical reasoning in seeking patterns create models to predict nature mathematical proof in determining truth e.g. induction & deduction, applied in natural sciences especially closely related to physics

5.1.2. Economics v Science Economics is a humanities, and a lot concepts are under assumptions (eg the consumer is rational) Economics still includes the use of math, although it is used to predict behaviors and economical outcomes At our level of learning, entirely precise language of science is not used Actual explanations probably too complicated Most likely learn an oversimplified version

5.1.3. Psychology (human) As an application of biochemical science Uses concrete knowledge of human biological functions (as results of chemical processes) Synthesised with abstract assumptions Limited by current ability to study the brain As a behavioural science Can be used in predicting peoples' reactions in various situations used to explain human behaviour Useful in constructing understandings of past Methodology Limitations in terms of confirmation of theories Until more advanced methods of study are devised, much of psychology will remain categorised as "highly plausible" rather than "fully accepted" Restricts recognition of psychology as a "true" science Connections to neuroscience New field of medicine


5.2.1. We used reason as a WOK to deduce people's feelings, their motives etc. Inductive Method Example 1) When person X is around, person Y appears happier 2) Count number of times person X appears; number of times person Y smiles / laugh / talks more when X appears 3) Person Y seems to smile more when person X is around 4) Person Y likes person X