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Emotion and Motivation by Mind Map: Emotion and Motivation

1. Neuroticism (sensitive/nervous vs. secure/confident)

2. Emotion

2.1. Definition

2.1.1. emotion are the mental states or feelings associated with our evaluation of our experiences.

2.2. The five factors of personality traits

2.2.1. Openness to experience (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious). ...

2.2.2. Conscientiousness (efficient/organized vs. easy-going/careless). ...

2.2.3. Extraversion (outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved). ...

2.2.4. Agreeableness (friendly/compassionate vs. challenging/detached).

3. Motivation

3.1. definiton

3.1.1. the drive to satisfy a need and the reason why people behave the way they do

3.2. 2 basic types of motivation

3.2.1. Intrinsic motivation motivation that involves internal factors such as self-determination, curiosity, challenge, and effort.

3.2.2. Extrinsic motivation the use of external incentives such as rewards and punishment.

4. Basic Emotions

4.1. Paul Ekman

4.1.1. discovered the original six basic emotions which were: Anger, Disgust, Fear, Happines, Sadness, Surprise

4.2. Robert Plutchik

4.2.1. suggested there were 8 basic emotions. 1) Fear → feeling of being afraid, frightened,scared . 2) Anger → feeling angry. A stronger word for anger is rage 3) Sadness → feeling sad. Other words are sorrow, grief (a stronger feeling, for example when someone has died) 4) Joy → feeling happy. Other words are happiness, gladness 5) Disgust → feeling something is wrong or nasty 6) Surprise → being unprepared for something 7) Trust → a positive emotion; admiration is stronger; acceptance is weaker. 8) Anticipation → in the sense of looking forward positively to something which is going to happen. Expectation is more neutral.

5. Theories

5.1. James-Lange Theory

5.1.1. This theory states that our emotions are caused by our interpretation of bodily reactions.

5.2. Cannon-Bard Theory

5.2.1. This theory states that we feel emotions and experience physiological reactions such as sweating, trembling, and muscle tension simultaneously.

5.3. Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory

5.3.1. This theory states that emotion is based on two factors: physiological arousal and cognitive label.

5.4. Lazarus' Cognitive-Mediational Theory

5.4.1. This theory states that the stimulus leads to a personal meaning derived from cognition, leading to both arousal and the emotion.

6. Emotional Intelligence (EQ)

6.1. Definition

6.1.1. the ability to understand our own emotions and those of others, and applying this information to our daily lives.

6.2. According to Daniel Goleman Emotional Intelligence is made up of 4 factors:

6.2.1. 1) Self awareness →is the capacity for introspection and the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals.

6.2.2. 2) Self-regulation→is a system of conscious personal management that involves the process of guiding one's own thoughts, behaviors, and feelings to reach goals.

6.2.3. 3) Empathy → is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, that is, the capacity to place oneself in another's position.

6.2.4. 4) Skilled relationship →The ability, skills, tools, knowledge, knowing and understanding to create, communicate, evolve, grow, trust and maintain a relationship.

7. Emotion and Behaviour

7.1. our emotions drive our behaviour, it can be good to the point it saves your life and bad as an impulsive way.

8. Sternberg's Love Triangle

8.1. this triangle is made up of 3 factors:

8.1.1. 1) Intimacy → close familiarity or friendship; closeness. Ex. Liking

8.1.2. 2) Commitment → the state or quality of being dedicated to a cause, activity, etc.ex. Empty love

8.1.3. 3) Passion → strong and barely controllable emotion.ex. Infatuation

8.2. a combination between the factors lead to 3 other subfactors

8.2.1. fatuous love → passion + commitment

8.2.2. companionate love → intimacy + commitment

8.2.3. romantic love → passion + intimacy

9. Attraction

9.1. 3 main Attraction factors

9.1.1. Similarity

9.1.2. Proximity

9.1.3. Familiarity

9.2. other factors that impact attraction

9.2.1. Competency the pratfall effect → is the tendency for attractiveness to increase or decrease after an individual makes a mistake, depending on the individual's perceived ability to perform well in a general sense. The Matthew Principle → “the rich get richer and the poor get poorer.”

9.2.2. Physical Attractiveness Frizzy Wig Experiment

10. Theories of Motivation

10.1. 1) Evolutionary (emphasis on instincts and drive)

10.2. 2) Behaviourist (emphasis on extrinsic reward)

10.3. 3) Cognitive (emphasis on intrinsic thoughts)

10.4. 4) Humanistic (depends on where you are on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs).

11. Evolutionary Understanding of Motivation

11.1. This definition of motivation emphasizes an evolutionary theory of motivation.

11.2. Drive

11.2.1. an internal arousal condition that directs an organism to satisfy physiological needs.

11.3. Need

11.3.1. a state of physiological imbalance usually accompanied by arousal.

12. Evolutionary approach

12.1. Drive theory-

12.1.1. an explanation of behaviour that assumes that an organism is motivated to act because of a need to attain, re-establish balance, or maintain some goal that aids survival.

12.1.2. A goal of homeostasis.

12.2. Homeostasis

12.2.1. a tendency to attempt to maintain a constant state of inner stability or balance.

13. Drive Theory

13.1. definition

13.1.1. When people face competing motives, they may experience conflict.

13.2. Conflict

13.2.1. the emotional state or condition that arises when a person must choose between two or more competing motives, behaviours, or impulses.

13.2.2. There are 3 types of conflicts: approach-approach conflict Avoidance-avoidance conflict Approach-avoidance conflict

14. Conflicts

14.1. Approach-approach conflict

14.1.1. conflict that results from having to choose between two attractive alternatives. Example: Choosing between two of your favourite meals at a restaurant.

14.2. Avoidance- avoidance conflict

14.2.1. conflict that results from having to choose between two distasteful alternatives. Example: choosing to clean your car or room (assuming you don’t like to clean).

14.3. Approach-avoidance conflict

14.3.1. conflict that results when facing a single alternative that has both attractive and unappealing aspects. Example: Going out with friends (+) will result in no time to study for a midterm (-).

15. Over Justification Effect

15.1. the decrease in likelihood that an intrinsically motivated task, after having been extrinsically rewarded, will be performed when the reward is no longer given.

15.2. when people receive extrinsic rewards for behaviours they find intrinsically interesting: They become less motivated to perform those behaviours.

16. Aspirations

16.1. a hope or ambition of achieving something.

16.2. Aspirations occur prior to the behaviour.

17. Flow

17.1. occurs when we have combination of a high level of of perceived skill and a high level of perceived challenge.

17.2. is the experience of becoming completely and pleasurably absorbed in an intrinsically motivated behaviour. Opposite of Apathy

17.3. Apathy (opposite of flow)

17.3.1. lack of interest, enthusiasm, or concern.

18. Yerkes Dobson Law

18.1. The law dictates that performance increases with physiological or mental arousal, but only up to a point.