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Evolution of Cooperation by Mind Map: Evolution of
Cooperation
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Evolution of Cooperation

Axelrod & Hamilton

be nice

be provocable

don't be envious

don't be too clever

cooperation

preceding life itself

molecules have to 'collaborate', precursor to cooperation, symbiogenesis, biologist Lynn Margulis emphasizes cooperation in evolution rather than competition

little kids tend to work together while chimps don't

group selection

intra-group cooperation makes the group stronger competitor

genes of altruistic individuals may not spread, but they enhance the group, and the group genes can spread more efficiently, in kinship genes spread also if one individual sacrifices herself for two siblings or eight cousins

reciprocity

direct reciprocity, you do me a favor, I do you a favor

indirect reciprocity (Nowak), one does something for someone else and enhances her reputation in the group

network reciprocity

cultural evolution, social grooming (Robin Dunbar)

how many individuals can you groom and remember, humans can gossip, who is trustworthy, Dunbar's number, importance of the relative size of the neocortex, number varies, depending on studies, language and cooperation, mirror neurons, radical environmental changes, learning capacities, don't have to wait for genes to spread around, cooking meat, influencing our genes, channeling of tribal instincts through symbol systems, evolution of cooperative capacities at cultural level, but based on biology, innate sociality, cultural tools, cooperative arrangements

culture

everything what we learn from each other

selection

mutation

design

our use of metaphors and images

Darwin and the 'survival of the fittest'

the old story is about competition and war

new story makes room for new knowledge about cooperation and interdependencies

but Darwin also mentioned cooperation

also look at Kropotkin, Mutual Aid

Adam Smith

also talked about the necessity to regulate markets

importance of stories

occupy wall street, new story

social media creating stories

political leaders as story-tellers, Mao, Obama, Larry Lessig Republic: Lost

differences between societies and cultures

societies where the individual comes first

differences between Europe and US in narratives about competition and cooperation, entities too big?, various narratives coexist, imagined communities, leader as a definer of a narrative, as story-tellers, societies change, post-Reagan, 'cooperative capitalism'

societies where the group interest is most important

differences in dealing with defectors

preemptive strikes by defectors

dealing with those who do not punish defectors

religion as a tool to enhance cooperation

Darwin's Cathedral