Evolution of Cooperation

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Evolution of Cooperation by Mind Map: Evolution of Cooperation

1. Axelrod & Hamilton

1.1. be nice

1.2. be provocable

1.3. don't be envious

1.4. don't be too clever

2. cooperation

2.1. preceding life itself

2.1.1. molecules have to 'collaborate', precursor to cooperation

2.1.1.1. symbiogenesis

2.1.1.2. biologist Lynn Margulis emphasizes cooperation in evolution rather than competition

2.1.1.2.1. Donna Haraway: sympoesis, existing together

2.2. little kids tend to work together while chimps don't

2.3. group selection

2.3.1. intra-group cooperation makes the group stronger competitor

2.3.2. genes of altruistic individuals may not spread, but they enhance the group, and the group genes can spread more efficiently

2.3.2.1. in kinship genes spread also if one individual sacrifices herself for two siblings or eight cousins

2.4. reciprocity

2.4.1. direct reciprocity

2.4.2. indirect reciprocity (Nowak)

2.4.2.1. one does something for someone else and enhances her reputation in the group

2.4.3. network reciprocity

2.5. you do me a favor, I do you a favor

2.6. cultural evolution, social grooming (Robin Dunbar)

2.6.1. how many individuals can you groom and remember

2.6.1.1. humans can gossip

2.6.1.1.1. who is trustworthy

2.6.1.1.2. Dunbar's number

2.6.1.2. language and cooperation

2.6.1.3. mirror neurons

2.6.1.4. radical environmental changes

2.6.1.5. learning capacities

2.6.1.5.1. don't have to wait for genes to spread around

2.6.1.5.2. cooking meat

2.6.1.5.3. channeling of tribal instincts through symbol systems

2.6.1.5.4. innate sociality

3. culture

3.1. everything what we learn from each other

3.2. selection

3.2.1. mutation

3.2.2. design

4. our use of metaphors and images

4.1. Darwin and the 'survival of the fittest'

4.2. the old story is about competition and war

4.2.1. new story makes room for new knowledge about cooperation and interdependencies

4.3. but Darwin also mentioned cooperation

4.3.1. also look at Kropotkin, Mutual Aid

4.4. Adam Smith

4.4.1. also talked about the necessity to regulate markets

4.5. differences between Europe and US in narratives about competition and cooperation

4.5.1. entities too big?

4.5.2. various narratives coexist

4.5.2.1. imagined communities

4.5.2.2. leader as a definer of a narrative, as story-tellers

4.5.3. societies change

4.5.3.1. post-Reagan

4.5.3.2. 'cooperative capitalism'

4.6. importance of stories

4.6.1. occupy wall street, new story

4.6.2. social media creating stories

4.6.3. political leaders as story-tellers

4.6.3.1. Mao

4.6.3.2. Obama

4.6.3.3. Larry Lessig Republic: Lost

5. differences between societies and cultures

5.1. societies where the individual comes first

5.2. societies where the group interest is most important

5.2.1. differences in dealing with defectors

5.2.2. preemptive strikes by defectors

5.2.3. dealing with those who do not punish defectors

5.3. religion as a tool to enhance cooperation

5.3.1. Darwin's Cathedral